Publications by authors named "Damian Stichel"

72 Publications

Integrated Molecular-Morphologic Meningioma Classification: A Multicenter Retrospective Analysis, Retrospectively and Prospectively Validated.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Oct 7:JCO2100784. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Hospital, New York, NY.

Purpose: Meningiomas are the most frequent primary intracranial tumors. Patient outcome varies widely from benign to highly aggressive, ultimately fatal courses. Reliable identification of risk of progression for individual patients is of pivotal importance. However, only biomarkers for highly aggressive tumors are established ( and ), whereas no molecularly based stratification exists for the broad spectrum of patients with low- and intermediate-risk meningioma.

Methods: DNA methylation data and copy-number information were generated for 3,031 meningiomas (2,868 patients), and mutation data for 858 samples. DNA methylation subgroups, copy-number variations (CNVs), mutations, and WHO grading were analyzed. Prediction power for outcome was assessed in a retrospective cohort of 514 patients, validated on a retrospective cohort of 184, and on a prospective cohort of 287 multicenter cases.

Results: Both CNV- and methylation family-based subgrouping independently resulted in increased prediction accuracy of risk of recurrence compared with the WHO classification (c-indexes WHO 2016, CNV, and methylation family 0.699, 0.706, and 0.721, respectively). Merging all risk stratification approaches into an integrated molecular-morphologic score resulted in further substantial increase in accuracy (c-index 0.744). This integrated score consistently provided superior accuracy in all three cohorts, significantly outperforming WHO grading (c-index difference = .005). Besides the overall stratification advantage, the integrated score separates more precisely for risk of progression at the diagnostically challenging interface of WHO grade 1 and grade 2 tumors (hazard ratio 4.34 [2.48-7.57] and 3.34 [1.28-8.72] retrospective and prospective validation cohorts, respectively).

Conclusion: Merging these layers of histologic and molecular data into an integrated, three-tiered score significantly improves the precision in meningioma stratification. Implementation into diagnostic routine informs clinical decision making for patients with meningioma on the basis of robust outcome prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00784DOI Listing
October 2021

Radiation-induced gliomas represent H3-/IDH-wild type pediatric gliomas with recurrent PDGFRA amplification and loss of CDKN2A/B.

Nat Commun 2021 09 20;12(1):5530. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Hopp Children's Cancer Center Heidelberg (KiTZ), Heidelberg University Hospital and German Cancer Resarch Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Long-term complications such as radiation-induced second malignancies occur in a subset of patients following radiation-therapy, particularly relevant in pediatric patients due to the long follow-up period in case of survival. Radiation-induced gliomas (RIGs) have been reported in patients after treatment with cranial irradiation for various primary malignancies such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and medulloblastoma (MB). We perform comprehensive (epi-) genetic and expression profiling of RIGs arising after cranial irradiation for MB (n = 23) and ALL (n = 9). Our study reveals a unifying molecular signature for the majority of RIGs, with recurrent PDGFRA amplification and loss of CDKN2A/B and an absence of somatic hotspot mutations in genes encoding histone 3 variants or IDH1/2, uncovering diagnostic markers and potentially actionable targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25708-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8452680PMC
September 2021

Local ablative treatment with surgery and/or radiotherapy in single-site and oligometastatic carcinoma of unknown primary.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Sep 11;157:179-189. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Clinical Cooperation Unit Molecular Hematology/Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Internal Medicine V, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine V, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Single-site carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is recognised as a distinct favourable subtype in the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) classification. There is broad consensus that these patients are candidates for local ablative treatment strategies with surgery and/or radiotherapy, but data on their outcomes are scarce.

Patients And Methods: In this study, we have addressed the prospects of cure and prognostic factors in a retrospective cohort of 63 patients who were eligible for local treatment at our centre.

Results: Median event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 15.6 months and 52.5 months, respectively. Of 61 patients who received local treatment, 20 (32.8%) remained event-free over a median follow-up of 28 months. Baseline clinical parameters including affected organ, number, volume and histology of metastases had no significant impact on prognosis, whereas deleterious TP53 mutations and DNA copy number loss emerged as independent adverse risk factors with respect to EFS. Surgical treatment was associated with improved OS as compared to radiation-based therapy.

Conclusion: Our study advocates to pursue localised treatment with surgery and/or radiotherapy whenever feasible and implies that genetic parameters might additionally determine the clinical course of single-site CUP patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.08.019DOI Listing
September 2021

Molecular profiling of pediatric meningiomas shows tumor characteristics distinct from adult meningiomas.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Nov 8;142(5):873-886. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Neuropathology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.

In contrast to adults, meningiomas are uncommon tumors in childhood and adolescence. Whether adult and pediatric meningiomas differ on a molecular level is unclear. Here we report detailed genomic analyses of 37 pediatric meningiomas by sequencing and DNA methylation profiling. Histologically, the series was dominated by meningioma subtypes with aggressive behavior, with 70% of patients suffering from WHO grade II or III meningiomas. The most frequent cytogenetic aberrations were loss of chromosomes 22 (23/37 [62%]), 1 (9/37 [24%]), 18 (7/37 [19%]), and 14 (5/37 [14%]). Tumors with NF2 alterations exhibited overall increased chromosomal instability. Unsupervised clustering of DNA methylation profiles revealed separation into three groups: designated group 1 composed of clear cell and papillary meningiomas, whereas group 2A comprised predominantly atypical meningiomas and group 2B enriched for rare high-grade subtypes (rhabdoid, chordoid). Meningiomas from NF2 patients clustered exclusively within groups 1 and 2A. When compared with a dataset of 105 adult meningiomas, the pediatric meningiomas largely grouped separately. Targeted panel DNA sequencing of 34 tumors revealed frequent NF2 alterations, while other typical alterations found in adult non-NF2 tumors were absent. These data demonstrate that pediatric meningiomas are characterized by molecular features distinct from adult tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02351-xDOI Listing
November 2021

