Publications by authors named "Dana L Wetzel"

10 Publications

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Characterization of the differential expressed genes and transcriptomic pathway analysis in the liver of sub-adult red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) exposed to Deepwater Horizon chemically dispersed oil.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 2;214:112098. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Pkwy, Sarasota, FL 34236, USA.

The Deepwater Horizon blowout resulted in the second-largest quantity of chemical dispersants used as a countermeasure for an open water oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Of which, the efficacy of dispersant as a mitigation strategy and its toxic effects on aquatic fauna remains controversial. To enhance our understanding of potential sub-lethal effects of exposure to chemically dispersed-oil, sub-adult red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were continuously exposed to a Corexit 9500: DWH crude oil chemically enhanced water accommodated fraction (CEWAF) for 3-days and transcriptomic responses were assessed in the liver. Differential expressed gene (DEG) analysis demonstrated that 63 genes were significantly impacted in the CEWAF exposed fish. Of these, 37 were upregulated and 26 downregulated. The upregulated genes were primarily involved in metabolism and oxidative stress, whereas several immune genes were downregulated. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR further confirmed upregulation of cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase, along with downregulation of fucolectin 2 and chemokine C-C motif ligand 20. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) predicted 120 pathways significantly altered in the CEWAF exposed red drum. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway was significantly activated, while pathways associated with immune and cellular homeostasis were primarily suppressed. The results of this study indicate that CEWAF exposure significantly affects gene expression and alters signaling of biological pathways important in detoxification, immunity, and normal cellular physiology, which can have potential consequences on organismal fitness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112098DOI Listing
May 2021

Characterizing transcriptomic responses of southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) chronically exposed to Deepwater Horizon oiled sediments.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Jan 7;230:105716. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL, 34236, United States.

To obtain a deeper understanding of the transcriptomic responses to oil in southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma), we performed quantitative PCR and RNA sequencing on liver and gill tissue after a chronic exposure (35 days) to Deepwater Horizon crude oiled sediment and after a 30-day recovery period. We wanted to understand which specific genes are differentially expressed in liver and gill tissues directly after oiled sediment exposure and with the addition of a recovery period. Furthermore, we wanted to examine specific enriched pathways in these two tissues to determine the impact of exposure with and without a recovery period on biological processes (e.g. immune function). Liver and gill tissues were chosen because they represent two distinct organs that are highly important to consider when examining the impacts of oiled sediment exposure. The liver is the classic detoxification organ, while the gill is in direct contact with sediment in benthic fishes. Examination of these two tissues, therefore, generates a broad understanding of the transcriptomic consequences of oil exposure across an organism. Gene expression for interleukin 8 (il8) and interleukin 1B (il1β) was significantly increased versus control measurements for fish exposed to oiled sediments for 35 days in gill tissue. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression showed that tissue type was the main driver of gene expression (rather than treatment). The inclusion of a 30-day post-exposure recovery period showed a return of il8 and il1β gene expression in the gill to baseline expression levels. However, the recovery period increased the number of differentially expressed genes and significantly affected canonical pathways in both tissue types. Pathways related to cholesterol biosynthesis were significantly suppressed in oil-exposed flounder with a recovery period, but not in the exposed flounder without a recovery period. At the end of the exposure, 17 pathways were significantly affected in the gill, including thyroid hormone metabolism-related pathways, which were the most influenced. Liver tissue from the recovered fish had the greatest number of enriched pathways for any tissue or time point (187). Cellular and humoral immune response pathways were considerably impacted in the liver after the recovery period, suggesting that the immune system was attempting to respond to potential damage caused from the chronic oil exposure. Our results demonstrate that liver and gill tissues from southern flounder were differentially altered by Deepwater Horizon oiled sediment exposure and that a 30-day recovery period after exposure substantially shifted gene expression and canonical pathway profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105716DOI Listing
January 2021

Nonlethal Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Oiled Sediment Exposed Southern Flounder (): Utility for Field-Base Monitoring Exposure and Potential Recovery.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 12 5;53(24):14734-14743. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Mote Marine Laboratory , 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway , Sarasota , Florida 34236 , United States.

The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in the deposition of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in the coastal sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. The immediate effects on an ecosystem from an oil spill are clearly recognizable, however the long-term chronic effects and recovery after a spill are still not well understood. Current methodologies for biomonitoring wild populations are invasive and mostly lethal. Here, two potential nonlethal biomonitoring tools for the assessment of PAH toxicity and induced biological alterations in the field, were identified using laboratory-validated methods. In this study, subadult southern flounder () were chronically exposed to DWH surrogate oiled sediments for 35 days; a subset of these exposed flounder were then provided a clean nonexposure period to ascertain the utility of selected biomarkers to monitor recovery post exposure. After chronic exposure, there was an increase in gene expression of cytochrome P450 1A but not glutathione -transferase. There was also a notable imbalance of oxidants to antioxidants, measured as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and their ratio in the blood. Evidence of subsequent oxidative damage due to chronic exposure was found through lipid peroxidation and DNA damage assessments of liver, gill, and blood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b05930DOI Listing
December 2019

De novo assembly and transcriptome dataset of liver, testis and head kidney from red drum ().

