Publications by authors named "Dandan Wu"

157 Publications

Development and Identification of a Novel Wheat-Thinopyrum scirpeum 4E (4D) Chromosomal Substitution Line with Stripe Rust and Powdery Mildew Resistance.

Plant Dis 2021 Oct 26. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Sichuan Agricultural University, Triticeae Research Institute, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 611130;

Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici are devastating diseases of wheat worldwide. Exploration of new disease-resistant genes from cultivated wheat and wild relatives are the most effective means of reducing the amounts of fungicides applied to combat these diseases. Thinopyrum scirpeum (2n = 4x = 28, EEEE) is an important promising reservoir of useful genes, including stripe rust and powdery mildew resistance, and may be useful for enhancing wheat disease resistance. Here, we characterize a novel wheat-Th. scirpeum disomic substitution line, K16-730-3, and chromosome-specific markers were developed that can be used to trace the Th. scirpeum chromosome or chromosome segments transferred into wheat. Genomic in situ hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses indicated that K16-730-3 is a new 4E (4D) chromosomal substitution line. Evaluation of seedling and adult disease responses revealed that K16-730-3 is resistant to stripe rust and powdery mildew. In addition, no obvious difference in grain yield was observed between K16-730-3 and its wheat parents. Genotyping-by-sequencing analyses indicated that 74 polymerase chain reaction -based markers can accurately trace chromosome 4E which were linked to the disease resistance genes in the wheat background. Further marker validation analyses revealed that 13 specific markers can distinguish between the E-genome chromosomes of Th. scirpeum and the chromosomes of other wheat-related species. The new substitution line K16-730-3 carrying the stripe rust and powdery mildew resistance genes will be useful as novel germplasm in breeding for disease resistance. The markers developed in this study can be used in marker-assisted selection for improvement of disease resistance in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-21-1599-REDOI Listing
October 2021

The role of mutations in "see-saw effect" of Daptomycin-resistant methicillin-resistant isolates.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Oct 18:AAC0129521. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

The emergence of daptomycin-resistant (DAP-R) strains has become a global problem. Point mutations in are the main cause of daptomycin (DAP) treatment failure. However, the impact of these specific point-mutations in methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains associated with DAP resistance and the "see-saw effect" of distinct beta-lactams remains unclear. In this study, we used three series of clinical MRSA strains with three distinct mutated alleles from clone complexes (CC) 5 and 59 to explore the "see-saw effect" and the combination effect of DAP plus beta-lactams. Through construction of deletion and complementation strains of SA268, we determined that -S295A, -S337L and one novel mutation of I348del within the bifunctional domain lead to DAP resistance. Compared with wild-type cloned from a DAP-susceptible (DAP-S) strain, these three mutations conferred the "see-saw effect" to distinct beta-lactams in the SA268Δ strains and mutated- (I348del and S337L) did not alter the cell surface positive charge ( > 0.05). The susceptibility to beta-lactams increased significantly in DAP-R CC59 strains and the "see-saw effect" was found to be associated with distinct mutated alleles and the category of beta-lactams. The synergistic activity of DAP plus oxacillin was detected in all DAP-R MRSA strains. Continued progress in understanding the mechanism of restoring susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics mediated by the mutation and its impact on beta-lactam combination therapy will provide fundamental insights into treatment of MRSA infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01295-21DOI Listing
October 2021

The Aversion Function of the Limbic Dopaminergic Neurons and Their Roles in Functional Neurological Disorders.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:713762. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Institute of Brain and Psychological Sciences, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, China.

The Freudian theory of conversion suggested that the major symptoms of functional neurological disorders (FNDs) are due to internal conflicts at motivation, especially at the sex drive or libido. FND patients might behave properly at rewarding situations, but they do not know how to behave at aversive situations. Sex drive is the major source of dopamine (DA) release in the limbic area; however, the neural mechanism involved in FND is not clear. Dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons have been shown to play a key role in processing motivation-related information. Recently, DAergic neurons are found to be involved in reward-related prediction error, as well as the prediction of aversive information. Therefore, it is suggested that DA might change the rewarding reactions to aversive reactions at internal conflicts of FND. So DAergic neurons in the limbic areas might induce two major motivational functions: reward and aversion at internal conflicts. This article reviewed the recent advances on studies about DAergic neurons involved in aversive stimulus processing at internal conflicts and summarizes several neural pathways, including four limbic system brain regions, which are involved in the processing of aversion. Then the article discussed the vital function of these neural circuits in addictive behavior, depression treatment, and FNDs. In all, this review provided a prospect for future research on the aversion function of limbic system DA neurons and the therapy of FNDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.713762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488171PMC
September 2021

Subjective Taste and Smell Changes in Conjunction with Anxiety and Depression Are Associated with Symptoms in Patients with Functional Constipation and Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2021 18;2021:5491188. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Gastroenterology, the First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230001, China.

Background: Patients with functional constipation (FC) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often report psychological abnormalities and decreased eating enjoyment. Several patients also complain of changes in the sense of smell and taste, but these are often disregarded clinically.

Aims: Therefore, there is a need to determine whether taste/smell disturbances and psychological abnormalities are present in patients with FC or IBS and whether these are related to the severity of lower gastrointestinal symptoms.

Methods: A total of 337 subjects were recruited, including FC ( = 115), IBS ( = 126), and healthy controls ( = 96). All participants completed questionnaires evaluating taste and smell (taste and smell survey (TSS)), Lower Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale (LGSRS), Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA), and Hamilton depression scale (HAMD). TSS recorded information on the nature of taste and smell changes (TSCs) and the impact of these changes on the quality of life. LGSRS was used to assess the severity of lower gastrointestinal symptoms; HAMA and HAMD scales were used to reflect the psychosocial state. This study protocol was registered on the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (No. ChiCTR-2100044643).