PATZ1 fusions define a novel molecularly distinct neuroepithelial tumor entity with a broad histological spectrum.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Nov 21;142(5):841-857. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Large-scale molecular profiling studies in recent years have shown that central nervous system (CNS) tumors display a much greater heterogeneity in terms of molecularly distinct entities, cellular origins and genetic drivers than anticipated from histological assessment. DNA methylation profiling has emerged as a useful tool for robust tumor classification, providing new insights into these heterogeneous molecular classes. This is particularly true for rare CNS tumors with a broad morphological spectrum, which are not possible to assign as separate entities based on histological similarity alone. Here, we describe a molecularly distinct subset of predominantly pediatric CNS neoplasms (n = 60) that harbor PATZ1 fusions. The original histological diagnoses of these tumors covered a wide spectrum of tumor types and malignancy grades. While the single most common diagnosis was glioblastoma (GBM), clinical data of the PATZ1-fused tumors showed a better prognosis than typical GBM, despite frequent relapses. RNA sequencing revealed recurrent MN1:PATZ1 or EWSR1:PATZ1 fusions related to (often extensive) copy number variations on chromosome 22, where PATZ1 and the two fusion partners are located. These fusions have individually been reported in a number of glial/glioneuronal tumors, as well as extracranial sarcomas. We show here that they are more common than previously acknowledged, and together define a biologically distinct CNS tumor type with high expression of neural development markers such as PAX2, GATA2 and IGF2. Drug screening performed on the MN1:PATZ1 fusion-bearing KS-1 brain tumor cell line revealed preliminary candidates for further study. In summary, PATZ1 fusions define a molecular class of histologically polyphenotypic neuroepithelial tumors, which show an intermediate prognosis under current treatment regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02354-8DOI Listing
November 2021

Subgroup and subtype-specific outcomes in adult medulloblastoma.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Nov 18;142(5):859-871. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Chonnam National University Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital and Medical School, Hwasun-gun, Chonnam, South Korea.

Medulloblastoma, a common pediatric malignant central nervous system tumour, represent a small proportion of brain tumours in adults. Previously it has been shown that in adults, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH)-activated tumours predominate, with Wingless-type (WNT) and Group 4 being less common, but molecular risk stratification remains a challenge. We performed an integrated analysis consisting of genome-wide methylation profiling, copy number profiling, somatic nucleotide variants and correlation of clinical variables across a cohort of 191 adult medulloblastoma cases identified through the Medulloblastoma Advanced Genomics International Consortium. We identified 30 WNT, 112 SHH, 6 Group 3, and 41 Group 4 tumours. Patients with SHH tumours were significantly older at diagnosis compared to other subgroups (p < 0.0001). Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) for WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4 tumours was 64.4 (48.0-86.5), 61.9% (51.6-74.2), 80.0% (95% CI 51.6-100.0), and 44.9% (95% CI 28.6-70.7), respectively (p = 0.06). None of the clinical variables (age, sex, metastatic status, extent of resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) were associated with subgroup-specific PFS. Survival among patients with SHH tumours was significantly worse for cases with chromosome 3p loss (HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.1-7.6; p = 0.02), chromosome 10q loss (HR 4.6, 95% CI 2.3-9.4; p < 0.0001), chromosome 17p loss (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.8; p = 0.02), and PTCH1 mutations (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2; p = 0.04). The prognostic significance of 3p loss and 10q loss persisted in multivariable regression models. For Group 4 tumours, chromosome 8 loss was strongly associated with improved survival, which was validated in a non-overlapping cohort (combined cohort HR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7; p = 0.007). Unlike in pediatric medulloblastoma, whole chromosome 11 loss in Group 4 and chromosome 14q loss in SHH was not associated with improved survival, where MYCN, GLI2 and MYC amplification were rare. In sum, we report unique subgroup-specific cytogenetic features of adult medulloblastoma, which are distinct from those in younger patients, and correlate with survival disparities. Our findings suggest that clinical trials that incorporate new strategies tailored to high-risk adult medulloblastoma patients are urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02358-4DOI Listing
November 2021

Recurrent fusions in PLAGL1 define a distinct subset of pediatric-type supratentorial neuroepithelial tumors.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Nov 5;142(5):827-839. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Institute of Neuropathology, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Ependymomas encompass a heterogeneous group of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms that occur along the entire neuroaxis. In recent years, extensive (epi-)genomic profiling efforts have identified several molecular groups of ependymoma that are characterized by distinct molecular alterations and/or patterns. Based on unsupervised visualization of a large cohort of genome-wide DNA methylation data, we identified a highly distinct group of pediatric-type tumors (n = 40) forming a cluster separate from all established CNS tumor types, of which a high proportion were histopathologically diagnosed as ependymoma. RNA sequencing revealed recurrent fusions involving the pleomorphic adenoma gene-like 1 (PLAGL1) gene in 19 of 20 of the samples analyzed, with the most common fusion being EWSR1:PLAGL1 (n = 13). Five tumors showed a PLAGL1:FOXO1 fusion and one a PLAGL1:EP300 fusion. High transcript levels of PLAGL1 were noted in these tumors, with concurrent overexpression of the imprinted genes H19 and IGF2, which are regulated by PLAGL1. Histopathological review of cases with sufficient material (n = 16) demonstrated a broad morphological spectrum of tumors with predominant ependymoma-like features. Immunohistochemically, tumors were GFAP positive and OLIG2- and SOX10 negative. In 3/16 of the cases, a dot-like positivity for EMA was detected. All tumors in our series were located in the supratentorial compartment. Median age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 6.2 years. Median progression-free survival was 35 months (for 11 patients with data available). In summary, our findings suggest the existence of a novel group of supratentorial neuroepithelial tumors that are characterized by recurrent PLAGL1 fusions and enriched for pediatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02356-6DOI Listing
November 2021

Intimal sarcomas and undifferentiated cardiac sarcomas carry mutually exclusive MDM2, MDM4, and CDK6 amplifications and share a common DNA methylation signature.