Data Brief 2019 Feb 11;22:934-939. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Pkwy, Sarasota, FL 34235, USA.

Red drum () is an estuarine Sciaenid with high commercial value and recreational demand. During the past 50 years, overfishing has caused declines in the population that resulted in the development of red drum commercial and stock enhancement aquaculture fisheries. Despite the potential high economic value in both wild and aquaculture commercial fisheries the availability of transcriptomic data for red drum in public databases is limited. The data here represents the transcriptome profiles of three tissues: liver, testis and head kidney from red drum. The data was generated using Illumina high-throughput RNA sequencing, Trinity for de novo assembly and Blast2GO for annotation. Six individual libraries were pooled for sequencing of the transcriptome and the raw fastq reads have been deposited in the NCBI-SRA database (accession number SRP11690).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.01.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362861PMC
February 2019

PAH Exposure in Gulf of Mexico Demersal Fishes, Post-Deepwater Horizon.

Environ Sci Technol 2015 Jul 9;49(14):8786-95. Epub 2015 Jul 9.

†University of South Florida, College of Marine Science, St. Petersburg, Florida 33701, United States.

Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, we surveyed offshore demersal fishes in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) in 2011-2013, to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. Biliary PAH metabolites were estimated in 271 samples of golden tilefish (Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps), king snake eel (Ophichthus rex), and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Mean concentration of naphthalene metabolites in golden tilefish (240 μg g(-1)) was significantly higher (p = 0.001) than in red snapper (61 μg g(-1)) or king snake eel (38 μg g(-1)). Biliary naphthalene metabolite concentration decreased over the study period in red snapper (58%) and king snake eel (37%), indicating likely episodic exposure, while concentrations were persistently high in golden tilefish. Naphthalene metabolite levels measured in golden tilefish are among the highest concentrations measured in fishes globally, while concentrations for red snapper and king snake eel are similar to pre-DWH levels measured in GoM species. In contrast, concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene metabolites were similar for all three species (p = 0.265, mean 220 ng g(-1)) and relatively low when compared to GoM, global data and previous oil spills. These data support previous findings that fish life history and physiology play significant roles in exposure and uptake of PAH pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b01870DOI Listing
July 2015

Toxicity of Deepwater Horizon source oil and the chemical dispersant, Corexit® 9500, to coral larvae.

PLoS One 2013 9;8(1):e45574. Epub 2013 Jan 9.

Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, Florida, USA.

Acute catastrophic events can cause significant damage to marine environments in a short time period and may have devastating long-term impacts. In April 2010 the BP-operated Deepwater Horizon (DWH) offshore oil rig exploded, releasing an estimated 760 million liters of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This study examines the potential effects of oil spill exposure on coral larvae of the Florida Keys. Larvae of the brooding coral, Porites astreoides, and the broadcast spawning coral, Montastraea faveolata, were exposed to multiple concentrations of BP Horizon source oil (crude, weathered and WAF), oil in combination with the dispersant Corexit® 9500 (CEWAF), and dispersant alone, and analyzed for behavior, settlement, and survival. Settlement and survival of P. astreoides and M. faveolata larvae decreased with increasing concentrations of WAF, CEWAF and Corexit® 9500, however the degree of the response varied by species and solution. P. astreoides larvae experienced decreased settlement and survival following exposure to 0.62 ppm source oil, while M. faveolata larvae were negatively impacted by 0.65, 1.34 and 1.5 ppm, suggesting that P. astreoides larvae may be more tolerant to WAF exposure than M. faveolata larvae. Exposure to medium and high concentrations of CEWAF (4.28/18.56 and 30.99/35.76 ppm) and dispersant Corexit® 9500 (50 and 100 ppm), significantly decreased larval settlement and survival for both species. Furthermore, exposure to Corexit® 9500 resulted in settlement failure and complete larval mortality after exposure to 50 and 100 ppm for M. faveolata and 100 ppm for P. astreoides. These results indicate that exposure of coral larvae to oil spill related contaminants, particularly the dispersant Corexit® 9500, has the potential to negatively impact coral settlement and survival, thereby affecting the resilience and recovery of coral reefs following exposure to oil and dispersants.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0045574PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3541341PMC
July 2013

Fatty acid profiles as a potential lipidomic biomarker of exposure to brevetoxin for endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

Sci Total Environ 2010 Nov 28;408(24):6124-33. Epub 2010 Sep 28.

Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236, United States.

