Publications by authors named "Dandan Huang"

155 Publications

Blocking N-Methyl-D-aspartic Acid (NMDA) Receptor Inhibits Heat-Sensitization Response of Moxibustion in Stroke Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 26;2021:6463688. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Neurology and Clinical Research Center of Neurological Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215004, Jiangsu Province, China.

Our previous studies demonstrated that effects of moxibustion heavily relied on heat-sensitization response, a specific sensation induced by moxibustion in the ill body. On the sensation, long-term potentiation (LTP) of prelimbic cortex was attributed to heat-sensitization responses. The N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor plays a key role in LTP induction; however, little is known about the role of NMDA receptor in heat-sensitization response. The present study investigated the role of NMDA receptor in heat-sensitization response, specifically, NMDA receptor was inhibited by competitive glutamatergic antagonist, (±)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), observing the frequency of heat-sensitization response in moxibustion treatment and evaluating the conducive outcomes to cerebral infarct rats for rehabilitation. Heat-sensitization response in cerebral infarct rats was regularly measured for all the samples when exposed to moxibustion. Intraperitoneal injection of CPP was conducted, and soon afterwards, a significant drop of heat-sensitization response in all the samples was measured. Moreover, moxibustion efficiency on rehabilitation was unfavourably affected in cerebral infarct rats when compared to vehicle injection control. This indicated that NMDA receptor antagonist made a negative impact on induction of heat-sensitization response and consequently affected cerebral infarct rats to rehabilitate under moxibustion treatment. It also suggested that activating NMDA receptor played a positive part in ischemic stroke rehabilitation, and regulating its activity could be a feasible way to increase heat-sensitization response, improving the effect of moxibustion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6463688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416336PMC
August 2021

Interplay Among Hydrogen Sulfide, Nitric Oxide, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Mitochondrial DNA Oxidative Damage.

Front Plant Sci 2021 6;12:701681. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Food Safety Analysis and Test Engineering Technology Research Center of Shandong Province, College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, China.

Hydrogen sulfide (HS), nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play essential signaling roles in cells by oxidative post-translational modification within suitable ranges of concentration. All of them contribute to the balance of redox and are involved in the DNA damage and repair pathways. However, the damage and repair pathways of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are complicated, and the interactions among NO, HS, ROS, and mtDNA damage are also intricate. This article summarized the current knowledge about the metabolism of HS, NO, and ROS and their roles in maintaining redox balance and regulating the repair pathway of mtDNA damage in plants. The three reactive species may likely influence each other in their generation, elimination, and signaling actions, indicating a crosstalk relationship between them. In addition, NO and HS are reported to be involved in epigenetic variations by participating in various cell metabolisms, including (nuclear and mitochondrial) DNA damage and repair. Nevertheless, the research on the details of NO and HS in regulating DNA damage repair of plants is in its infancy, especially in mtDNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.701681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8377586PMC
August 2021

The Co-Transport of PFAS and Cr(VI) in porous media.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 7;286(Pt 3):131834. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Environmental Science Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, United States. Electronic address:

PFAS and Cr are present at some sites as co-contaminants. The objective of this research was to investigate the co-transport behavior of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in porous media. Miscible-displacement experiments were conducted using two soils and an aquifer sediment with different geochemical properties. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were employed as model PFAS. The retardation of PFOS was decreased in the presence of Cr(VI). Conversely, the transport and retardation of PFOA was not affected by the presence of Cr(VI). The reduction of PFOS retardation caused by Cr(VI) is likely due to sorption competition for both organic-carbon and inorganic (metal-oxides and clay minerals) domains. The relative contributions of the three soil constituents to PFOS sorption and the potential for competition between PFOS and Cr(VI) is a function of the geochemical composition of the porous media (i.e., organic carbon, metal-oxides and clay minerals). The PFAS had minimal impact on the retention and transport of Cr(VI). To our knowledge, the results presented herein represent the first reported data for PFOS and Cr(VI) co-transport in porous media. The results of this study indicate that the presence of Cr(VI) has the potential to increase the migration potential of PFOS in soil and groundwater, which should be considered when characterizing electroplating facilities, leather tanning facilities, and other co-contaminated sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131834DOI Listing
August 2021

Release and Actions of Inflammatory Exosomes in Pulmonary Emphysema: Potential Therapeutic Target of Acupuncture.

J Inflamm Res 2021 24;14:3501-3521. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA.

Background: Exosomes have been reported to mediate activation of the inflammatory response by secretion of inflammasome products such as IL-1β or IL-18 and that changes in exosomes production or secretion may be a therapeutic target for treatment of a variety of different chronic diseases. The present study tested the hypothesis that exosome-mediated release of NLRP3 inflammasome products instigates the inflammatory response in the lung during emphysema, a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and that electroacupuncture (EA) may attenuate emphysema by inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and consequent inflammation.

Methods: The COPD mice model was developed by injecting porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) via puncture tracheotomy and instillation. EA (4 Hz/20 Hz, 1 to 3 mA) was applied to the bilateral BL13 and ST36 for 30 min, once every other day for 2 weeks. Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) was performed to measure lung function. Histopathological changes in the lungs were displayed by HE staining.