Results: Firstly, we found that taste and smell scores were higher in patients with IBS than in healthy controls. Secondly, for FC and IBS patients, LGSRS was significantly correlated with the taste score (Spearman's rho = 0.832, < 0.001). LGSRS was also significantly correlated with HAMA (Spearman's rho = 0.357, = 0.017) and HAMD (Spearman's rho = 0.377, = 0.012). In addition, the taste score was significantly correlated with HAMD (Spearman's rho = 0.479, = 0.001), while the smell score was also significantly correlated with HAMD (Spearman's rho = 0.325, = 0.031). Thirdly, 60.87% and 71.43% of patients complained of taste abnormality, while 65.22% and 71.43% had smell abnormality in the FC and IBS groups, respectively. Meanwhile, 47.83% and 47.62% of patients suffered from anxiety, while 43.48% and 57.14% suffered from depression in the FC and IBS groups, respectively. Finally, we found significant differences in the taste, smell, HAMD, and LGSRS scores between the female and male IBS groups ( < 0.050).

Conclusions: TSCs and psychological disorders are prominent in FC and IBS patients. Taste abnormalities, as well as anxiety and depression, are significantly correlated with LGSRS. Awareness of this high prevalence of taste/smell abnormalities and the psychological changes among patients with FC and IBS may help better predict and understand the severity of symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5491188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8476287PMC
September 2021

A two-stage amplified PZT sensor for monitoring lung and heart sounds in discharged pneumonia patients.

Microsyst Nanoeng 2021 22;7:55. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Power and Mechanical Engineering & the Institute of Technological Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 China.

Assessment of lung and heart states is of critical importance for patients with pneumonia. In this study, we present a small-sized and ultrasensitive accelerometer for continuous monitoring of lung and heart sounds to evaluate the lung and heart states of patients. Based on two-stage amplification, which consists of an asymmetric gapped cantilever and a charge amplifier, our accelerometer exhibited an extremely high ratio of sensitivity to noise compared with conventional structures. Our sensor achieves a high sensitivity of 9.2 V/g at frequencies less than 1000 Hz, making it suitable to use to monitor weak physiological signals, including heart and lung sounds. For the first time, lung injury, heart injury, and both lung and heart injuries in discharged pneumonia patients were revealed by our sensor device. Our sound sensor also successfully tracked the recovery course of the discharged pneumonia patients. Over time, the lung and heart states of the patients gradually improved after discharge. Our observations were in good agreement with clinical reports. Compared with conventional medical instruments, our sensor device provides rapid and highly sensitive detection of lung and heart sounds, which greatly helps in the evaluation of lung and heart states of pneumonia patients. This sensor provides a cost-effective alternative approach to the diagnosis and prognosis of pneumonia and has the potential for clinical and home-use health monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41378-021-00274-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433369PMC
July 2021

A safe and robust dual-network hydrogel electrolyte coupled with multi-heteroatom doped carbon nanosheets for flexible quasi-solid-state zinc ion hybrid supercapacitors.

Nanoscale 2021 Oct 1;13(37):15869-15881. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Institute of Materials Engineering, University of Siegen, Paul-Bonatz Str. 9-11, Siegen 57076, Germany.

Aqueous zinc ion hybrid supercapacitors (ZHSCs) are receiving increasing research interest because of their superiority in safety, economy, and high water compatibility. However, the corrosion problems coupled with dendrite growth in an aqueous system severely limit the potential use of zinc storage systems with long service life. To delicately address the above obstacles, a κ-carrageenan/polyacrylamide/Zn(CFSO) hydrogel electrolyte (denoted as κ-CG/PAAm/Zn(CFSO)) with an ionically and covalently double crosslinked network was constructed, which possesses a high ionic conductivity of 2.3 S m, a high tensile strength of 34.6 kPa with a superior stretchability of 599.0%, and an excellent compression strength of 75.3 kPa at 75.0% strain. The double crosslinked polymer chains realize uniform zinc deposition. In addition, the intrinsic hydrophilic groups in the κ-carrageenan (κ-CG) and polyacrylamide (PAAm) chains can well immobilize water molecules, which favor electrolyte ion transport. Moreover, nitrogen and sulphur co-doped carbon nanosheets (denoted as ACNS) characterized by the rich amorphous phase associated with lots of short-range ordered microcrystalline regions were prepared as the cathode material in this work, which exhibits a high capacity of 116.4 mA h g coupled with superior rate performance and long-term cycling stability (108.0% capacity retention over 10 000 cycles) for an aqueous Zn//ACNS ZHSC. A quasi-solid-state ZHSC based on ACNS and κ-CG/PAAm/Zn(CFSO) exhibits a specific capacity of 100.5 mA h g at 0.25 A g with a high capacity retention of 50.8% at 20 A g. The as-fabricated ZHSC also shows excellent cycling stability of 10 000 cycles as well as a superior energy density of 86.5 W h kg at a power density of 215.3 W kg. The ZHSC can also be used as a reliable source to drive various kinds of electronics (, mobile phones and electronic timers), which uncovers a feasible strategy for engineering the high-performance hydrogel electrolytes and cathode materials for ZHSC applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr02826jDOI Listing
October 2021

Loss of Sirt6 in adipocytes impairs the ability of adipose tissue to adapt to intermittent fasting.

Exp Mol Med 2021 Sep 7;53(9):1298-1306. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

College of Pharmacy, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54896, Republic of Korea.