Mod Pathol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of General Pathology, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Undifferentiated mesenchymal tumors arising from the inner lining (intima) of large arteries are classified as intimal sarcomas (ISA) with MDM2 amplification as their molecular hallmark. Interestingly, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPS) of the heart have recently been suggested to represent the cardiac analog of ISA due to morphological overlap and high prevalence of MDM2 amplifications in both neoplasms. However, little is known about ISAs and cardiac UPS without MDM2 amplifications and molecular data supporting their common classification is sparse. Here, we report a series of 35 cases comprising 25 ISAs of the pulmonary artery, one ISA of the renal artery and 9 UPS of the left atrium. Tumors were analyzed utilizing the Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip array, enabling copy number profile generation and unsupervised DNA methylation analysis. DNA methylation patterns were investigated using t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) analysis. Histologically, all ISAs and UPS of the left atrium resembled extra-cardiac UPS. All cases exhibited highly complex karyotypes with overlapping patterns between ISA and UPS. 29/35 cases showed mutually exclusive amplifications in the cell-cycle associated oncogenes MDM2 (25/35), MDM4 (2/35), and CDK6 (2/35). We further observed recurrent co-amplifications in PDGFRA (21/35), CDK4 (15/35), TERT (11/35), HDAC9 (9/35), and CCND1 (4/35). Sporadic co-amplifications occurred in MYC, MYCN, and MET (each 1/35). The tumor suppressor CDKN2A/B was frequently deleted (10/35). Interestingly, DNA methylation profiling (t-SNE) revealed an overlap of ISA and cardiac UPS. This "ISA" methylation signature was distinct from potential histologic and molecular mimics. In conclusion, our data reveal MDM4 and CDK6 amplifications in ISAs and UPS of the left atrium, lacking MDM2 amplification. We further report novel co-amplifications of various oncogenes, which may have therapeutic implications. Finally, the genetic and epigenetic concordance of ISAs and UPS of the left atrium further supports a shared pathogenesis and common classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00874-yDOI Listing
July 2021

DNA methylation-based profiling of bone and soft tissue tumours: a validation study of the 'DKFZ Sarcoma Classifier'.

J Pathol Clin Res 2021 Jul 5;7(4):350-360. Epub 2021 May 5.

Research Department of Pathology, University College London, UCL Cancer Institute, London, UK.

Diagnosing bone and soft tissue neoplasms remains challenging because of the large number of subtypes, many of which lack diagnostic biomarkers. DNA methylation profiles have proven to be a reliable basis for the classification of brain tumours and, following this success, a DNA methylation-based sarcoma classification tool from the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) in Heidelberg has been developed. In this study, we assessed the performance of their classifier on DNA methylation profiles of an independent data set of 986 bone and soft tissue tumours and controls. We found that the 'DKFZ Sarcoma Classifier' was able to produce a diagnostic prediction for 55% of the 986 samples, with 83% of these predictions concordant with the histological diagnosis. On limiting the validation to the 820 cases with histological diagnoses for which the DKFZ Classifier was trained, 61% of cases received a prediction, and the histological diagnosis was concordant with the predicted methylation class in 88% of these cases, findings comparable to those reported in the DKFZ Classifier paper. The classifier performed best when diagnosing mesenchymal chondrosarcomas (CHSs, 88% sensitivity), chordomas (85% sensitivity), and fibrous dysplasia (83% sensitivity). Amongst the subtypes least often classified correctly were clear cell CHSs (14% sensitivity), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (27% sensitivity), and pleomorphic liposarcomas (29% sensitivity). The classifier predictions resulted in revision of the histological diagnosis in six of our cases. We observed that, although a higher tumour purity resulted in a greater likelihood of a prediction being made, it did not correlate with classifier accuracy. Our results show that the DKFZ Classifier represents a powerful research tool for exploring the pathogenesis of sarcoma; with refinement, it has the potential to be a valuable diagnostic tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjp2.215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185366PMC
July 2021

DNA Methylation Profiling Discriminates between Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma and Neoplastic or Reactive Histologic Mimics.

J Mol Diagn 2021 07 20;23(7):834-846. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Clinical Cooperation Unit Neuropathology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

The diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is challenging because of its potential overlap with other neoplasms or even with reactive conditions. DNA methylation analysis is effective in diagnosing tumors. In the present study, this approach was tested for use in MPM diagnosis. The DNA methylation patterns of a discovery cohort and an independent-validation cohort of MPMs were compared to those of 202 cases representing malignant and benign diagnostic mimics (angiosarcoma, desmoid-type fibromatosis, epithelioid sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, lung adenocarcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, nodular fasciitis, reactive mesothelial hyperplasia, sclerosing fibrous pleuritis, solitary fibrous tumor, and synovial sarcoma). By both unsupervised hierarchical clustering and t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding analysis, MPM samples in the discovery cohort exhibited a DNA methylation profile different from those of other neoplastic and reactive mimics. These results were confirmed in the independent validation cohort and by in silico analysis of the MPM-The Cancer Genome Atlas data set. Copy number variation profiles were also inferred to identify molecular hallmarks of MPM, including CDKN2A and NF2 deletions. Methylation profiling was effective in the diagnosis of MPM, although caution is advised in samples with low tumor cell content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2021.04.002DOI Listing
July 2021

Cross-Species Genomics Reveals Oncogenic Dependencies in ZFTA/C11orf95 Fusion-Positive Supratentorial Ependymomas.