Fatty acid signature analysis (FASA) is an important tool by which marine mammal scientists gain insight into foraging ecology. Fatty acid profiles (resulting from FASA) represent a potential biomarker to assess exposure to natural and anthropogenic stressors. Florida manatees are well studied, and an excellent necropsy program provides a basis against which to assess this budding tool. Results using samples from 54 manatees assigned to four cause-of-death categories indicated that those animals exposed to or that died due to brevetoxin exposure (red tide, or RT samples) demonstrate a distinctive hepatic fatty acid profile. Discriminant function analysis indicated that hepatic fatty acids could be used to classify RT versus non-RT liver samples with reasonable certainty. A discriminant function was derived based on 8 fatty acids which correctly classified 100% of samples from a training dataset (10 RT and 25 non-RT) and 85% of samples in a cross-validation dataset (5 RT and 13 non-RT). Of the latter dataset, all RT samples were correctly classified, but two of thirteen non-RT samples were incorrectly classified. However, the "incorrect" samples came from manatees that died due to other causes during documented red tide outbreaks; thus although the proximal cause of death was due to watercraft collisions, exposure to brevetoxin may have affected these individuals in ways that increased their vulnerability. This use of FASA could: a) provide an additional forensic tool to help scientists and managers to understand cause of death or debilitation due to exposure to red tide in manatees; b) serve as a model that could be applied to studies to improve assessments of cause of death in other marine mammals; and c) be used, as in humans, to help diagnose metabolic disorders or disease states in manatees and other species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.08.043DOI Listing
November 2010

Charlotte Harbor initiative: assessing the ecological health of southwest Florida's Charlotte Harbor estuary.

Ecotoxicology 2004 Apr;13(3):275-84

Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, Florida 34236, USA.

Charlotte Harbor is the largest and one of the least impacted estuaries on the southwest Florida coast, encompassing about 270 square miles (700 km2) with a watershed of 4400 square miles (11,400 km2). The Harbor is distinguished by extensive phosphate mining in its watershed and declining freshwater inflows, more protected submerged and intertidal areas than most Gulf ecosystems, and is part of the National Estuary Program. A hypoxic event occurs annually in the Harbor for possibly natural rather than anthropogenic reasons providing an opportunity for the study of hypoxic effects on the ecology of a large subtropical ecosystem. A 5-year, multimillion dollar study was begun in 2001 to enable scientists of Mote Marine Laboratory (MML, Sarasota, Florida) to collaborate on ecological characterization of the estuary and provide data necessary for resource managers to predict consequences of future population growth in the region. Initial studies were organized around themes of preservation, conservation and restoration while subsequent years of work are organized around a core program of physical, chemical and biological studies that track the ecological consequences of freshwater inflow, hypoxia and anthropogenic-derived contaminants. Along with MML, scientists in federal and state agencies along with a number of colleges and universities are cooperating in the project.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:ectx.0000023571.55816.2cDOI Listing
April 2004

Accumulation and distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons found in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in the canals of Venice, Italy.

Mar Pollut Bull 2004 May;48(9-10):927-36

College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, 140 7th Avenue South, St. Petersburg, FL 33701, USA.

Petroleum contamination was assessed in indigenous and transplanted mussels for three types of environments within the Venice Lagoon and its associated interior canals. Indigenous and transplanted mussels were least impacted by petroleum contamination at open-water stations, but more affected in partially-enclosed areas indicating that physical processes of tidal or wind activities can remove organic contaminants such as petroleum from these areas more effectively. Limited tidal flushing of the interior canals resulted in contaminated locations unable to support indigenous mussels. Clean mussels transplanted to these highly impacted sites accumulated the highest levels of petroleum hydrocarbons. The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) indicated mainly combustion-related activities from sources such as the nearby industrial zones and boat traffic, with some evidence of fresher petroleum inputs. Total hydrocarbons found in all mussels could be related to concentrations found in the surrounding sediments as reported in an earlier study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2003.11.020DOI Listing
May 2004

Persistence of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediments of the canals in Venice, Italy: 1995 and 1998.

Mar Pollut Bull 2003 Aug;46(8):1015-23

University of South Florida, College of Marine Science, 140 7th Avenue South, St. Petersburg, FL 33701, USA.

Total hydrocarbon and selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels were examined in sediments collected from known problematic areas in the canals of Venice, Italy, in 1995 and 1998. Hydrocarbon concentrations were greatest in the interior canals, moderate in the partially enclosed locations and lowest in the open-water sites. Total hydrocarbon and PAH concentrations declined from 1995 to 1998. Ancillary data suggest that this decline may have been in response to the elimination of many industrial activities in the lagoon and to initiating an aggressive canal dredging program. The distributions of individual components were generally similar both years regardless of the total PAH concentration or the location of sample collected. PAH alkyl homolog distributions suggest that atmospheric deposition of petrochemical combustion products is the main source of PAHs to Venice's sediments. In some cases however, the presence of low levels of the two-ring naphthalene homologous series indicate additional low-level inputs of fresh oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(03)00124-3DOI Listing
August 2003