Intermittent fasting (IF) is gaining popularity for its effectiveness in improving overall health, including its effectiveness in achieving weight loss and euglycemia. The molecular mechanisms of IF, however, are not well understood. This study investigated the relationship between adipocyte sirtuin 6 (Sirt6) and the metabolic benefits of IF. Adipocyte-specific Sirt6-knockout (aS6KO) mice and wild-type littermates were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for four weeks and then subjected to 12 weeks on a 2:1 IF regimen consisting of two days of feeding followed by one day of fasting. Compared with wild-type mice, aS6KO mice subjected to HFD + IF exhibited a diminished response, as reflected by their glucose and insulin intolerance, reduced energy expenditure and adipose tissue browning, and increased inflammation of white adipose tissue. Sirt6 deficiency in hepatocytes or in myeloid cells did not impair adaptation to IF. Finally, the results indicated that the impaired adipose tissue browning and reduced expression of UCP1 in aS6KO mice were accompanied by downregulation of p38 MAPK/ATF2 signaling. Our findings indicate that Sirt6 in adipocytes is critical to obtaining the improved glucose metabolism and metabolic profiles conferred by IF and that maintaining high levels of Sirt6 in adipocytes may mimic the health benefits of IF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s12276-021-00664-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8492715PMC
September 2021

Iron overload compromises preimplantation mouse embryo development.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 Oct 2;105:156-165. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Reproductive Medicine Center, Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Affiliated People's Hospital, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

We and others have previously shown that abnormal pelvic environment plays an important role in the unexplained infertility of endometriosis. However, whether iron overload caused by ectopic periodic bleeding found in patients with endometriosis participates in endometriosis-associated reproductive failure is unknown. This study aimed to investigate effects of iron at level relevant to pelvic iron overload on the development of preimplantation mouse embryo. Two-cell embryos were collected, and cultured to blastocysts in G1/G2 medium supplemented with iron alone or in combination with iron chelator. The development rates, ATP level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species level (ROS), and apoptotic and ferroptotic indices were compared between control and iron treatments across each specific developmental stage. Prolonged exposure to iron remarkably impaired early embryo development in vitro by hampering blastocyst formation (P < 0.001), which could be partly restored by iron chelator (P < 0.001). The arrest of embryo development was linked with iron-initiated mitochondrial dysfunction with reduction of ATP generation and MMP (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). Impaired mitochondria altered ROS accumulation post-iron exposure at morula stage and blastocyst stage (P < 0.05). Moreover, Iron-exposed blastocyst stage embryos showed higher apoptotic and ferroptotic rates (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Our results highlight that pathologically relevant level of iron compromises preimplantation mouse embryo development by disrupting mitochondrial function and triggering both apoptosis and ferroptosis, which implicates that excess iron found in peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis likely participates in endometriosis-associated reproductive failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2021.08.010DOI Listing
October 2021

Subjective Changes of Taste and Smell in Conjunction With Anxiety and Depression Are Associated With Symptoms in Globus Patients Without Evidence of Pathologic Acid Reflux.

J Clin Gastroenterol 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Provincial Hospital, Anhui Medical University Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, South District of Endoscopic Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui Province, China Department of Internal Medicine, AMITA Health Saint Joseph Hospital Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Background/aim: Patients suffering from globus often report decreased enjoyment when eating as well as a psychological abnormality. Some patients exhibit taste and smell changes (TSCs) when compared with the period before the diagnosis. The main aim of this study was to explore if TSCs and psychological abnormality are present in patients with globus, whether they are associated with the severity of throat symptoms, and the potential risk factors for globus.

Patients And Methods: A total of 116 included patients who met the Rome IV diagnostic criteria for globus had been performed 24-hour pH monitoring, and the results shown no evidence of pathologic acid reflux. Meanwhile, 125 healthy controls were enrolled in this prospective study. All subjects completed several questionnaires including the Taste and Smell Survey, the Glasgow Edinburgh Throat Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Multiple logistic regression was performed to explore the potential risk factors for globus. The study protocol was registered on the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (No. ChiCTR-2100044972).

Results: First, globus patients without evidence of pathologic acid reflux exhibited a 58.62% and 31.03% change in taste and smell, respectively, while their levels of anxiety and depression were 51.72% and 44.83%, respectively. Second, there was a significant difference in the taste score (Z=-4.954, P<0.001) and smell score (Z=-4.552, P<0.001) between globus group patients and healthy controls. Similarly, globus group patients had a higher HAMA score (9.52±2.437 vs. 3.12±1.059, t=6.867, P<0.001) and HAMD score (9.79±2.931 vs. 3.16±1.650, t=6.416, P<0.001) when compared with the healthy controls. Third, in globus group patients, the Glasgow Edinburgh Throat Scale was significantly correlated with the taste score (Spearman ρ=0.782; P<0.001), smell score (Spearman ρ=0.582; P=0.001), HAMA (Spearman ρ=0.676; P<0.001), and HAMD (Spearman ρ=0.672; P<0.001). In addition, the taste score was significantly correlated with HAMA (Spearman ρ=0.532; P=0.004) and HAMD (Spearman ρ=0.681; P<0.001), while the smell score was significantly correlated with HAMD (Spearman ρ=0.392; P=0.035). Finally, multivariate logistic regression revealed that TSCs, anxiety, and depression were significant independent risk factors for globus, with depression exhibiting the highest degree of association (odds ratio: 3.244).