Cancer Discov 2021 Sep 20;11(9):2230-2247. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neuropathology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Molecular groups of supratentorial ependymomas comprise tumors with or -involving fusions and fusion-negative subependymoma. However, occasionally supratentorial ependymomas cannot be readily assigned to any of these groups due to lack of detection of a typical fusion and/or ambiguous DNA methylation-based classification. An unbiased approach with a cohort of unprecedented size revealed distinct methylation clusters composed of tumors with ependymal but also various other histologic features containing alternative translocations that shared as a partner gene. Somatic overexpression of -associated fusion genes in the developing cerebral cortex is capable of inducing tumor formation , and cross-species comparative analyses identified as a key downstream regulator of tumorigenesis in all tumors. Targeting GLI2 with arsenic trioxide caused extended survival of tumor-bearing animals, indicating a potential therapeutic vulnerability in ZFTA fusion-positive tumors. SIGNIFICANCE: fusions are a hallmark feature of supratentorial ependymoma. We find that ZFTA acts as a partner for alternative transcriptional activators in oncogenic fusions of supratentorial tumors with various histologic characteristics. Establishing representative mouse models, we identify potential therapeutic targets shared by fusion-positive tumors, such as GLI2..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0963DOI Listing
September 2021

Glioblastomas with primitive neuronal component harbor a distinct methylation and copy-number profile with inactivation of TP53, PTEN, and RB1.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 07 19;142(1):179-189. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, Basel University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.

Glioblastoma IDH-wildtype presents with a wide histological spectrum. Some features are so distinctive that they are considered as separate histological variants or patterns for the purpose of classification. However, these usually lack defined (epi-)genetic alterations or profiles correlating with this histology. Here, we describe a molecular subtype with overlap to the unique histological pattern of glioblastoma with primitive neuronal component. Our cohort consists of 63 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas that harbor a characteristic DNA methylation profile. Median age at diagnosis was 59.5 years. Copy-number variations and genetic sequencing revealed frequent alterations in TP53, RB1 and PTEN, with fewer gains of chromosome 7 and homozygous CDKN2A/B deletions than usually described for IDH-wildtype glioblastoma. Gains of chromosome 1 were detected in more than half of the cases. A poorly differentiated phenotype with frequent absence of GFAP expression, high proliferation index and strong staining for p53 and TTF1 often caused misleading histological classification as carcinoma metastasis or primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Clinically, many patients presented with leptomeningeal dissemination and spinal metastasis. Outcome was poor with a median overall survival of only 12 months. Overall, we describe a new molecular subtype of IDH-wildtype glioblastoma with a distinct histological appearance and genetic signature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02302-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217054PMC
July 2021

Clinicopathologic and molecular analysis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the genitourinary tract: evidence for a distinct DICER1-associated subgroup.

Mod Pathol 2021 08 12;34(8):1558-1569. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Pathology, Department of General Pathology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) of the uterus has recently been shown to frequently harbor DICER1 mutations. Interestingly, only rare cases of extrauterine DICER1-associated ERMS, mostly located in the genitourinary tract, have been reported to date. Our goal was to study clinicopathologic and molecular profiles of DICER1-mutant (DICER1-mut) and DICER1-wild type (DICER1-wt) ERMS in a cohort of genitourinary tumors. We collected a cohort of 17 ERMS including nine uterine (four uterine corpus and five cervix), one vaginal, and seven urinary tract tumors. DNA sequencing revealed mutations of DICER1 in 9/9 uterine ERMS. All other ERMS of our cohort were DICER1-wt. The median age at diagnosis of patients with DICER1-mut and DICER1-wt ERMS was 36 years and 5 years, respectively. Limited follow-up data (available for 15/17 patients) suggested that DICER1-mut ERMS might show a less aggressive clinical course than DICER1-wt ERMS. Histological features only observed in DICER1-mut ERMS were cartilaginous nodules (6/9 DICER1-mut ERMS), in one case accompanied by foci of ossification. Recurrent mutations identified in both DICER1-mut and DICER1-wt ERMS affected KRAS, NRAS, and TP53. Copy number analysis revealed similar structural variations with frequent gains on chromosomes 2, 3, and 8, independent of DICER1 mutation status. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of array-based whole-genome DNA methylation data of our study cohort together with an extended methylation data set including different RMS subtypes from genitourinary and extra-genitourinary locations (n = 102), revealed a distinct cluster for DICER1-mut ERMS. Such tumors clearly segregated from the clusters of DICER1-wt ERMS, alveolar RMS, and MYOD1-mutant spindle cell and sclerosing RMS. Only one tumor, previously diagnosed as ERMS arising in the maxilla of a 6-year-old boy clustered with DICER1-mut ERMS of the uterus. Subsequent sequencing analysis identified two DICER1 mutations in the latter case. Our results suggest that DICER1-mut ERMS might qualify as a distinct subtype in future classifications of RMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00804-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295035PMC
August 2021

Integrated molecular analysis of adult sonic hedgehog (SHH)-activated medulloblastomas reveals two clinically relevant tumor subsets with VEGFA as potent prognostic indicator.

Neuro Oncol 2021 09;23(9):1576-1585

Hopp Children's Cancer Center Heidelberg (KiTZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Up to now, adult medulloblastoma (MB) patients are treated according to the protocols elaborated for pediatric MB although these tumors are different in terms of clinical outcomes and biology. Approximately 70% of adult MB disclose a sonic hedgehog (SHH) molecular signature in contrast to about 30% in pediatric cohorts. In addition, adult SHH-MB (aSHH-MB) are clinically heterogeneous but there is consensus neither on their optimal treatment nor on risk stratification. Thus, the identification of clinically relevant molecular subsets of aSHH-MB and identification of potential treatment targets remains inconclusive.

Methods: We analyzed 96 samples of institutionally diagnosed aSHH-MB through genome-wide DNA methylation profiling, targeted DNA sequencing, and RNA sequencing to identify molecular subcategories of these tumors and assess their prognostic significance.