Results: In a mouse model of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema, the lung tissue was found to display several key features of emphysema, including alveolar septal thickening, enlarged alveoli, interstitial edema, and inflammatory cells infiltration. Lungs of mice receiving PPE exhibited substantially increased low attenuation area (LAA) in micro-CT images. The colocalization of NLRP3 vs ASC or caspase-1 detected by confocal microscopy was shown to increase in both bronchial and alveolar walls, indicating the increased formation of NLRP3 inflammasomes. IL-1β, a prototype NLRP3 inflammasome activating product, was also found to have increased in the lung during emphysema, which was colocalized with CD63 (an exosome marker), an indicative of inflammatory exosome formation. By nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), IL-1β-containing exosomes were shown to significantly increase in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from mice with emphysema. Therapeutically, IL-1β production in the lung during emphysema was significantly reduced by EA at the acupoint Feishu (BL13) and Zusanli (ST36), accompanied by decreased colocalization of NLRP3 vs ASC or caspase-1. Increased exosome release into BAL during emphysema was shown to be significantly attenuated in EA-treated mice compared to their controls. However, EA of non-specific BL23 together with ST36 acupoint had no effects on NLRP3 inflammasome activation, exosome release and associated lung pathology during emphysema.

Conclusion: NLRP3 inflammasome activation in concert with increased release of exosomes containing IL-1β or other inflammasome products contributes to the development of lung inflammation and injury during PPE-induced emphysema and that EA of lung-specific acupoints attenuates inflammasome activation and exosome release, thereby reducing inflammatory response in the lung of mice with emphysema.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S312385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318722PMC
July 2021

Impact of hydrogen sulfide on biochar in stimulating the methane oxidation capacity and microbial communities of landfill cover soil.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 23;286(Pt 1):131650. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Shenzhen Engineering Laboratory for Eco-efficient Recycled Materials, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, University Town, Xili, Nanshan District, Shenzhen, 518055, PR China. Electronic address:

Hydrogen sulfide (HS) can influence methanotrophic activities and be adsorbed by biochar (BC); however, the impact of HS on BC in stimulating the methane (CH) oxidation capacity of landfill cover soil (LCS) has not been clarified. Thus, batch incubation experiments were conducted to observe the effect of HS on the CH oxidation capacity of and microbial communities in BC-amended LCS. Three landfill gas conditions were considered: 5 % CH and 15 % oxygen (O) (5 M), 10 % CH and 10 % O, and 20 % CH and 5 % O (20 M) by volume, with HS concentrations of 0, 100, 250, and 1000 ppm, respectively. Another series was conducted using LCS subjected to pre-HS saturation under the 20 M gas condition. In the 5 M gas condition suitable for the dominant methanotroph Methylocaldum (type I), the BC retained its ability to stimulate the CH oxidation capacity of LCS (enhancement of 41-108 %) in the presence of HS. Additionally, when HS ≤ 250 ppm, the BC exhibited a relatively consistent impact of HS on both CH oxidation capacity and microbial communities in LCS, independent of the CH or O concentrations. This result could be attributed to the different pathways of HS metabolism for the LCS and BC-amended LCS. Furthermore, when saturated adsorption of HS occurred for the LCS, the CH oxidation capacity for BC-amended LCS was higher than that for non-amended LCS, which demonstrated the ability of BC in alleviating the inhibition of HS on CH oxidation due to its excellent HS adsorption under even anoxic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131650DOI Listing
July 2021

Ideal versus Nonideal Transport of PFAS in Unsaturated Porous Media.

Water Res 2021 Sep 6;202:117405. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Environmental Science Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; Key Lab of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Environment, and Institute of Water Resources and Environment, Jilin University, Changchun, 130026, PR China.

Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) adsorb at air-water interfaces during transport in unsaturated porous media. This can cause surfactant-induced flow and enhanced retention that is a function of concentration, which complicates characterization and modeling of PFAS transport under unsaturated conditions. The influence of surfactant-induced flow and nonlinear air-water interfacial adsorption (AWIA) on PFAS transport was investigated with a series of miscible-displacement transport experiments conducted with a several-log range in input concentrations. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and ammonium perfluoro 2-methyl-3-oxahexanoate (GenX) were used as model PFAS. The results were interpreted in terms of critical reference concentrations associated with PFAS surface activities and their relationship to the relevancy of transport processes such as surfactant-induced flow and nonlinear AWIA for concentration ranges of interest. Analysis of the measured transport behavior of PFAS under unsaturated-flow conditions demonstrated that AWIA was linear when the input concentration was sufficiently below the critical reference concentration. This includes the absence of significant arrival-front self-sharpening and extended elution tailing of the breakthrough curves, as well as the similarity of retardation factors measured for a wide range of input concentrations. Independently-predicted simulations produced with a comprehensive flow and transport model that accounts for transient variably-saturated flow, surfactant-induced flow, nonlinear rate-limited solid-phase sorption, and nonlinear rate-limited AWIA provided excellent predictions of the measured transport. A series of simulations was conducted with the model to test the specific impact of various processes potentially influencing PFOS transport. The simulation results showed that surfactant-induced flow was negligible and that AWIA was effectively linear when the input concentration was sufficiently below the critical reference concentration. PFAS retention associated with AWIA can be considered to be ideal in such cases, thereby supporting the use of simplified mathematical models. Conversely, apparent nonideal transport behavior was observed for experiments conducted with input concentrations similar to or greater than the critical reference concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117405DOI Listing
September 2021

Long-term characterization and resource potential evaluation of the digestate from food waste anaerobic digestion plants.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 1;794:148785. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Shenzhen Engineering Laboratory for Eco-efficient Recycled Materials, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, University Town, Xili, Nanshan District, Shenzhen 518055, PR China. Electronic address:

