Publications by authors named "Damian Poulter"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficacy and acceptability of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for non-specific chronic low back pain: a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Syst Rev 2020 06 5;9(1):130. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Meta-Research Innovation Center at Stanford (METRICS) and Departments of Medicine, Health Research and Policy, Biomedical Science and Statistics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: Despite the enormous financial and humanistic burden of chronic low back pain (CLBP), there is little consensus on what constitutes the best treatment options from a multitude of competing interventions. The objective of this network meta-analysis (NMA) is to determine the relative efficacy and acceptability of primary care treatments for non-specific CLBP, with the overarching aim of providing a comprehensive evidence base for informing treatment decisions.

Methods: We will perform a systematic search to identify randomised controlled trials of interventions endorsed in primary care guidelines for the treatment of non-specific CLBP in adults. Information sources searched will include major bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, PsycINFO and LILACS) and clinical trial registries. Our primary outcomes will be patient-reported pain ratings and treatment acceptability (all-cause discontinuation), and secondary outcomes will be functional ability, quality of life and patient/physician ratings of overall improvement. A hierarchical Bayesian class-based NMA will be performed to determine the relative effects of different classes of pharmacological (NSAIDs, opioids, paracetamol, anti-depressants, muscle relaxants) and non-pharmacological (exercise, patient education, manual therapies, psychological therapy, multidisciplinary approaches, massage, acupuncture, mindfulness) interventions and individual treatments within a class (e.g. NSAIDs: diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen). We will conduct risk of bias assessments and threshold analysis to assess the robustness of the findings to potential bias. We will compute the effect of different interventions relative to placebo/no treatment for both short- and long-term efficacy and acceptability.

Discussion: While many factors are important in selecting an appropriate intervention for an individual patient, evidence for the analgesic effects and acceptability of a treatment are key factors in guiding this selection. Thus, this NMA will provide an important source of evidence to inform treatment decisions and future clinical guidelines.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registry number: CRD42019138115.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01398-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275431PMC
June 2020

Impulsive and Self-Regulatory Processes in Risky Driving Among Young People: A Dual Process Model.

Front Psychol 2019 12;10:1170. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Psychology, Sociology and Politics, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

The present study empirically examined a novel dual process model of self-reported aberrant driving behavior in young and novice drivers that incorporates both impulsive and self-regulatory processes. Four hundred and nine participants aged 18-25 years ( age = 21.18 years, = 2.12; 65.5% females) completed online questionnaires on impulsivity, normlessness, sensation seeking, emotion and self-regulation, and attitudes toward driving safety. Path analysis showed that motor impulsivity was associated with self-reported driving violations, errors, and lapses, whereas sensation seeking was uniquely directly associated with self-reported errors. Non-planning impulsivity, normlessness and sensation seeking had significant indirect effects on self-reported errors, via self-regulation. Finally, motor impulsivity and normlessness had a significant indirect effect on self-reported violations, errors and lapses, via attitudes to driving safety. Based on our findings we suggest that a dual-process approach is relevant to the study of aberrant driving behavior in young and novice drivers, and the results of the present study have important implications for initiatives to promote driving safety in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6581758PMC
June 2019

Driving impairment and crash risk in Parkinson disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Neurology 2018 09 3;91(10):e906-e916. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

From the Faculty of Education and Health (T.T., D.P., C.M.), University of Greenwich, London, UK; Department of Neuroscience (M.S.), University of Padova; National Research Council (N.V.), Neurosciences Department, Aging Branch, Padova, Italy; Department of Psychiatry (A.F.C.), University of Toronto; Centre for Addiction & Mental Health (A.F.C.), Toronto, Canada; Physiotherapy Department (B.S.), South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London; Department of Psychological Medicine (B.S.), King's College, De Crespigny Park, London, UK; Department of Neurology (E.Y.U.), Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City; and Neurology Service (E.Y.U.), Iowa City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, IA.

Objectives: To provide the best possible evidence base for guiding driving decisions in Parkinson disease (PD), we performed a meta-analysis comparing patients with PD to healthy controls (HCs) on naturalistic, on-the-road, and simulator driving outcomes.

Methods: Seven major databases were systematically searched (to January 2018) for studies comparing patients with PD to HCs on overall driving performance, with data analyzed using random-effects meta-analysis.

Results: Fifty studies comprising 5,410 participants (PD = 1,955, HC = 3,455) met eligibility criteria. Analysis found the odds of on-the-road test failure were 6.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.79-10.03) times higher and the odds of simulator crashes 2.63 (95% CI 1.64-4.22) times higher for people with PD, with poorer overall driving ratings also observed (standardized mean differences from 0.50 to 0.67). However, self-reported real-life crash involvement did not differ between people with PD and HCs (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% CI 0.57-1.23, = 0.38). Findings remained unchanged after accounting for any differences in age, sex, and driving exposure, and no moderating influence of disease severity was found.