Results: We defined two aSHH-MB numerically comparable epigenetic subsets with clinical and molecular variability. The subset "aSHH-MBI" (46%/48%) was associated with PTCH1/SMO (54%/46%) mutations, "neuronal" transcriptional signatures, and favorable outcomes after combined radio-chemotherapy (5-year PFS = 80% and OS = 92%). The clinically unfavorable "aSHH-MBII" subset (50%/52%; 5-year PFS = 24% and OS = 45%) disclosed GLI2 amplifications (8%), loss of 10q (22%), and gene expression signatures associated with angiogenesis and embryonal development. aSHH-MBII tumors revealed strong and ubiquitous expression of VEGFA both at transcript and protein levels that was correlated with unfavorable outcome.

Conclusions: (1) The histologically uniform aSHH-MB cohort exhibits clear molecular heterogeneity separating these tumors into two molecular subsets (aSHH-MBI and aSHH-MBII), which are associated with different cytogenetics, mutational landscapes, gene expression signatures, and clinical course. (2) VEGFA appears to be a promising biomarker to predict clinical course, which needs further prospective validation as its potential role in the pathogenesis of this subset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noab031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8408884PMC
September 2021

Molecular analysis of pediatric CNS-PNET revealed nosologic heterogeneity and potent diagnostic markers for CNS neuroblastoma with FOXR2-activation.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2021 02 3;9(1):20. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Clinical Cooperation Unit Neuropathology (G380), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS-PNETs) are highly malignant neoplasms posing diagnostic challenge due to a lack of defining molecular markers. CNS neuroblastoma with forkhead box R2 (FOXR2) activation (CNS_NBL) emerged as a distinct pediatric brain tumor entity from a pool previously diagnosed as primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS-PNETs). Current standard of identifying CNS_NBL relies on molecular analysis. We set out to establish immunohistochemical markers allowing safely distinguishing CNS_NBL from morphological mimics. To this aim we analyzed a series of 84 brain tumors institutionally diagnosed as CNS-PNET. As expected, epigenetic analysis revealed different methylation groups corresponding to the (1) CNS-NBL (24%), (2) glioblastoma IDH wild-type subclass H3.3 G34 (26%), (3) glioblastoma IDH wild-type subclass MYCN (21%) and (4) ependymoma with RELA_C11orf95 fusion (29%) entities. Transcriptome analysis of this series revealed a set of differentially expressed genes distinguishing CNS_NBL from its mimics. Based on RNA-sequencing data we established SOX10 and ANKRD55 expression as genes discriminating CNS_NBL from other tumors exhibiting CNS-PNET. Immunohistochemical detection of combined expression of SOX10 and ANKRD55 clearly identifies CNS_NBL discriminating them to other hemispheric CNS neoplasms harboring "PNET-like" microscopic appearance. Owing the rarity of CNS_NBL, a confirmation of the elaborated diagnostic IHC algorithm will be necessary in prospective patient series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-021-01118-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860633PMC
February 2021

Sarcoma classification by DNA methylation profiling.

Nat Commun 2021 01 21;12(1):498. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of General Pathology, Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Sarcomas are malignant soft tissue and bone tumours affecting adults, adolescents and children. They represent a morphologically heterogeneous class of tumours and some entities lack defining histopathological features. Therefore, the diagnosis of sarcomas is burdened with a high inter-observer variability and misclassification rate. Here, we demonstrate classification of soft tissue and bone tumours using a machine learning classifier algorithm based on array-generated DNA methylation data. This sarcoma classifier is trained using a dataset of 1077 methylation profiles from comprehensively pre-characterized cases comprising 62 tumour methylation classes constituting a broad range of soft tissue and bone sarcoma subtypes across the entire age spectrum. The performance is validated in a cohort of 428 sarcomatous tumours, of which 322 cases were classified by the sarcoma classifier. Our results demonstrate the potential of the DNA methylation-based sarcoma classification for research and future diagnostic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20603-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819999PMC
January 2021

Integrative analysis reveals early and distinct genetic and epigenetic changes in intraductal papillary and tubulopapillary cholangiocarcinogenesis.

Gut 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

Objective: A detailed understanding of the molecular alterations in different forms of cholangiocarcinogenesis is crucial for a better understanding of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and may pave the way to early diagnosis and better treatment options.

Design: We analysed a clinicopathologically well-characterised patient cohort (n=54) with high-grade intraductal papillary (IPNB) or tubulopapillary (ITPN) neoplastic precursor lesions of the biliary tract and correlated the results with an independent non-IPNB/ITPN associated CCA cohort (n=294). The triplet sample set of non-neoplastic biliary epithelium, precursor and invasive CCA was analysed by next generation sequencing, DNA copy number and genome-wide methylation profiling.

Results: Patients with invasive CCA arising from IPNB/ITPN had better prognosis than patients with CCA not associated with IPNB/ITPN. ITPN was localised mostly intrahepatic, whereas IPNB was mostly of extrahepatic origin. IPNB/ITPN were equally associated with small-duct and large-duct type intrahepatic CCA. IPNB exhibited mutational profiles of extrahepatic CCA, while ITPN had significantly fewer mutations. Most mutations were shared between precursor lesions and corresponding invasive CCA but mutations occurred exclusively in invasive CCA and mutations were mainly present in precursor lesions. In addition, IPNB and ITPN differed in their DNA methylation profiles and analyses of latent methylation components suggested that IPNB and ITPN may have different cells-of-origin.