The management of digestate from food waste (DFW) has become a big challenge for anaerobic digestion (AD) plants. It is crucial to understand the characteristics of DFW for its beneficial utilization. This study investigated the long-term characteristics of DFW from an industrial-scale AD plant in China for 16 months. The result showed that the characteristics of the DFW were relatively stable. The DFW contained considerable amounts of organic matter (23-40% of lignin and 12-26% of protein) and abundant nutrients (N, P, and K), with high concentrations of metals (e.g., 55.17 mg g and 15.55 mg g of Ca and Fe) and sulfur (1.40%) on a dry basis. Based on the results, pyrolysis and composting were evaluated as optional conversion ways of DFW. The pyrolysis temperature range of 500 °C to 600 °C was recommended for producing biochar. In this temperature range, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of the produced biochar is over 120 m g. The composting offered the best potential for recovering the nutrients from DFW, but the high ammonia gas content (6970 ppm) should be paid attention to during composting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148785DOI Listing
November 2021

Validation and optimization of key biochar properties through iron modification for improving the methane oxidation capacity of landfill cover soil.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 19;793:148551. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Shenzhen Engineering Laboratory for Eco-efficient Recycled Materials, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, University Town, Xili, Nanshan District, Shenzhen 518055, PR China. Electronic address:

Knowledge of various BC properties in stimulating the methane (CH) oxidation capacity of landfill cover soil (LCS) is still limited, restricting the optimization of BC performance. To validate key BC properties and seek a feasible way for enhancing BC performance, this study prepared BCs with distinctly varying characteristics through iron (Fe) modification. Then, batch incubation experiments under different CH and oxygen concentrations were conducted. Pore volume, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and surface area of BC collectively accounted for 78.5% of the variances in the microbial community structures, with pore volume being the most important factor. These correlated well with the differences in the CH oxidation capacities among the different BC-amended LCS. At a low ratio of 15% (v/v) in LCS, BCs' pH not affected their performance but homogeneity could be a limiting factor. Fe modification proved a promising approach to more efficiently improve the three key BC properties (especially pore volume) and thus optimize BC performance than increasing pyrolysis temperature did. Fe-modified BCs encouraged a bacterial consortium (methanotroph, methylotrophs, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria) in the soil with significantly improved CH oxidation capacities by up to 26%-74% compared to that of pristine BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148551DOI Listing
November 2021

The particle phase state during the biomass burning events.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 1;792:148035. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

The phase state of biomass burning aerosols (BBA) remains largely unclear, impeding our understanding of their effects on air quality, climate and human health, due to its profound roles in mass transfer between gaseous and particulate phase. In this study, the phase state of BBA was investigated by measuring the particle rebound fraction ƒ combining field observations and laboratory experiments. We found that both ambient and laboratory-generated BBA had unexpectedly lower rebound fraction ƒ (<0.6) under the dry conditions (RH = 20-50%), indicating that BBA were in non-solid state at such low RH. This was obviously different from the secondary organic aerosols (SOA) derived from the oxidation of both anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds, typically with a rebound fraction ƒ larger than 0.8 at RH below 50%. Therefore, we proposed that the diffusion coefficient of gaseous molecular in the bulk of BBA might be much higher than SOA under the dry conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148035DOI Listing
October 2021

Intermediate volatile organic compounds emissions from vehicles under real world conditions.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 15;788:147795. Epub 2021 May 15.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Formation and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex, Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai 200233, China.

Real-world vehicle emission factors (EFs) for the total intermediate volatile organic compounds (total-IVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from mixed fleets of vehicles were quantified in the Yangtze tunnel in Shanghai. Relationships of EFs of IVOCs with fleet compositions and vehicle speed as well as secondary organic formation potentials (SOAFPs) from IVOCs and VOCs were studied. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to estimate EFs of total-IVOCs for gasoline and diesel vehicles. IVOCs were classified into unresolved complex mixtures (unspeciated cyclic compounds and branched alkanes (b-alkanes)) and speciated targets (11 n-alkanes and ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)). The results showed that the average EF of total-IVOCs was 24.9 ± 7.8 mg/(km·veh), which was comparable to that of VOCs. Unspeciated cyclic compounds and b-alkanes dominated the main composition (~77% and ~19%), followed by n-alkanes (~4%) and PAHs (~1%). EFs of IVOCs showed a significant, positive relationship with diesel vehicle fractions (p < 0.05). EFs of IVOCs dropped notably with the decrease of the diesel vehicle fractions. SOAFP produced by the total organic compounds (IVOCs + VOCs) was 8.9 ± 2.5 mg/(km·veh), in which up to 86% of SOAFP was from IVOCs. Estimated EFs of total-IVOCs for gasoline vehicles and diesel vehicles were 15.3 and 219.8 mg/(km·veh) respectively. Our results demonstrate that IVOCs emitted from diesel vehicles are the main emission sources under real world conditions and significant contributions of IVOCs emissions to SOA formation is evident, which indicates the necessity of making control policies to reduce IVOCs emissions from vehicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147795DOI Listing
September 2021

Analysis on the spatio-temporal characteristics of COVID-19 in mainland China.

Process Saf Environ Prot 2021 Aug 7;152:291-303. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

College of Mathematics and Informatics, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350108, China.

COVID-19 has brought many unfavorable effects on humankind and taken away many lives. Only by understanding it more profoundly and comprehensively can it be soundly defeated. This paper is dedicated to studying the spatial-temporal characteristics of the epidemic development at the provincial-level in mainland China and the civic-level in Hubei Province. Moreover, a correlation analysis on the possible factors that cause the spatial differences in the epidemic's degree is conducted. After completing these works, three different methods are adopted to fit the daily-change tendencies of the number of confirmed cases in mainland China and Hubei Province. The three methods are the Logical Growth Model (LGM), Polynomial fitting, and Fully Connected Neural Network (FCNN). The analysis results on the spatial-temporal differences and their influencing factors show that: (1) The Chinese government has contained the domestic epidemic in early March 2020, indicating that the number of newly diagnosed cases has almost zero increase since then. (2) Throughout the entire mainland of China, effective manual intervention measures such as community isolation and urban isolation have significantly weakened the influence of the subconscious factors that may impact the spatial differences of the epidemic. (3) The classification results based on the number of confirmed cases also prove the effectiveness of the isolation measures adopted by the governments at all levels in China from another aspect. It is reflected in the small monthly grade changes (even no change) in the provinces of mainland China and the cities in Hubei Province during the study period. Based on the experimental results of curve-fitting and considering the time cost and goodness of fit comprehensively, the Polynomial( = 18) model is recommended in this paper for fitting the daily-change tendency of the number of confirmed cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2021.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183012PMC
August 2021

Effect of training programmes on nurses' ability to care for subjects with pressure injuries: A meta-analysis.