Conclusions: TSCs and psychological comorbidities are prominent in globus patients without evidence of pathologic acid reflux. The obtained results indicated that there is a strong relationship between TSCs, psychological comorbidities, and globus. Therefore, awareness of this high prevalence of TSCs and psychological disorder may help to better understand the severity of throat symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0000000000001603DOI Listing
August 2021

Deficiency of heat shock factor 4 promotes lens epithelial cell senescence through upregulating p21 expression.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Nov 31;1867(11):166233. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Jointed National Lab for antibody drug engineering, The First Affiliated Hospital, Henan University School of Medicine, Kaifeng, China; Kaifeng Key Laboratory of Myopia and cataract, Kaifeng central Hospital Kaifeng, China; The Laboratory for ophthalmology and Vision Science, Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

Genetic mutations in heat shock factor 4 (Hsf4) is associated with both congenital and age-related cataracts. Hsf4 regulates lens development through its ability to both activate and inhibit transcription. Previous studies suggested Hsf4 is involved in modulating cellular senescence depending on p21 and p27 expression in MEF cells. Here, we found that Hsf4 acts as a suppressor of p21 expression and plays an anti-senescence role during lens development. Knocking out Hsf4 facilitated UVB-induced cellular senescence in mouse lens epithelial cells (mLECs). p21 was upregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels in HSF4 mLECs under control and UVB-treated conditions, and knockdown of p21 by siRNA alleviated UVB-induced cellular senescence. HSF4 directly bound to the p21 promoter and increased H3K27m3 levels at the p21 proximal promoter region by recruiting the methyltransferase EZH2. In animal models, p21 was gradually upregulated in wild-type mouse lenses with increasing age, while Hsf4 levels decreased. We generated a Hsf4 mutant mice line (Hsf4) which displayed obvious congenital cataract phenotype. The expression of p21 and senescence-associated cytokines were induced in the cataractous lenses of Hsf4 mice. H3K27m3 and EZH2 levels decreased in p21 promoters in the lenses of Hsf4 mice. The SA-β-Gal activities were positive in lens epithelia of aged Hsf4 zebrafish compared to wild-type lenses. p21 and senescence-associated cytokines levels were also upregulated in lenses of Hsf4 zebrafish. Accordingly, we propose that HSF4 plays a protective role in lens epithelial cells against cellular senescence during lens development and aging, partly by fine-tuning p21 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2021.166233DOI Listing
November 2021

Comparison of Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles of Human Fetal Tissues Conceived by Fertilization and Natural Conception.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 14;9:694769. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Assisted reproductive technology (ART) might induce adverse pregnancy outcomes and increase the risk of metabolic diseases in offspring' later life with unknown reasons. Here we evaluated the global methylation level and methylation profile of fetal tissue from elective terminations of pregnancy (ETP) after natural conception and multifetal pregnancy reduction (MFPR) after fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET).

Results: Global methylation levels were comparable between the fetal tissue of ETP after natural conception group and MFPR after IVF-ET group. The methylation levels were lower in the hypermethylated regions of the MFPR group than in the ETP group, while the methylation levels were higher in the hypomethylated regions of the MFPR group. Heatmap visualization and hierarchical clustering of the candidate differentially methylated regions (DMRs) showed differences between the DMRs in the ETP and MFPR samples. We identified 196 differentially methylated regions that matched 164 genes between the ETP and MFPR groups. In the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses, skeletal system morphogenesis and diabetes mellitus ranked first. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed 8 diseases and functional annotations associated with IVT-ET. In the MFPR group, the final validation showed lower methylation levels in gene bodies of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), higher methylation levels in the 1st exon and 5'UTR of thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and higher methylation levels in TSS1500 and TSS200 of interleukin 1 beta (IL1B).

Conclusions: ART does not alter global DNA methylation level, but influences DNA methylation variation in specific regions of human fetus in the early stage of life. Further studies are warranted to clarify the potential role of DNA methylation alterations in the gene expression profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.694769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318003PMC
July 2021

Finite element analysis of the mechanical performance of a zinc alloy stent with the tenon-and-mortise structure.

Technol Health Care 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

College of Life Science and Chemistry, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China.

Background: Inadequate scaffolding performance hinders the clinical application of the biodegradable zinc alloy stents.

Objective: In this study we propose a novel stent with the tenon-and-mortise structure to improve its scaffolding performance.

Methods: 3D models of stents were established in Pro/E. Based on the biodegradable zinc alloy material and two numerical simulation experiments were performed in ABAQUS. Firstly, the novel stent could be compressed to a small-closed ring by a crimp shell and can form a tenon-and-mortise structure after expanded by a balloon. Finally, 0.35 MPa was applied to the crimp shell to test the scaffolding performance of the novel stent and meanwhile compare it with an ordinary stent.

Results: Results showed that the novel stent decreased the recoiling ratio by 70.7% compared with the ordinary stent, indicating the novel structure improved the scaffolding performance of the biodegradable zinc alloy stent.

Conclusion: This study proposes a novel design that is expected to improve the scaffolding performance of biodegradable stents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/THC-212905DOI Listing
July 2021

Hypoxic Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles for Cardiac Repair in Preclinical Animal Models of Myocardial Infarction: A Meta-Analysis.

Stem Cells Dev 2021 Sep 13;30(18):891-907. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine of Ministry of Education and Beijing, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Given that the modification of stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) can enhance their regenerative efficiency, an increasing number of studies pay attention to the therapeutic potential of hypoxic preconditioning of stem cell-derived EVs (Hypo-EVs) in cardiac repair. Our meta-analysis aims to evaluate the cardiac repair of Hypo-EVs in preclinical animal models of myocardial infarction (MI). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Web of Science up to January 2021. The primary outcome was left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The second outcomes were left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) and infarct size. Random-effects modeling was used to calculate pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Nine studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Compared with the model group, pooled analyses demonstrated that stem cell-derived EVs culturing in normal oxygen environment (Nor-EVs) can improve LVEF (WMD: 9.07, 95% CI: 6.76 to 11.38,  = 80.7%), LVFS (WMD: 3.03, 95% CI: 0.79 to 5.27,  = 86.3%), and reduce infarct size (WMD: -12.15, 95% CI: -19.12 to -5.18,  = 96.8%). Compared with Nor-EVs, Hypo-EVs can improve LVEF (WMD: 5.11, 95% CI: 1.63 to 8.60,  = 95%), LVFS (WMD: 6.54, 95% CI: 4.08 to 8.99,  = 90.6%), and reduce infarct size (WMD: -7.42, 95% CI: -12.97 to -1.87,  = 97.2%). These results suggest that Hypo-EVs could show more improvement than Nor-EVs therapy on cardiac repair in the preclinical MI animal model. However, future well-designed large animal studies might be necessary to clarify the methods and effects of Hypo-EVs therapy to help provide new ideas for future engineered EVs design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/scd.2021.0084DOI Listing
September 2021