Conclusion: Integrative analysis revealed that IPNB and ITPN harbour distinct early genetic alterations, IPNB are enriched in mutations typical for extrahepatic CCA, whereas ITPN exhibited few genetic alterations and showed distinct epigenetic profiles. In conclusion, IPNB/ITPN may represent a distinctive, intermediate form of intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-322983DOI Listing
January 2021

Accurate calling of KIAA1549-BRAF fusions from DNA of human brain tumours using methylation array-based copy number and gene panel sequencing data.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2021 04 17;47(3):406-414. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Aims: KIAA1549-BRAF fusions occur in certain brain tumours and provide druggable targets due to a constitutive activation of the MAP-kinase pathway. We introduce workflows for calling the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion from DNA methylation array-derived copy number as well as DNA panel sequencing data.

Methods: Copy number profiles were analysed by automated screening and visual verification of a tandem duplication on chromosome 7q34, indicative of the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion. Pilocytic astrocytomas of the ICGC cohort with known fusion status were used for validation. KIAA1549-BRAF fusions were called from DNA panel sequencing data using the fusion callers Manta, Arriba with modified filtering criteria and deFuse. We screened DNA methylation and panel sequencing data of 7790 specimens from brain tumour and sarcoma entities.

Results: We identified the fusion in 337 brain tumours with both DNA methylation and panel sequencing data. Among these, we detected the fusion from copy number data in 84% and from DNA panel sequencing data in more than 90% using Arriba with modified filters. While in 74% the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion was detected from both methylation array-derived copy number and panel sequencing data, in 9% it was detected from copy number data only and in 16% from panel data only. The fusion was almost exclusively found in pilocytic astrocytomas, diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumours and high-grade astrocytomas with piloid features.

Conclusions: The KIAA1549-BRAF fusion can be reliably detected from either DNA methylation array or DNA panel data. The use of both methods is recommended for the most sensitive detection of this diagnostically and therapeutically important marker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nan.12683DOI Listing
April 2021

Clear cell meningiomas are defined by a highly distinct DNA methylation profile and mutations in SMARCE1.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 02 14;141(2):281-290. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

Clear cell meningioma represents an uncommon variant of meningioma that typically affects children and young adults. Although an enrichment of loss-of-function mutations in the SMARCE1 gene has been reported for this subtype, comprehensive molecular investigations are lacking. Here we describe a molecularly distinct subset of tumors (n = 31), initially identified through genome-wide DNA methylation screening among a cohort of 3093 meningiomas, of which most were diagnosed histologically as clear cell meningioma. This cohort was further supplemented by an additional 11 histologically diagnosed clear cell meningiomas for analysis (n = 42). Targeted DNA sequencing revealed SMARCE1 mutations in 33/34 analyzed samples, accompanied by a nuclear loss of expression determined via immunohistochemistry and a decreased SMARCE1 transcript expression in the tumor cells. Analysis of time to progression or recurrence of patients within the clear cell meningioma group (n = 14) in comparison to those with meningioma WHO grade 2 (n = 220) revealed a similar outcome and support the assignment of WHO grade 2 to these tumors. Our findings indicate the existence of a highly distinct epigenetic signature of clear cell meningiomas, separate from all other variants of meningiomas, with recurrent mutations in the SMARCE1 gene. This suggests that these tumors may arise from a different precursor cell population than the broad spectrum of the other meningioma subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-020-02247-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847462PMC
February 2021

Primary mismatch repair deficient IDH-mutant astrocytoma (PMMRDIA) is a distinct type with a poor prognosis.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 01 20;141(1):85-100. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Diffuse IDH-mutant astrocytoma mostly occurs in adults and carries a favorable prognosis compared to IDH-wildtype malignant gliomas. Acquired mismatch repair deficiency is known to occur in recurrent IDH-mutant gliomas as resistance mechanism towards alkylating chemotherapy. In this multi-institutional study, we report a novel epigenetic group of 32 IDH-mutant gliomas with proven or suspected hereditary mismatch repair deficiency. None of the tumors exhibited a combined 1p/19q deletion. These primary mismatch repair-deficient IDH-mutant astrocytomas (PMMRDIA) were histologically high-grade and were mainly found in children, adolescents and young adults (median age 14 years). Mismatch repair deficiency syndromes (Lynch or Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrom (CMMRD)) were clinically diagnosed and/or germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH6, MSH2) were found in all cases, except one case with a family and personal history of colon cancer and another case with MSH6-deficiency available only as recurrent tumor. Loss of at least one of the mismatch repair proteins was detected via immunohistochemistry in all, but one case analyzed. Tumors displayed a hypermutant genotype and microsatellite instability was present in more than half of the sequenced cases. Integrated somatic mutational and chromosomal copy number analyses showed frequent inactivation of TP53, RB1 and activation of RTK/PI3K/AKT pathways. In contrast to the majority of IDH-mutant gliomas, more than 60% of the samples in our cohort presented with an unmethylated MGMT promoter. While the rate of immuno-histochemical ATRX loss was reduced, variants of unknown significance were more frequently detected possibly indicating a higher frequency of ATRX inactivation by protein malfunction. Compared to reference cohorts of other IDH-mutant gliomas, primary mismatch repair-deficient IDH-mutant astrocytomas have by far the worst clinical outcome with a median survival of only 15 months irrespective of histological or molecular features. The findings reveal a so far unknown entity of IDH-mutant astrocytoma with high prognostic relevance. Diagnosis can be established by aligning with the characteristic DNA methylation profile, by DNA-sequencing-based proof of mismatch repair deficiency or immunohistochemically demonstrating loss-of-mismatch repair proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-020-02243-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785563PMC
January 2021

A subset of pediatric-type thalamic gliomas share a distinct DNA methylation profile, H3K27me3 loss and frequent alteration of EGFR.

Neuro Oncol 2021 01;23(1):34-43

Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Malignant astrocytic gliomas in children show a remarkable biological and clinical diversity. Small in-frame insertions or missense mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) have recently been identified in a distinct subset of pediatric-type bithalamic gliomas with a unique DNA methylation pattern.