Int Wound J 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of General Ward, Shaoxing Central Hospital, Shaoxing, China.

We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the education effects on nurses' ability to care for subjects with pressure injuries. A systematic literature search up to April 2021 was carried out, and 29 studies included 5704 nurses at the start of the study; 3800 of them were experiment or post-training and 3804 were control or per-training. They were reporting relationships between the education effects on nurses' ability to care for subjects with pressure injuries. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) or the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the education effects on nurses' ability to care for subjects with pressure injuries using the dichotomous or continuous method with a random or fixed-effect model. Experiment or post-trained nurses had significantly higher knowledge score (MD, 10.00; 95% CI, 7.61-12.39, P < .001), number of nurses with proper knowledge (OR, 20.70; 95% CI, 10.80-39.67, P < .001), practice score (MD, 12.39; 95% CI, 5.37-19.42, P < .001), and number of nurses with proper practice (OR, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.75-7.25, P < .001), attitudes score (MD, 7.46; 95% CI, 2.94-11.99, P < .001) compared with control or pertained nurses. Training may have a beneficial effect on improving the nurses' ability to care for subjects with pressure injuries, which was obvious in improving knowledge, practice, and attitudes post-training. Further studies are required to validate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iwj.13627DOI Listing
June 2021

Pathological Changes of the Anterior Lens Capsule.

J Ophthalmol 2021 4;2021:9951032. Epub 2021 May 4.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Tianjin Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Disease, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin 300384, China.

The anterior lens capsule (ALC), as the thickest basement membrane in the body, is an acellular, soft, smooth, transparent membrane secreted by lens epithelial cells. The ALC has its unique biomechanical properties to serve as a barrier and separate the lens from infectious viruses and bacteria together with the posterior capsule and pericapsular membrane. However, the biomechanical and ultrastructural properties of the ALC can be changed under certain conditions. Here, we provide a brief review of the pathological changes of the ALC in several eye disorders, including cataract, aniridia, climatic droplet keratopathy, exfoliation syndrome, true exfoliation syndrome, Alport syndrome, and silicone oil tamponade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9951032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113000PMC
May 2021

Regulation of TRPML1 channel activity and inflammatory exosome release by endogenously produced reactive oxygen species in mouse podocytes.

Redox Biol 2021 07 16;43:102013. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA. Electronic address:

The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in podocytes has been implicated in the initiation of glomerular inflammation during hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy). However, the mechanism by which NLRP3 inflammasome products are released from podocytes remains unknown. The present study tested whether exosome secretion from podocytes is enhanced by NADPH oxidase-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may serve as a pathogenic mechanism mediating the release of inflammatory cytokines produced by the NLRP3 inflammasome in podocytes after Hcy stimulation. We first demonstrated the remarkable elevation of endogenously produced ROS in podocytes treated with Hcy compared with control podocytes, which was abolished by pre-treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitors, gp91 ds-tat peptide and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI). In addition, Hcy induced activation in podocytes of NLRP3 inflammasomes and the formation of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) containing inflammatory cytokines, which were prevented by treatment with gp91 ds-tat or the ROS scavenger, catalase. Given the importance of the transient receptor potential mucolipin 1 (TRPML1) channel in Ca-dependent lysosome trafficking and consequent lysosome-MVB interaction, we tested whether lysosomal Ca release through TRPML1 channels is inhibited by endogenously produced ROS in podocytes after Hcy stimulation. By GCaMP3 Ca imaging, we confirmed the inhibition of TRPML1 channel activity by Hcy which was remarkably ameliorated by catalase and gp91 ds-tat peptide. By structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), we found that ML-SA1, a TRPML1 channel agonist, significantly enhanced lysosome-MVB interaction and reduced exosome release in podocytes, which were attenuated by Hcy. Pre-treatment of podocytes with catalase or gp91 ds-tat peptide restored ML-SA1-induced changes in lysosome-MVB interaction and exosome secretion. Moreover, we found that hydrogen peroxide (HO) mimicked the effect of Hcy on TRPML1 channel activity, lysosome-MVB interaction, and exosome secretion in podocytes. Based on these results, we conclude that endogenously produced ROS importantly contributes to inflammatory exosome secretion from podocytes through inhibition of TRPML1 channel activity, which may contribute to the initiation of glomerular inflammation during hHcy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.102013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163985PMC
July 2021

The value of imaging model in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant head and neck lymph nodes.

Minerva Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Medical Image Center, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University/Hefei No1. People's Hospital, Hefei, China -

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5691.21.08906-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of NTSR1 on the Proliferation and Invasion of Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells, the Underlying Mechanism, and Clinical Role.

Ann Clin Lab Sci 2021 Mar;51(2):163-173

Department of Pathology, the Affiliated Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

Objective: This work aimed to explore the effect of NTSR1 on oncogenesis and the potential clinical role of gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC).

Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to assay NTSR1 and EGFR/HER2 expression. NTSR1 and MET were disrupted using shRNA. The role of 19 genes related to cancer phenotype signaling pathways was explored. The expression of genes was verified by Western blotting or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The interactions among genes were analyzed by STRING.

Results: There was a significant positive correlation between the expression of NTSR1 and EGFR/HER2. The proliferation and invasion rate of MKN-45 cells was significantly reduced by the NTSR1 shRNA. The expression of MET and EGFR/HER2 was downregulated by the NTSR1 shRNA. NTSR1 modulated the invasion ability of gastric cancer cells via MET. NTSR1 interacted with MET via PIK3CA. Combined knockout of NTSR1 and MET further reduced the PIK3CA mRNA level and the invasion ability of MKN-45 cells.

Conclusions: NTSR1 plays an important role in the occurrence, invasion, and metastasis of GAC in a manner involving several other genes, such as MET and EGFR/HER2. Therefore, NTSR1 constitutes a potential therapeutic target for GAC via synthetic lethality, and assessment of NTSR1 signaling may be necessary when performing tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.
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March 2021

Long-term surgical outcomes after resection of presacral tumours and risk factors associated with recurrence.

Colorectal Dis 2021 Sep 12;23(9):2301-2310. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Aim: The incidence of presacral tumours is low and pertinent data on the management and outcomes after surgery are sparse. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for recurrence in patients with presacral tumours undergoing surgery at our institution.

Method: Patients undergoing resection of a presacral tumour between 2009 and 2019 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Demographics, clinicopathological features, preoperative imaging, operative details, morbidity, mortality, recurrence and survival were investigated.

Results: A total of 122 patients were identified. There were 95 women (77.9%) and the median age was 34 years. The most common presenting symptoms included pelvic pain (n = 60, 49.2%) and recurrent abscesses or fistulas (n = 40, 32.8%). The accuracy of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in distinguishing malignant from benign tumours was 93.9%. Six patients underwent three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) and preoperative interventional embolization. Procedures were performed using transabdominal (n = 9), posterior (n = 99) and combined abdominal and posterior (n = 14) approaches. There were 21 (17.2%) malignant and 101 (82.8%) benign tumours. The local recurrence rate was 33.3% for malignant tumours and 9.9% for benign tumours. Multivariate analysis revealed that recurrence of malignant tumours was associated with R1 resection while recurrence of benign tumours was associated with secondary resections and intraoperative lesion rupture.

Conclusion: Presacral tumours continue to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. A multidisciplinary team, informed by modern imaging modalities, is essential for the management of presacral tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/codi.15691DOI Listing
September 2021

Contribution of podocyte inflammatory exosome release to glomerular inflammation and sclerosis during hyperhomocysteinemia.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 07 14;1867(7):166146. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA. Electronic address:

The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been implicated in podocyte injury and glomerular sclerosis in response to hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy). However, it remains unknown how the products of NLRP3 inflammasome in cytoplasm are secreted out of podocytes. In the present study, we tested whether exosome release serves as a critical mechanism to mediate the action of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in hHcy-induced glomerular injury. By various approaches, we found that hHcy induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and neutrophil infiltration in glomeruli of WT/WT mice. Lysosome-MVB interaction in glomeruli remarkably decreased in WT/WT mice fed with FF diet, leading to elevation of urinary exosome excretion of these mice. Podocyte-derived exosomes containing pro-inflammatory cytokines increased in urine of WT/WT mice in response to hHcy. The release of inflammatory exosomes from podocytes was prevented by Smpd1 gene deletion but enhanced by podocyte-specific Smpd1 gene overexpression (Smpd1 encodes Asm in mice). Pathologically, hHcy-induced podocyte injury and glomerular sclerosis were blocked by Smpd1 gene knockout but amplified by podocyte-specific Smpd1 gene overexpression. Taken together, our results suggest that Asm-ceramide signaling pathway contributes to NLRP3 inflammasome activation and robust release of inflammatory exosomes in podocytes during hHcy, which together trigger local glomerular inflammation and sclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2021.166146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122080PMC
July 2021

E-selectin negatively regulates polymorphonuclear neutrophil transmigration through altered endothelial junction integrity.

FASEB J 2021 05;35(5):e21521

Center for Biomechanics and Bioengineering, Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory) and Beijing Key Laboratory of Engineered Construction and Mechanobiology, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Transendothelial migration (TEM) of neutrophils under blood flow is critical in the inflammatory cascade. However, the role of endothelial plasticity in this process is not fully understood. Therefore, we used an in vitro model to test the dynamics of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) TEM across lipopolysaccharide-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers. Interestingly, shRNA-E-selectin knockdown in HUVECs destabilized endothelial junctional integrity by reducing actin branching and increasing stress fiber at cell-cell junctions. This process is accomplished by downregulating the activation of cortactin and Arp2/3, which in turn alters the adhesive function of VE-cadherin, enhancing PMN transmigration. Meanwhile, redundant P-selectins possess overlapping functions in E-selectin-mediated neutrophil adhesion, and transmigration. These results demonstrate, to our knowledge, for the first time, that E-selectins negatively regulate neutrophil transmigration through alterations in endothelial plasticity. Furthermore, it improves our understanding of the mechanisms underlying actin remodeling, and junctional integrity, in endothelial cells mediating leukocyte TEM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000662RRDOI Listing
May 2021

Serine metabolism antagonizes antiviral innate immunity by preventing ATP6V0d2-mediated YAP lysosomal degradation.