SP1-Mediated Upregulation of Long Noncoding RNA ZFAS1 Involved in Non-syndromic Cleft Lip and Palate Inactivating WNT/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 29;9:662780. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

ENT Institute, Department of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCLP) is one of the most common congenital malformations with multifactorial etiology. Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in the development of lip and palate, their roles in NSCLP are not fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate how dysregulated lncRNAs contribute to NSCLP. Using lncRNA sequencing, bioinformatics analysis, and clinical tissue sample detection, we identified that lncRNA ZFAS1 was significantly upregulated in NSCLP. The upregulation of ZFAS1 mediated by SP1 transcription factor (SP1) inhibited expression levels of Wnt family member 4 () through the binding with CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), subsequently inactivating the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, which has been reported to play a significant role on the development of lip and palate. Moreover, , the overexpression of ZFAS1 inhibited cell proliferation and migration in human oral keratinocytes and human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUC-MSCs) and also repressed chondrogenic differentiation of HUC-MSCs. , ZFAS1 suppressed cell proliferation and numbers of chondrocyte in the zebrafish ethmoid plate. In summary, these results indicated that ZFAS1 may be involved in NSCLP by affecting cell proliferation, migration, and chondrogenic differentiation through inactivating the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.662780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275830PMC
June 2021

An Observational Study to Evaluate Association Between Velopharyngeal Anatomy and Speech Outcomes in Adult Patients With Severe Velopharyngeal Insufficiency.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology & Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, Shanghai, China.

Objective: By measuring velopharyngeal structure and evaluating speech intelligibility, to explore and observe the association between velopharyngeal anatomy and speech outcomes in these patients.

Methods: Thirty-one adult patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency after the primary palatoplasty aged 18 to 35 years (mean 22.03 years) were enrolled as the study group. The patients had significant hypernasality and audible nasal emission. The degree of velopharyngeal closure assessed by electronic nasopharyngeal fiberoptic endoscopy was grade III. Cephalometric analysis was performed on lateral cephalograms to measure velopharyngeal structure, including hard palate length (ANS-PNS), velar length (PNS-U), pharyngeal depth (PNS-PPW), and oropharyngeal airway space (U-MPW). Their speech intelligibility was evaluated through the Mandarin Chinese speech intelligibility test, and each speech sample was examined by 2 speech and language pathologists. The results were assessed with the SPSS 23.0 software package, and regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between velopharyngeal structure and speech outcomes.

Results: A significant negative correlation was confirmed between speech intelligibility and pharyngeal depth. Pharyngeal depth also showed a linear relationship with speech intelligibility, and there was no significant correlation between speech intelligibility and other measures (hard palate length, velar length, oropharyngeal airway space).

Conclusions: In the velopharyngeal anatomy, only pharyngeal depth was associated with speech intelligibility in adult patients with severe velopharyngeal insufficiency, this is consistent with our clinical observation. It suggests that appropriate reduction of pharyngeal depth during palatopharyngoplasty may have a good effect on the speech recovery in patients with cleft palate and patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency after palatorrhaphy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007853DOI Listing
July 2021

Characterization of Each St and Y Genome Chromosome of Roegneria grandis Based on Newly Developed FISH Markers.

Cytogenet Genome Res 2021 7;161(3-4):213-222. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, China.

The genera of the tribe Triticeae (family Poaceae), constituting many economically important plants with abundant genetic resources, carry genomes such as St, H, P, and Y. The genome symbol of Roegneria C. Koch (Triticeae) is StY. The St and Y genomes are crucial in Triticeae, and tetraploid StY species participate extensively in polyploid speciation. Characterization of St and Y nonhomologous chromosomes in StY-genome species could help understand variation in the chromosome structure and differentiation of StY-containing species. However, the high genetic affinity between St and Y genome and the deficiency of a complete set of StY nonhomologous probes limit the identification of St and Y genomes and variation of chromosome structures among Roegneria species. We aimed to identify St- and Y-enhanced repeat clusters and to study whether homoeologous chromosomes between St and Y genomes could be accurately identified due to high affinity. We employed comparative genome analyses to identify St- and Y-enhanced repeat clusters and generated a FISH-based karyotype of R. grandis (Keng), one of the taxonomically controversial StY species, for the first time. We explored 4 novel repeat clusters (StY_34, StY_107, StY_90, and StY_93), which could specifically identify individual St and Y nonhomologous chromosomes. The clusters StY_107 and StY_90 could identify St and Y addition/substitution chromosomes against common wheat genetic backgrounds. The chromosomes V_St, VII_St, I_Y, V_Y, and VII_Y displayed similar probe distribution patterns in the proximal region, indicating that the high affinity between St and Y genome might result from chromosome rearrangements or transposable element insertion among V_St/Y, VII_St/Y, and I_Y chromosomes during allopolyploidization. Our results can be used to employ FISH further to uncover the precise karyotype based on colinearity of Triticeae species by using the wheat karyotype as reference, to analyze diverse populations of the same species to understand the intraspecific structural changes, and to generate the karyotype of different StY-containing species to understand the interspecific chromosome variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515623DOI Listing
August 2021

Ammonium-nitrogen addition at the seedling stage does not reduce grain cadmium concentration in two common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars.