Methods: Here, we investigated an epigenetically homogeneous cohort of malignant gliomas (n = 58) distinct from other subtypes and enriched for pediatric cases and thalamic location, in comparison with this recently identified subtype of pediatric bithalamic gliomas.

Results: EGFR gene amplification was detected in 16/58 (27%) tumors, and missense mutations or small in-frame insertions in EGFR were found in 20/30 tumors with available sequencing data (67%; 5 of them co-occurring with EGFR amplification). Additionally, 8 of the 30 tumors (27%) harbored an H3.1 or H3.3 K27M mutation (6 of them with a concomitant EGFR alteration). All tumors tested showed loss of H3K27me3 staining, with evidence of overexpression of the EZH inhibitory protein (EZHIP) in the H3 wildtype cases. Although some tumors indeed showed a bithalamic growth pattern, a significant proportion of tumors occurred in the unilateral thalamus or in other (predominantly midline) locations.

Conclusions: Our findings present a distinct molecular class of pediatric-type malignant gliomas largely overlapping with the recently reported bithalamic gliomas characterized by EGFR alteration, but additionally showing a broader spectrum of EGFR alterations and tumor localization. Global H3K27me3 loss in this group appears to be mediated by either H3 K27 mutation or EZHIP overexpression. EGFR inhibition may represent a potential therapeutic strategy in these highly aggressive gliomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850075PMC
January 2021

Mosaic trisomy of chromosome 1q in human brain tissue associates with unilateral polymicrogyria, very early-onset focal epilepsy, and severe developmental delay.

Acta Neuropathol 2020 12 26;140(6):881-891. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Department of Neuropathology, Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, and, CCU Neuropathology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Polymicrogyria (PMG) is a developmental cortical malformation characterized by an excess of small and frustrane gyration and abnormal cortical lamination. PMG frequently associates with seizures. The molecular pathomechanisms underlying PMG development are not yet understood. About 40 genes have been associated with PMG, and small copy number variations have also been described in selected patients. We recently provided evidence that epilepsy-associated structural brain lesions can be classified based on genomic DNA methylation patterns. Here, we analyzed 26 PMG patients employing array-based DNA methylation profiling on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material. A series of 62 well-characterized non-PMG cortical malformations (focal cortical dysplasia type 2a/b and hemimegalencephaly), temporal lobe epilepsy, and non-epilepsy autopsy controls was used as reference cohort. Unsupervised dimensionality reduction and hierarchical cluster analysis of DNA methylation profiles showed that PMG formed a distinct DNA methylation class. Copy number profiling from DNA methylation data identified a uniform duplication spanning the entire long arm of chromosome 1 in 7 out of 26 PMG patients, which was verified by additional fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. In respective cases, about 50% of nuclei in the center of the PMG lesion were 1q triploid. No chromosomal imbalance was seen in adjacent, architecturally normal-appearing tissue indicating mosaicism. Clinically, PMG 1q patients presented with a unilateral frontal or hemispheric PMG without hemimegalencephaly, a severe form of intractable epilepsy with seizure onset in the first months of life, and severe developmental delay. Our results show that PMG can be classified among other structural brain lesions according to their DNA methylation profile. One subset of PMG with distinct clinical features exhibits a duplication of chromosomal arm 1q.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-020-02228-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666281PMC
December 2020

The shared frameshift mutation landscape of microsatellite-unstable cancers suggests immunoediting during tumor evolution.

Nat Commun 2020 09 21;11(1):4740. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Applied Tumor Biology, Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

The immune system can recognize and attack cancer cells, especially those with a high load of mutation-induced neoantigens. Such neoantigens are abundant in DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient, microsatellite-unstable (MSI) cancers. MMR deficiency leads to insertion/deletion (indel) mutations at coding microsatellites (cMS) and to neoantigen-inducing translational frameshifts. Here, we develop a tool to quantify frameshift mutations in MSI colorectal and endometrial cancer. Our results show that frameshift mutation frequency is negatively correlated to the predicted immunogenicity of the resulting peptides, suggesting counterselection of cell clones with highly immunogenic frameshift peptides. This correlation is absent in tumors with Beta-2-microglobulin mutations, and HLA-A*02:01 status is related to cMS mutation patterns. Importantly, certain outlier mutations are common in MSI cancers despite being related to frameshift peptides with functionally confirmed immunogenicity, suggesting a possible driver role during MSI tumor evolution. Neoantigens resulting from shared mutations represent promising vaccine candidates for prevention of MSI cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18514-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7506541PMC
September 2020

Molecular characterization of CNS paragangliomas identifies cauda equina paragangliomas as a distinct tumor entity.

Acta Neuropathol 2020 12 14;140(6):893-906. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors that arise from the adrenal gland or ganglia at various sites throughout the body. They display a remarkable diversity of driver alterations and are associated with germline mutations in up to 40% of the cases. Comprehensive molecular profiling of abdomino-thoracic paragangliomas revealed four molecularly defined and clinically relevant subtypes. Paragangliomas of the cauda equina region are considered to belong to one of the defined molecular subtypes, but a systematic molecular analysis has not yet been performed. In this study, we analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of 57 cauda equina paragangliomas and show that these tumors are epigenetically distinct from non-spinal paragangliomas and other tumors. In contrast to paragangliomas of other sites, chromosomal imbalances are widely lacking in cauda equina paragangliomas. Furthermore, RNA and DNA exome sequencing revealed that frequent genetic alterations found in non-spinal paragangliomas-including the prognostically relevant SDH mutations-are absent in cauda equina paragangliomas. Histologically, cauda equina paragangliomas show frequently gangliocytic differentiation and strong immunoreactivity to pan-cytokeratin and cytokeratin 18, which is not common in paragangliomas of other sites. None of our cases had a familial paraganglioma syndrome. Tumors rarely recurred (9%) or presented with multiple lesions within the spinal compartment (7%), but did not metastasize outside the CNS. In summary, we show that cauda equina paragangliomas represent a distinct, sporadic tumor entity defined by a unique clinical and morpho-molecular profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-020-02218-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666289PMC
December 2020

Infratentorial IDH-mutant astrocytoma is a distinct subtype.