Cell Metab 2021 May 1;33(5):971-987.e6. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Key Laboratory of Immune Microenvironment and Disease (Ministry of Education), Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China; Department of Pharmacology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Inflammation Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China; The Province and Ministry Co-sponsored Collaborative Innovation Center for Medical Epigenetics, Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China. Electronic address:

Serine metabolism promotes tumor oncogenesis and regulates immune cell functions, but whether it also contributes to antiviral innate immunity is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that virus-infected macrophages display decreased expression of serine synthesis pathway (SSP) enzymes. Suppressing the SSP key enzyme phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) by genetic approaches or by treatment with the pharmaceutical inhibitor CBR-5884 and by exogenous serine restriction enhanced IFN-β-mediated antiviral innate immunity in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic experiments showed that virus infection or serine metabolism deficiency increased the expression of the V-ATPase subunit ATP6V0d2 by inhibiting S-adenosyl methionine-dependent H3K27me3 occupancy at the promoter. ATP6V0d2 promoted YAP lysosomal degradation to relieve YAP-mediated blockade of the TBK1-IRF3 axis and, thus, enhance IFN-β production. These findings implicate critical functions of PHGDH and the key immunometabolite serine in blunting antiviral innate immunity and also suggest manipulation of serine metabolism as a therapeutic strategy against virus infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.03.006DOI Listing
May 2021

Transport of PFOS in aquifer sediment: Transport behavior and a distributed-sorption model.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 13;779:146444. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Environmental Science Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Electronic address:

The objectives of this research were to examine the transport of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in aquifer sediment comprising different geochemical properties, and to compare the behavior to that observed for PFOS transport in soil and sand. PFOS retardation was relatively low for transport in all aquifer media. The PFOS breakthrough curves were asymmetrical and exhibited extensive concentration tailing, indicating that sorption/desorption was significantly nonideal. The results of model simulations indicated that rate-limited sorption/desorption was the primary cause of the nonideal PFOS transport. Comparison of PFOS transport in aquifer media to data reported for PFOS transport in two soils and a quartz sand showed that PFOS exhibited more extensive elution tailing for the soils, likely reflecting differences in the relative contributions of various media constituents to sorption. A three-component distributed-sorption model was developed that accounted for contributions from soil organic carbon, metal oxides, and silt + clay fraction. The model produced very good predictions of K for the five media with lower soil organic‑carbon contents (≤0.1%). Soil organic carbon was estimated to contribute 19-42% of the total sorption for all media except the sand, to which it contributed ~100%. The contribution of silt + clay ranged from 51 to 80% for all media except the sand. The only medium for which the contribution of metal-oxides was significant is Hanford, with an estimated contribution of 15%. Overall, the results of the study indicate that sorption of PFOS by these aquifer media comprised contributions from multiple soil constituents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146444DOI Listing
July 2021

Perianal and perineal rhabdomyosarcomas: a retrospective multicenter study of 35 cases.

BMC Surg 2021 Jan 30;21(1):66. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

The Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 26 Yuancun Erheng Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou, 510655, People's Republic of China.

Background: Perianal/perineal rhabdomyosarcomas (PRMS) are easily misdiagnosed soft tissue tumours with a poor prognosis. This study was designed to analyze the clinical, diagnostic, pathological and prognostic features of PRMS, and to explore currently available therapeutic modalities.

Methods: Clinical data of PRMS patients admitted to the Sixth Affiliated Hospital and the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University and from related Chinese literature published from 1987 to 2018 were collected and analyzed. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences between each group. The Kaplan-Meier methods were applied to estimate and compare survival rates.

Results: A total of 35 patients were included in this study; 20 identified within related Chinese literatures and 15 from our center admitted during the period of 1997-2019. Out of these cases, 34 presented with perianal masses and the remaining one manifested as an inguinal mass. Moreover, 20 patients complained of pain and 16 of them were misdiagnosed as perianal abscesses, in which the presence of pain contributed to the misdiagnosis (p < 0.05). The average time interval between symptom onset and pathological diagnosis was 3.1 months. Next, 13 cases were classified into IRS group III/IV and 20 cases into stages 3/4. Additionally, 14 and 9 cases received the pathological diagnoses of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, respectively. Regarding the patients' survival rates, five patients survived for more than 2 years, and three of them survived for more than 5 years. The overall 2 years and 5 years survival rates were 32% and 24%, respectively. The symptom of pain and misdiagnosis both contributed to the poor prognosis in these patients (p < 0.05). MRI showed that the PRMS were closely related to external anal sphincter in 10 cases.

Conclusion: PRMS are easily misdiagnosed lesions, which often leads to an unfavourable outcome in affected patients. Patients with painful perianal masses should be evaluated to exclude PRMS. MRI revealed that PRMS are closely related to the external anal sphincter. Multidisciplinary management is recommended in the treatment of PRMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-021-01073-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847558PMC
January 2021

Primary Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Ileum: A Case Report With Next-Generation Sequencing Analysis.

Int J Surg Pathol 2021 Sep 7;29(6):677-684. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Pathology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

As the concept of clear cell sarcoma-like tumor or malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (CCS-LT/MGNET) has been widely accepted, primary CCS of the gastrointestinal tract (CCS-GI) is becoming a rare entity. In this article, we describe a case of primary CCS-GI that occurred in the ileum of a 65-year-old male to further illustrate its rare occurrence. Similar to CCS of soft tissue (CCS-ST), the tumor was composed of spindled to epithelioid cells displaying fascicular, nested, or pseudopapillary arrangement. The tumor cells had large round to ovoid nuclei with vesicular chromatin and prominent nucleoli, containing eosinophilic to pale cytoplasm. In contrast to CCS-LT/MGNET, immunohistochemical study also showed variable positivity of HMB45, melan A, and MiTF besides the strong and diffuse staining of S100 protein and SOX10. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using fusion probes identified and genes rearrangement. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis further revealed exons9/8- exon4 and exon3- exon11 fusion genes. CCS-GI and CCS-LT/MGNET possibly represent 2 related entities of the same spectrum, which differentiate along 2 different pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1066896920985311DOI Listing
September 2021

vSampler: fast and annotation-based matched variant sampling tool.

