Publications by authors named "Dan Henry Levy"

7 Publications

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A Rare Case of Multiple Internal Root Resorption after the Delayed Treatment of a Traumatic Injury: A Case Report.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 Feb 1;22(2):194-198. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Endodontics, Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Medical Corps, Tel HaShomer, Israel.

Aim: The objective of this case report was to present a rare case of simultaneous multiple internal root resorption (IRR) in four mandibular incisors and discuss the possible etiology and suitable armamentarium for its treatment based on different morphological considerations.

Background: IRR in permanent dentition is a rare pathological condition and its etiology is not yet fully understood. Very few cases of multiple IRR were reported. This is the first reported case of multiple IRR due to traumatic injury.

Case Description: A 23-year-old man suffered trauma to his mandible after falling from a trampoline. His mandibular incisors suffered subluxation injuries and his orthodontic fixed retainer got detached. He delayed treatment and visited our clinic 4.5 months after the incident. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed four mandibular incisors with almost identical IRR defects at the apical third of the roots. The patient was then treated with four non-surgical root canal treatments using various endodontic instruments and techniques. Fifteen-month post-trauma, he showed no evidence of pathology at the follow-up examination.

Conclusion: Delayed treatment of dental trauma might cause multiple IRR, and the presence of an orthodontic fixed retainer can distribute surface forces and result in uniform IRR defects.

Clinical Significance: The combination of the self-adjusting file (SAF) and the XP-endo finisher is recommended for chemomechanical preparation of IRR defects in oval canals, especially at the apical third.
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February 2021

Enterococcus faecalis sustained infection induces macrophage pro-resolution polarization.

Int Endod J 2021 Oct 10;54(10):1840-1849. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.

Aim: To investigate macrophage function in the presence of sustained infection with Enterococcus faecalis, a prevalent root canal resident in asymptomatic apical periodontitis.

Methodology: The human monocyte cell line (THP-1) was differentiated into macrophages by exposure to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and the cultures were inoculated with E. faecalis for up to 48 h. At three time-points 90 min, 24 and 48 h after inoculation, the macrophages and their supernatants were examined. Assays included macrophage phagocytosis rate and vitality, bacterial survival, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial activity, cytokine production and the expression of pro/anti-inflammatory M1/M2 markers. Also, periapical tissue from apicectomy samples of human endodontically treated teeth were collected for histological and immunofluorescent analysis. Statistical differences were analysed with RM ANOVA.

Results: E. faecalis were phagocytized, and subsequently, most of the macrophages underwent apoptosis and necrosis. The small population of macrophages that remained vital after 48 h post-inoculation harboured surviving bacteria. Despite a reduction in the number of macrophages over time, the mitochondrial activity of the surviving macrophages remained constant and external ROS decreased, whereas internal ROS increased. During the infection, a shift to a M2 macrophage population at 48 h post-infection was observed; the results were similar to those obtained in periapical human tissue biopsies (p < .05).

Conclusions: The study portrays a continuous non-resolved infection with E. faecalis and activation of macrophages that are polarized to the M2 pro-resolution phenotype.
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October 2021

Use of Cone-beam Computed Tomography as a Critical Component in the Diagnosis of an Infected Nasopalatine Duct Cyst Mimicking Chronic Apical Abscess: A Case Report.

J Endod 2021 Jul 24;47(7):1177-1181. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Endodontics, Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Nasopalatine duct cysts (NPDCs) and other nonodontogenic lesions of the oral cavity may mimic odontogenic pathoses. We present a case of a 22-year-old man with a history of dental trauma and a lesion displaying the typical clinical and radiographic signs of a chronic apical abscess- a buccal sinus tract that was traced to a radiolucent area in the periapex of a maxillary central incisor. A comprehensive diagnostic process that included a cone-beam computed tomographic scan and a histopathologic examination of the lesion after complete enucleation led to the final diagnosis of an infected NPDC. The adjacent tooth was vital at the 1-year posttreatment follow-up, and a radiograph demonstrated complete healing of the periradicular structures. This case demonstrates the ability of NPDCs to present clinical and radiographic signs similar to apical inflammatory lesions and the need for a meticulous diagnostic process in order to avoid unnecessary endodontic intervention. The article also discusses the differential diagnoses of nonodontogenic lesions in the premaxillary area.
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July 2021

Radicular Grooves and Complex Root Morphologies of Mandibular Premolars Among Israeli Population.

J Endod 2020 Sep 10;46(9):1241-1247. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Endodontics, Israel Defense Forces (IDF), Medical Corps, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Introduction: Mandibular premolars usually have one root and one root canal. Different studies found that up to 30% of mandibular premolars have more than one root canal, and up to 24% of mandibular premolars have C-shape canals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the root anatomy and the prevalence of complex root canal morphology in mandibular premolars in Israeli population.

Methods: A total of 1020 Israeli patients' cone-beam computed tomography scans were screened and evaluated. A total of 1835 mandibular first premolars and 1678 mandibular second premolars were examined. Irregular root anatomy and different root canal morphologies were recorded and analyzed.