Environ Pollut 2021 Oct 11;286:117575. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

High cadmium (Cd) concentration in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains poses potential health risks. Several management strategies have been used to reduce grain Cd concentration. However, limited information is available on the use of ammonium-nitrogen (NH-N) as a strategy to manage Cd concentration in wheat grains. In this study, NH-N addition at the seedling stage unchanged the grain Cd concentration in the high-Cd accumulator, Zhoumai 18 (ZM18), but dramatically increased that in the low-Cd accumulator, Yunmai 51 (YM51). Further analysis revealed that the effects of NH-N addition on whole-plant Cd absorption, root-to-shoot Cd translocation, and shoot-to-grain Cd remobilization were different between the two wheat cultivars. In ZM18, NH-N addition did not change whole-plant Cd absorption, but inhibited root-to-shoot Cd translocation and Cd remobilization from lower internodes, lower leaves, node 1, and internode 1 to grains via the down-regulation of yellow stripe-like transporters (YSL), zinc transporters (ZIP5, ZIP7, and ZIP10), and heavy-metal transporting ATPases (HMA2). This inhibition decreased the grain Cd content by 29.62%, which was consistent with the decrease of the grain dry weight by 23.26%, leading to unchanged grain Cd concentration in ZM18. However, in YM51, NH-N addition promoted continuous Cd absorption during grain filling, root-to-shoot Cd translocation and whole-plant Cd absorption. The absorbed Cd was directly transported to internode 1 via the xylem and then re-transported to grains via the phloem by up-regulated YSL, ZIP5, and copper transporters (COPT4). This promotion increased the grain Cd content by 245.35%, which was higher than the increased grain dry weight by 132.89%, leading to increased grain Cd concentration in YM51. Our findings concluded that the addition of NH-N fertilizer at the seedling stage is not suitable for reducing grain Cd concentration in common wheat cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117575DOI Listing
October 2021

Dysregulation of Pulmonary Responses in Severe COVID-19.

Viruses 2021 05 21;13(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) predominantly have a respiratory tract infection with various symptoms and high mortality is associated with respiratory failure second to severe disease. The risk factors leading to severe disease remain unclear. Here, we reanalyzed a published single-cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq) dataset and found that bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with severe disease compared to those with mild disease contained decreased TH17-type cells, decreased IFNA1-expressing cells with lower expression of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR8, increased IgA-expressing B cells, and increased hyperactive epithelial cells (and/or macrophages) expressing matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which may together contribute to the pulmonary pathology in severe COVID-19. We propose IFN-I (and TLR7/TLR8) and PAI-1 as potential biomarkers to predict the susceptibility to severe COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13060957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8224314PMC
May 2021

Food antigens exacerbate intestinal damage and inflammation following the disruption of the mucosal barrier.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 11;96:107670. Epub 2021 May 11.

Biological Therapy Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Regional Immunity and Diseases, Department of Immunology, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address:

Food antigens are closely related to progression of inflammatory bowel disease; however, details of how they induce intestinal immune responses and causes intestinal inflammation is not yet clear. The present study aimed to examine the effects of oral collagen on the intestinal mucosa, and elucidate the mechanism of food antigen-induced enteritis. Here, we provide evidence that Aspirin (a mucosal-damaging agent) and type II collagen (CII; a food antigen) acted synergistically to disrupt the intestinal mucosal barrier, and increase intestinal permeability, which resulted in a large amount of CII entered into the lamina propria, where it interacted with the intestinal immune system, promoted intestinal inflammation, and shaped innate and adaptive immune reactions into Th1-dominant. The underlying mechanism of the CII-induced intestinal inflammation may associate with higher levels of Th1, TLR2 and TLR4, and lower levels of Th2 in the intestine of Aspirin + CII treated rats. The study indicate that compromised integrity of the intestinal barrier appears to be a prerequisite for CII-induced intestinal inflammation. The synergistic effect of food antigens and mucosal barrier injury is an important cause of intestinal inflammation. This new understanding the role of food antigen on intestinal inflammation will provide us with a new strategy for treatment and prevention of intestinal inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107670DOI Listing
July 2021

Tablet Use Affects Preschoolers' Executive Function: fNIRS Evidence from the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518061, China.

This study aims to examine the impact of heavy use of tablets on preschoolers' executive function during the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) task using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Altogether, 38 Chinese preschoolers ( = 5.0 years, = 0.69 years, 17 girls) completed the tasks before the COVID-19 lockdown. Eight children never used tablets, while 16 children were diagnosed as the 'heavy-user'. The results indicated that: (1) the 'non-user' outperformed the 'heavy-user' with a significantly higher correct rate in the DCCS task; (2) the two groups differed significantly in the activation of the prefrontal cortex (BA 9): the 'non-user' pattern is normal and healthy, whereas the 'heavy-user' pattern is not normal and needs further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146550PMC
April 2021

Phosphate-modified Co-Ni phosphide heterostructure formed by interfacial and electronic tuning for boosted faradaic properties.

Dalton Trans 2021 Apr 29;50(14):5036-5043. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, P. R. China.

Rational structural and compositional modulation endows electrode materials with unique physicochemical characteristics due to their adjustable electronic properties. Herein, a phosphate-modified hierarchical nanoarray consisting of a heterojunction with a well-aligned cobalt phosphide nanowire core and nickel phosphide nanosheet shell on flexible carbon cloth (denoted as [email protected]) is engineered. The phosphate-modulated heterogeneous phosphide with a tuned electronic structure, additional heterojunction interfaces, and high degree of covalency in the chemical bonds accelerates the reaction kinetics and enhances the energy storage performance. Due to these reasons, the as-obtained phosphide-based heterostructured [email protected] electrode delivers a capacity of 475.9 C g at 0.5 A g with a satisfying rate capability, which is greatly superior to that of its transition metal counterparts (sulfide, selenide, and oxide). After being assembled into a flexible hybrid supercapacitor (FHSC), a wide operating voltage (1.8 V), high energy/power densities (49.8 W h kg/8.6 kW kg), and long-term stability (85.1% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles) were achieved. This work may provide a general method from multiple strategies for designing reliable pseudocapacitive materials for flexible electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00817jDOI Listing
April 2021

Genetic diversity of Asian and European common wheat lines assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

Genome 2021 Nov 14;64(11):959-968. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Exploration and Utilization in Southwest China, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, China.