Bioinformatics 2021 07;37(13):1915-1917

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China.

Summary: Sampling of control variants having matched properties with input variants is widely used in enrichment analysis of genome-wide association studies/quantitative trait loci and negative data construction for pathogenic/regulatory variant prediction methods. Spurious enrichment results because of confounding factors, such as minor allele frequency and linkage disequilibrium pattern, can be avoided by calibration of statistical significance based on matched controls. Here, we presented vSampler which can generate sets of randomly drawn variants with comprehensive choices of matching properties, such as tissue/cell type-specific epigenomic features. Importantly, the development of a novel data structure and sampling algorithms for vSampler makes it significantly fast than existing tools.

Availability And Implementation: vSampler web server and local program are available at http://mulinlab.org/vsampler.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa883DOI Listing
July 2021

Tracer-based characterization of source variations of PM and organic carbon in Shanghai influenced by the COVID-19 lockdown.

Faraday Discuss 2021 03 26;226:112-137. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex, Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Air quality in megacities is significantly impacted by emissions from vehicles and other urban-scale human activities. Amid the outbreak of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in January 2020, strict policies were in place to restrict people's movement, bringing about steep reductions in pollution activities and notably lower ambient concentrations of primary pollutants. In this study, we report hourly measurements of fine particulate matter (i.e., PM) and its comprehensive chemical speciation, including elemental and molecular source tracers, at an urban site in Shanghai spanning a period before the lockdown restriction (BR) (1 to 23 Jan. 2020) and during the restriction (DR) (24 Jan. to 9 Feb. 2020). The overall PM was reduced by 27% from 56.2 ± 40.9 (BR) to 41.1 ± 25.3 μg m (DR) and the organic carbon (OC) in PM was similar, averaged at 5.45 ± 2.37 (BR) and 5.42 ± 1.75 μgC m (DR). Reduction in nitrate was prominent, from 18.1 (BR) to 9.2 μg m (DR), accounting for most of the PM decrease. Source analysis of PM using positive matrix factorization modeling of comprehensive chemical composition, resolved nine primary source factors and five secondary source factors. The quantitative source analysis confirms reduced contributions from primary sources affected by COVID-19, with vehicular emissions showing the largest drop, from 4.6 (BR) to 0.61 μg m (DR) and the percentage change (-87%) in par with vehicle traffic volume and fuel sale statistics (-60% to -90%). In the same time period, secondary sources are revealed to vary in response to precursor reductions from the lockdown, with two sources showing consistent enhancement while the other three showing reductions, highlighting the complexity in secondary organic aerosol formation and the nonlinear response to broad primary precursor pollutants. The combined contribution from the two secondary sources to PM increased from 7.3 ± 6.6 (BR) to 14.8 ± 9.3 μg m (DR), partially offsetting the reductions from primary sources and nitrate while their increased contribution to OC, from 1.6 ± 1.4 (BR) to 3.2 ± 2.0 μgC m (DR), almost offset the decrease coming from the primary sources. Results from this work underscore challenges in predicting the benefits to PM improvement from emission reductions of common urban primary sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fd00091dDOI Listing
March 2021

Abnormal podocyte TRPML1 channel activity and exosome release in mice with podocyte-specific Asah1 gene deletion.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 02 19;1866(2):158856. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA. Electronic address:

Podocytopathy and associated nephrotic syndrome (NS) have been reported in a knockout mouse strain (Asah1/Podo) with a podocyte-specific deletion of α subunit (the main catalytic subunit) of acid ceramidase (Ac). However, the pathogenesis of podocytopathy of these mice remains unknown. The present study tested whether exosome release from podocytes is enhanced due to Asah1 gene knockout, which may serve as a pathogenic mechanism switching on podocytopathy and associated NS in Asah1/Podo mice. We first demonstrated the remarkable elevation of urinary exosome excretion in Asah1/Podo mice compared with WT/WT mice, which was accompanied by significant Annexin-II (an exosome marker) accumulation in glomeruli of Asah1/Podo mice, as detected by immunohistochemistry. In cell studies, we also confirmed that Asah1 gene knockout enhanced exosome release in the primary cultures of podocyte isolated from Asah1/Podo mice compared to WT/WT mice. In the podocytes from Asah1/Podo mice, the interactions of lysosome and multivesicular body (MVB) were demonstrated to be decreased in comparison with those from their control littermates, suggesting reduced MVB degradation that may lead to increase in exosome release. Given the critical role of transient receptor potential mucolipin 1 (TRPML1) channel in Ca-dependent lysosome trafficking and consequent lysosome-MVB interaction, we tested whether lysosomal Ca release through TRPML1 channels is inhibited in the podocytes of Asah1/Podo mice. By GCaMP3 Ca imaging, it was found that lysosomal Ca release through TRPML1 channels was substantially suppressed in podocytes with Asah1 gene deletion. As an Ac product, sphingosine was found to rescue TRPML1 channel activity and thereby recover lysosome-MVB interaction and reduce exosome release of podocytes from Asah1/Podo mice. Combination of N, N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS), a potent sphingosine kinase inhibitor, and sphingosine significantly inhibited urinary exosome excretion of Asah1/Podo mice. Moreover, rescue of Aash1 gene expression in podocytes of Asah1/Podo mice showed normal ceramide metabolism and exosome secretion. Based on these results, we conclude that the normal expression of Ac importantly contributes to the control of TRPML1 channel activity, lysosome-MVB interaction, and consequent exosome release from podocytes. Asah1 gene defect inhibits TRPML1 channel activity and thereby enhances exosome release, which may contribute to the development of podocytopathy and associated NS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2020.158856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770122PMC
February 2021

Identification and functional analysis of a novel missense mutation in GJA8, p.Ala69Thr.