Results: The overall prevalence of complex root morphology (types II-VIII) in mandibular first and second premolars was 21% and 2.8%, respectively. The bilateral prevalence of complex root morphology in mandibular first and second premolars was 46% and 29%, respectively. The prevalence of radicular grooves in mandibular first and second premolars with complex root morphology was 48% and 36%, respectively. No significant difference was found according to gender or the side of occurrence. However, complex root canal morphology was significantly found in mandibular premolars with radicular grooves.

Conclusions: Complex root canal morphology frequently occurs in mandibular first premolars in the population of Israel. Radicular groove existence in mandibular first and second premolars is significantly related to complex root canal morphology.
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September 2020

Age-dependent root canal instrumentation techniques: a comprehensive narrative review.

Restor Dent Endod 2020 May 4;45(2):e21. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Endodontics, Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Medical Corps, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

The aim of this article was to review age-dependent clinical recommendations for appropriate root canal instrumentation techniques. A comprehensive narrative review of canal morphology, the structural characteristics of dentin, and endodontic outcomes at different ages was undertaken instead of a systematic review. An electronic literature search was carried out, including the Medline (Ovid), PubMed, and Web of Science databases. The searches used controlled vocabulary and free-text terms, as follows: 'age-related root canal treatment,' 'age-related instrumentation,' 'age-related chemo-mechanical preparation,' 'age-related endodontic clinical recommendations,' 'root canal instrumentation at different ages,' 'geriatric root canal treatment,' and 'pediatric root canal treatment.' Due to the lack of literature with practical age-based clinical recommendations for an appropriate root canal instrumentation technique, a narrative review was conducted to suggest a clinical algorithm for choosing the most appropriate instrumentation technique during root canal treatment. Based on the evidence found through the narrative review, an age-related clinical algorithm for choosing appropriate instrumentation during root canal treatment was proposed. Age affects the morphology of the root canal system and the structural characteristics of dentin. The clinician's awareness of root canal morphology and dentin characteristics can influence the choice of instruments for root canal treatment.
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May 2020

Nupharidine enhances Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans clearance by priming neutrophils and augmenting their effector functions.

J Clin Periodontol 2019 01 18;46(1):62-71. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Periodontology, The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Objectives: Nupharidine (6,6'-Dihydroxythiobinupharidine), purified from the aquatic plant Nuphar lutea leaves (Water lily) prompts antimicrobial activity of immune cells. The aim of the study was to test the effect of Nupharidine on neutrophil function against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, JP2 clone (Aa-JP2).

Methods: Neutrophils derived from the human cell line HL60 and human peripheral blood derived from aggressive periodontitis and periodontally healthy subjects were incubated with Nupharidine or vehicle and inoculated with JP2. Bacterial survival was tested using viable counts on blood agar (CFU's). Neutrophils' necrosis/apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, phagocytosis and neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) production following infection were tested, as well as markers of neutrophil priming.

Results: Nupharidine had no direct bactericidal effect on JP2, but it enhanced Aa-JP2 clearance by neutrophils. Nupharidine enhanced neutrophil phagocytosis, ROS production and NET formation during JP2 infection. Furthermore, Nupharidine enhanced the expression of certain markers of neutrophils priming, specifically iCAM1, DECTIN-2 and intracellular IL-1β.

Conclusion: Nupharidine was shown to promote neutrophil effector bactericidal functions, boosting Aa-JP2 clearance. The results point to the potential of Nupharidine as an adjunctive agent in the treatment of Aa-JP2 periodontitis, but this should be tested initially using pre-clinical and clinical studies.
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January 2019

The association between caries related treatment needs and socio-demographic variables among young Israeli adults: a record based cross sectional study.

Isr J Health Policy Res 2018 05 9;7(1):24. Epub 2018 May 9.

Medical Corps, Israel Defense Forces, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Backgroud: The need for dental treatments, especially those related to dental caries, may be associated with and influenced by a wide range of demographic variables. The aim of this study was to describe caries related treatment needs among young Israeli adults and the association with several socio-demographic factors, including socio-economic cluster (SEC), intellectual capabilities, ethnicity and other variables.

Methods: Data were collected from dental records of army recruits between 2012 and 2013. We cross-examined data regarding dental treatment needs with socio-demographic variables: age, gender, SEC, intellectual capability score (ICS), birth place of participant and parents, education and immigration.

Results: Data received regarding 13,398 combat recruits during their first four months of military training. Most subjects were males (92.4%), with a mean age of 18.9 years. 10.8% were immigrants, with 12.2 years living in Israel before their recruitment. Only 17.7% had no dental treatment needs. Mean number of teeth needing treatment was: for restorations 1.96 ± 2.59, for root canal therapies 0.07 ± 0.44 and for extractions 0.05 ± 0.28. Low ICS scores and low SEC group were significantly associated with higher treatment needs (P < 0.001). Statistically significant higher treatment needs were observed among participants who originated from immigrant families. In a multivariate analysis (Generalized Linear Model), gender, age, ICS score, SEC group and country of birth were found as independent predictors for number of restorations needed.

Conclusion: Socio-demographic variables significantly influence dental treatment needs and should be taken into account when preparing intervention programs in this population.
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May 2018