Acta Neuropathol 2020 10 10;140(4):569-581. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Clinical Cooperation Unit Neuropathology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), German Consortium for Translational Cancer Research (DKTK), Heidelberg, Germany.

Diffuse IDH-mutant astrocytic tumors are rarely diagnosed in the cerebellum or brainstem. In this multi-institutional study, we characterized a series of primary infratentorial IDH-mutant astrocytic tumors with respect to clinical and molecular parameters. We report that about 80% of IDH mutations in these tumors are of non-IDH1-R132H variants which are rare in supratentorial astrocytomas. Most frequently, IDH1-R132C/G and IDH2-R172S/G mutations were present. Moreover, the frequencies of ATRX-loss and MGMT promoter methylation, which are typically associated with IDH mutations in supratentorial astrocytic tumors, were significantly lower in the infratentorial compartment. Gene panel sequencing revealed two samples with IDH1-R132C/H3F3A-K27M co-mutations. Genome-wide DNA methylation as well as chromosomal copy number profiling provided further evidence for a molecular distinctiveness of infratentorial IDH-mutant astrocytomas. Clinical outcome of patients with infratentorial IDH-mutant astrocytomas is significantly better than that of patients with diffuse midline gliomas, H3K27M-mutant (p < 0.005) and significantly worse than that of patients with supratentorial IDH-mutant astrocytomas (p = 0.028). The presented data highlight the very existence and distinctiveness of infratentorial IDH-mutant astrocytomas that have important implications for diagnostics and prognostication. They imply that molecular testing is critical for detection of these tumors, since many of these tumors cannot be identified by immunohistochemistry applied for the mutated IDH1-R132H protein or loss of ATRX.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-020-02194-yDOI Listing
October 2020

T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign for noninvasive detection of IDH-mutant 1p/19q non-codeleted gliomas: validity and pathophysiology.

Neurooncol Adv 2020 Jan-Dec;2(1):vdaa004. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: This study aimed to assess the validity and pathophysiology of the T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign for noninvasive identification of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant 1p/19q non-codeleted glioma.

Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging scans from 408 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed glioma (113 lower-grade gliomas and 295 glioblastomas) were evaluated for the presence of T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign by 2 independent reviewers. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated to assess the performance of the T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign for identifying IDH-mutant 1p/19q non-codeleted tumors. An exploratory analysis of differences in contrast-enhancing tumor volumes, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values in IDH-mutant gliomas with versus without the presence of a T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign (as well as analysis of spatial differences within tumors with the presence of a T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign) was performed.

Results: The T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign was present in 12 cases with lower-grade glioma (10.6%), all of them being IDH-mutant 1p/19q non-codeleted tumors (sensitivity = 10.9%, specificity = 100%, PPV = 100%, NPV = 3.0%, accuracy = 13.3%). There was a substantial interrater agreement to identify the T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign (Cohen's kappa = 0.75 [95% CI, 0.57-0.93]). The T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign was not identified in any other molecular subgroup, including IDH-mutant glioblastoma cases ( = 5). IDH-mutant gliomas with a T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign showed significantly higher ADC ( < .0001) and lower rCBV values ( = .0123) as compared to IDH-mutant gliomas without a T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign. Moreover, in IDH-mutant gliomas with T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign the ADC values were significantly lower in the FLAIR-hyperintense rim as compared to the FLAIR-hypointense core of the tumor ( = .0005).

Conclusions: This study confirms the high specificity of the T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign for noninvasive identification of IDH-mutant 1p/19q non-codeleted gliomas; however, sensitivity is low and applicability is limited to lower-grade gliomas. Whether the higher ADC and lower rCBV values in IDH-mutant gliomas with a T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign (as compared to those without) translate into a measurable prognostic effect requires investigation in future studies. Moreover, spatial differences in ADC values between the core and rim of tumors with a T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign potentially reflect specific distinctions in tumor cellularity and microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdaa004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212872PMC
January 2020

Endometrial stromal sarcomas with BCOR-rearrangement harbor MDM2 amplifications.

J Pathol Clin Res 2020 07 30;6(3):178-184. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Pathology, Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Recently a novel subtype of endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) defined by recurrent genomic alterations involving BCOR has been described (HGESS-BCOR). We identified a case of HGESS-BCOR with a ZC3H7B-BCOR gene fusion, which harbored an amplification of the MDM2 locus. This index case prompted us to investigate MDM2 amplification in four additional cases of HGESS-BCOR. Tumors were analyzed for MDM2 amplification by array-based profiling of copy number alterations (CNAs) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), as well as for MDM2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Additionally, a cohort of other mesenchymal uterine neoplasms, including 17 low-grade ESS, 6 classical high-grade ESS with YWHAE-rearrangement, 16 uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors, 7 uterine leiomyomas and 8 uterine leiomyosarcomas, was analyzed for CNAs in MDM2. Copy number profiling identified amplification of the 12q15 region involving the MDM2 locus in all five HGESS-BCOR. Subsequent validation analyses of three tumors confirmed MDM2 amplification using MDM2 FISH. Accordingly, IHC showed MDM2 overexpression in all analyzed cases. None of the other uterine neoplasms in our series, including tumors that are in the histopathological differential diagnoses of HGESS-BCOR, showed copy number gains of MDM2. Together, our results indicate that HGESS-BCOR carries MDM2 amplifications, which has diagnostic implications and could potentially be used for targeted therapies in these clinically aggressive tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjp2.165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339170PMC
July 2020
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