BMC Ophthalmol 2020 Nov 20;20(1):461. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Tianjin International Joint Research and Development Centre of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, 251 Fukang Road, Nankai District, Tianjin, 300384, China.

Background: To explore the molecular genetic cause of a four-generation autosomal dominant congenital cataract family in China.

Methods: Targeted region sequencing was performed to screen for the potential mutation, and Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the mutation. The homology model was constructed to identify the protein structural change, PolyPhen-2 and Provean were used to predict the mutation impact. Functional and cellular analysis of the wild and mutant GJA8 were performed in DF-1 cells by western blotting, dye uptake assay, immunofluorescence, Annexin V-FITC staining.

Results: A novel heterozygous mutation (c.205G > A; p.Ala69Thr) was identified within GJA8, which cosegregated with congenital cataract phenotype in this family. Bioinformatics analysis showed the mutation was located in a highly conserved region, and the mutation was predicted to be pathogenic. Function analysis indicated that the mutation inhibited GJA8 hemichannel activity, reduced cell tolerance to oxidative stress, changed the protein distribution pattern and inhibited the cell growth.

Conclusions: We have identified a novel missense mutation in GJA8 (c.205G > A, p.Ala69Thr) in a four-generation Chinese family and our results will further broaden the gene mutation spectrum of GJA8.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-020-01725-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7678044PMC
November 2020

Column versus batch methods for measuring PFOS and PFOA sorption to geomedia.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 23;268(Pt B):115917. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Plant & Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, United States.

The objective of this study is to compare the consistency between column and batch experiment methods for measuring solid-phase sorption coefficients and isotherms for per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are used as representative PFAS, and experiments are conducted with three natural porous media with differing geochemical properties. Column-derived sorption isotherms are generated by conducting multiple experiments with different input concentrations (multi-C method) or employing elution-front integration wherein the entire isotherm is determined from a single breakthrough curve (BTC) elution front. The isotherms generated with the multi-C column method compared remarkably well to the batch isotherms over an aqueous concentration range of 3-4 orders of magnitude. Specifically, the 95% confidence intervals for the individual isotherm variables overlapped, producing statistically identical regressions. The elution-front integration isotherms generally agreed with the batch isotherms, but exhibited noise and systematic deviation at lower concentrations in some cases. All data sets were well described by the Freundlich isotherm model. Freundlich N values ranged from 0.75 to 0.81 for PFOS and was 0.87 for PFOA and are consistent with values reported in the literature for different geomedia. The results of this study indicate that column and batch experiments can measure consistent sorption isotherms and sorption coefficients for PFOS and PFOA when robust experimental setup and data analysis are implemented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746577PMC
January 2021

Ultrafast and scalable variant annotation and prioritization with big functional genomics data.

Genome Res 2020 12 15;30(12):1789-1801. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

The Province and Ministry Co-sponsored Collaborative Innovation Center for Medical Epigenetics, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China.

The advances of large-scale genomics studies have enabled compilation of cell type-specific, genome-wide DNA functional elements at high resolution. With the growing volume of functional annotation data and sequencing variants, existing variant annotation algorithms lack the efficiency and scalability to process big genomic data, particularly when annotating whole-genome sequencing variants against a huge database with billions of genomic features. Here, we develop VarNote to rapidly annotate genome-scale variants in large and complex functional annotation resources. Equipped with a novel index system and a parallel random-sweep searching algorithm, VarNote shows substantial performance improvements (two to three orders of magnitude) over existing algorithms at different scales. It supports both region-based and allele-specific annotations and introduces advanced functions for the flexible extraction of annotations. By integrating massive base-wise and context-dependent annotations in the VarNote framework, we introduce three efficient and accurate pipelines to prioritize the causal regulatory variants for common diseases, Mendelian disorders, and cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.267997.120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7706736PMC
December 2020

Effect of Iron Particles on the Coke Solution Loss Reaction.

ACS Omega 2020 Oct 22;5(39):25042-25048. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

School of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.

The coke solution loss reaction was investigated by using a well-type Si-Mo rod electric furnace. The effects of the CO flow rate, reaction time, loading mode, and loading amount of iron particles on the coke solution loss reaction were investigated. By comparing the SEM and EDS before and after the reaction of loaded iron particle coke, the reasons for the influence of loading mode on the coke solution loss reaction were explored, and the mechanism behind it was further explored. The experimental results show that there is a positive proportional relationship between the CO flow rate and reaction time with coke solution loss reactivity. The adsorption and addition of iron oxide play an important role in promoting the coke solution loss reaction, but when the saturation point of iron oxide loading is exceeded (1%), the adsorption load of iron particles has little effect on the coke solution loss reaction. At the same reaction temperature, the carbon conversion of the adsorption method is 10% larger than that of the addition method. From the analysis of SEM, it can be seen that the mechanism of iron particles affecting the coke solution loss reaction is different under the two loading modes. In the addition method, some iron particles are wrapped in a coke pore wall matrix, so they cannot play a role. In the adsorption process, iron particles are uniformly distributed on the coke surface, which provide more effective catalytic active centers. In addition, when iron particles are loaded by the addition method, they participate in coke formation, which affects the coke structure and then affects the coke solution loss reaction. The iron particles in the adsorption method play a catalytic role in the coke solution loss reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c01701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7542594PMC
October 2020
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