Understanding the genetic diversity of wheat is important for wheat breeding and improvement. However, there have been limited attempts to evaluate wheat diversity using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In this study, the chromosomal structures of 149 wheat accessions from 13 countries located between the latitudes of 30°N and 45°N, the principal growing region for wheat, were characterized using FISH with pTa535 and pSc119.2 probes. The ranges of the numbers of FISH types in the A-, B-, and D-genome chromosomes were 2-8, 3-7, and 2-4, respectively, and the average numbers in the A and B genomes were greater than in the D genome. Chromosomal translocations were detected by these probes, and previously undescribed translocations were also observed. Using the FISH, the genetic relationships among the 149 common wheat lines were divided into three groups (G1, G2, and G3). G1 mainly consisted of southern European lines, G2 consisted of most lines from Japan and some lines from western Asia, China, and Korea, and G3 consisted of the other lines from southern Europe and most of the lines from western Asia, China, and Korea. FISH karyotypes of wheat chromosomes distinguished chromosomal structural variations, revealing the genetic diversity among wheat varieties. Furthermore, these results provide valuable information for the further genetic improvement of wheat in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/gen-2020-0161DOI Listing
November 2021

Role of kynurenine in promoting the generation of exhausted CD8 T cells in colorectal cancer.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1535-1547. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University Jinzhou 121000, China.

Although blocking programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) has emerged as a standard treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), a vast majority of CRC patients still respond poorly to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. In this study, we showed that the levels of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and its catabolite kynurenine (Kyn) were higher in late stages (stages III and IV) than in early stages (stages I and II) of CRC patients. We found that Kyn could induce the expression of immune checkpoints and exhaustion markers in CD8 tumor-infiltrating T cells. Knockdown of IDO1 expression using small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in the MC38 and CT26 colorectal cell lines led downregulation of Kyn expression and activation of CD8 T cells in MC38- or CT26-bearing mice. Subsequent mechanistic study revealed significantly reduced thymocyte selection-associated HMG box (TOX) mRNA levels in CD8 tumor-infiltrating T cells isolated from IDO1 knockdown MC38-Scr- and CT26-bearing mice. Kyn-induced CD8 T cell exhaustion was reversed by knockdown of TOX expression. Finally, the application of the well-known IDO1 inhibitors 1MT or NLG919 substantially improved the therapeutic effect of CRC and restored CD8 tumor-infiltrating T cells anti-tumor activity. This improvement was further enhanced by an anti-PD-1 combined therapy. In conclusion, our study revealed a novel mechanism underlying the metabolic factors found in tumor microenvironment which could induce CD8 T cells exhaustion. Our findings provided a new strategy of restoring the antitumor activity of CD8 T cells through combined targeting of the IDO1/Kyn and PD-1/PD-L1 pathways in patients with CRC.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014392PMC
March 2021

Origins of Minimized Lattice Thermal Conductivity and Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance in WS/WSe Lateral Superlattice.

ACS Omega 2021 Mar 13;6(11):7879-7886. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

We report a configuration strategy for improving the thermoelectric (TE) performance of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide WS based on the experimentally prepared WS/WSe lateral superlattice (LS) crystal. On the basis of density function theory combined with a Boltzmann transport equation, we show that the TE figure of merit of monolayer WS is remarkably enhanced when forming into a WS/WSe LS crystal. This is primarily ascribed to the almost halved lattice thermal conductivity due to the enhanced anharmonic processes. Electronic transport properties parallel () and perpendicular () to the superlattice period are highly symmetric for both - and -doped LS owing to the nearly isotropic lifetime of charger carriers. The spin-orbital effect causes a significant split of conduction band and leads to three-fold degenerate sub-bands and high density of states (DOS), which offers opportunity to obtain a high -type Seebeck coefficient (). Interestingly, the separated degenerate sub-bands and upper conduction band in monolayer WS form a remarkable stair-like DOS, yielding a higher . The hole carriers with much higher mobility than electrons reveal the high -type power factor, and the potential to be good -type TE materials with optimal exceeds 1 at 400 K in WS/WSe LS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7992166PMC
March 2021

Mitophagy protein PINK1 suppresses colon tumor growth by metabolic reprogramming via p53 activation and reducing acetyl-CoA production.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Aug 15;28(8):2421-2435. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US. Understanding the mechanisms of CRC progression is essential to improve treatment. Mitochondria is the powerhouse for healthy cells. However, in tumor cells, less energy is produced by the mitochondria and metabolic reprogramming is an early hallmark of cancer. The metabolic differences between normal and cancer cells are being interrogated to uncover new therapeutic approaches. Mitochondria targeting PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a key regulator of mitophagy, the selective elimination of damaged mitochondria by autophagy. Defective mitophagy is increasingly associated with various diseases including CRC. However, a significant gap exists in our understanding of how PINK1-dependent mitophagy participates in the metabolic regulation of CRC. By mining Oncomine, we found that PINK1 expression was downregulated in human CRC tissues compared to normal colons. Moreover, disruption of PINK1 increased colon tumorigenesis in two colitis-associated CRC mouse models, suggesting that PINK1 functions as a tumor suppressor in CRC. PINK1 overexpression in murine colon tumor cells promoted mitophagy, decreased glycolysis and increased mitochondrial respiration potentially via activation of p53 signaling pathways. In contrast, PINK1 deletion decreased apoptosis, increased glycolysis, and reduced mitochondrial respiration and p53 signaling. Interestingly, PINK1 overexpression in vivo increased apoptotic cell death and suppressed colon tumor xenograft growth. Metabolomic analysis revealed that acetyl-CoA was significantly reduced in tumors with PINK1 overexpression, which was partly due to activation of the HIF-1α-pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinase 1 (PDHK1)-PDHE1α axis. Strikingly, treating mice with acetate increased acetyl-CoA levels and rescued PINK1-suppressed tumor growth. Importantly, PINK1 disruption simultaneously increased xenografted tumor growth and acetyl-CoA production. In conclusion, mitophagy protein PINK1 suppresses colon tumor growth by metabolic reprogramming and reducing acetyl-CoA production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00760-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329176PMC
August 2021

A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Examination of the Neural Correlates of Cognitive Shifting in Dimensional Change Card Sort Task.

Front Hum Neurosci 2020 21;14:561223. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

This study aims to examine the neural correlates of cognitive shifting during the task with functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Altogether 49 children completed the tasks, and 25 children (M = 68.66, SD = 5.3) passing all items were classified into the Switch group. Twenty children (M = 62.05, SD = 8.13) committing more than one perseverative errors were grouped into the Perseverate group. The Switch group had Brodmann Area (BA) 9 and 10 activated in the pre-switch period and BA 6, 9, 10, 40, and 44 in the post-switch period. In contrast, the Perseverate group had BA 9 and 10 activated in the pre-switch period and BA 8, 9, 10 in the post-switch period. The general linear model results afford strong support to the "V-shape curve" hypothesis by identifying a significant decrease-increase cycle in BA 9 and 44, the neural correlations of cognitive shifting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.561223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859114PMC
January 2021

A Corpus-Based Comparison of the Pragmatic Use of and to Examine the Applicability of Space-Time Metaphor Hypothesis in Early Child Mandarin.

Front Psychol 2020 18;11:565763. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

School of Education, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The Universal Space-Time Mapping Hypothesis suggests that temporal expression is based on spatial metaphor for all human beings. This study examines its applicability in the Chinese language using the data elicited from the Early Childhood Mandarin Corpus (ECMC) (Li and Tse, 2011), which collected the utterances produced by 168 Mandarin-speaking preschoolers in a semistructured play context. The unique pair of Chinese words, (/before/front) and (/after/back), which can be used to express either time (before/after) or space (front/back) in daily communication, was the unit of analysis. The results indicated that: (1) there was a significant age effect in the production of "qian/hou," indicating that the period before the age of 4.5 may be critical for the development of temporal and spatial expression; (2) the pair was produced to express time (before/after) much earlier than space (front/back), indicating that the expression of time might not necessarily be based on the spatial metaphor; and (3) the pair was used more frequently to express time (before/after) than space (front/back) by the preschoolers, thus challenging the hypothesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.565763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847851PMC
January 2021

Cohort profile: a multicentre prospective validation cohort of the Chinese Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure (CATCH-LIFE) study.

BMJ Open 2021 01 8;11(1):e037793. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

Purpose: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a clinical syndrome with high short-term mortality, unclear mechanism and controversial diagnosis criteria. The Chinese Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure (CATCH-LIFE) study has been conducted in China to fill the gaps. In the first phase (the CATCH-LIFE investigation cohort), 2600 patients were continuously recruited from 14 national nationwide liver centres from 12 different provinces of China in 2015-2016, and a series of important results were obtained. To validate the preliminary results, we designed and conducted this multicentre prospective observational cohort (the CATCH-LIFE validation cohort).

Participants: Patients diagnosed with chronic liver disease and hospitalised for acute decompensation (AD) or acute liver injure were enrolled, received standard medical therapy. We collected the participants' demographics, medical history, laboratory data, and blood and urine samples during their hospitalisation.

Findings To Date: From September 2018 to March 2019, 1370 patients (73.4% men) aged from 15 to 79 years old were enrolled from 13 nationwide liver centres across China. Of these patients, 952 (69.5%) had chronic hepatitis B, 973 (71.1%) had cirrhosis and 1083 (79.1%) complicated with AD at admission. The numbers and proportions of enrolled patients from each participating centre and the patients' baseline characteristics are presented.

Future Plans: A total of 12 months is required for each participant to complete follow-up. Outcome information (survival, death or receiving liver transplantation) collection and data cleansing will be done before June 2020. The data in the CATCH-LIFE validation cohort will be used for comparison between the new ACLF diagnostic criteria derivated from the CATCH-LIFE investigation cohort with existing ones. Moreover, future proteomic and metabolic omics analyses will provide valuable insights into the mechanics of ACLF, which will promote the development of specific therapy that leads to decrease patients' mortality.

Registration: NCT03641872.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799133PMC
January 2021

Neural Correlates of Mental Rotation in Preschoolers With High or Low Working Memory Capacity: An fNIRS Study.

Front Psychol 2020 10;11:568382. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

This study explored the differentiated neural correlates of mental rotation (MR) in preschoolers with high and low working memory capacity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Altogether 38 Chinese preschoolers ( = 5.0 years, = 0.69 years) completed the (WMC) test, the (MR), and its Control tasks (without MR). They were divided into High-WMC ( = 9) and Low-WMC ( = 18) groups based on the WMC scores. The behavioral and fNIRS results indicated that: (1) there were no significant differences in MR task performance between the High-WMC ( = 23.44, = 0.88) and Low-WMC group ( = 23.67, = 0.59); (2) the Low-WMC group activated BA6, BA8, BA 9, and BA 44, whereas the High-WMC group activated BA8, BA10 and BA 44 during mental rotation; (3) significant differences were found in the activation of BA44 and BA9 between the High-WMC and Low-WMC groups during mental rotation; and (4) the High-WMC and Low-WMC groups differed significantly in the activation of BA 9 and BA10 during the control tasks, indicating that both areas might be responsible for the group differences in working memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.568382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758205PMC
December 2020
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