Conclusions: Our findings provide persuasive evidence for substantive driving impairment in PD, but offer little support for mandated PD-specific relicensure based on self-reported crash data alone, and highlight the need for objective measures of crash involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000006132DOI Listing
September 2018

Why do drivers become safer over the first three months of driving? A longitudinal qualitative study.

Accid Anal Prev 2018 Aug 30;117:225-231. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, UK. Electronic address:

Drivers are at high crash risk when they begin independent driving, with liability decreasing steeply over the first three months. Their behavioural development, and other changes underlying improved safety are not well understood. We adopted an innovative longitudinal qualitative design, with thirteen newly qualified drivers completing a total of 36 semi-structured interviews, one, two and three months after acquiring a full UK driving license. The interviews probed high-risk factors for new drivers, as well as allowing space for generating novel road safety issues. Analysis adopted a dual deductive and inductive interpretative thematic approach, identifying three super-ordinate themes: (1) Improvements in car control skills and situation awareness; (2) A reduction in the thrill of taking risks when driving against a background of generally increasing driving speed; (3) Early concerns about their social status in the eyes of other road users during the early stages of driving, which may put pressure on them to drive faster than they felt comfortable with. The study provides important new leads towards understanding how novice driving becomes safer over the first few months of driving, including how well-studied concepts of driving skill and style may change during development of independent driving, and bringing the less rigorously studied concept of social status into focus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6004036PMC
August 2018

Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

Accid Anal Prev 2015 Sep 4;82:61-9. Epub 2015 Jun 4.

University of Sheffield, UK.

Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimensions of aberrant driving behavior under scrutiny: aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and slips. Unconditional and conditional latent growth class analyses showed that the observed heterogeneity in individual trajectories was explained by the presence of multiple homogeneous groups of drivers, each exhibiting specific trajectories of aberrant driver behavior. Initial levels of aberrant driver behavior were important in identifying sub-groups of drivers. All classes showed positive slopes; there was no evidence of a group of drivers whose aberrant behavior decreased over time that might explain the decrease in crash involvement observed over this period. Male gender and younger age predicted membership of trajectories with higher levels of aberrant behavior. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for improving road safety. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the behavioral underpinnings of the decrease in crash involvement observed in the early months of driving.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2015.05.012DOI Listing
September 2015

Measuring errors and violations on the road: a bifactor modeling approach to the Driver Behavior Questionnaire.

Accid Anal Prev 2015 Jan 29;74:118-25. Epub 2014 Oct 29.

University of Greenwich, Greenwich, UK.

The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) is a self-report measure of driving behavior that has been widely used over more than 20 years. Despite this wealth of evidence a number of questions remain, including understanding the correlation between its violations and errors sub-components, identifying how these components are related to crash involvement, and testing whether a DBQ based on a reduced number of items can be effective. We address these issues using a bifactor modeling approach to data drawn from the UK Cohort II longitudinal study of novice drivers. This dataset provides observations on 12,012 drivers with DBQ data collected at .5, 1, 2 and 3 years after passing their test. A bifactor model, including a general factor onto which all items loaded, and specific factors for ordinary violations, aggressive violations, slips and errors fitted the data better than correlated factors and second-order factor structures. A model based on only 12 items replicated this structure and produced factor scores that were highly correlated with the full model. The ordinary violations and general factor were significant independent predictors of crash involvement at 6 months after starting independent driving. The discussion considers the role of the general and specific factors in crash involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2014.10.012DOI Listing
January 2015

Detection of vehicle approach in the presence of additional motion and simulated observer motion at road junctions.

J Exp Psychol Appl 2013 Jun;19(2):171-84

Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, United Kingdom.

One of the key contributory factors for accident involvement is the misjudgment of vehicle approach. Past research has indicated that individuals can use the rate of visual "looming" in order to judge the time to arrival (TTA) of approaching vehicles. Although a large number of road traffic collisions occur at roadside junctions, very little research has focused on individuals' abilities to detect the onset of visual looming within a complex road scene at junction scenarios. In this research, computer generated scenes with photorealistic vehicle images, and a psychophysical staircase methodology, were used to explore drivers' ability to detect the approach of both motorcycles and cars within a contextually rich city scene. Across three experiments the effect of additional vehicular and observer motion on driver detection of vehicle approach was assessed. Results showed that individuals were significantly poorer at detecting the approach of the motorcycle stimulus compared with the car stimulus. Results also showed that additional vehicular motion within the scene had a negative effect on detection thresholds for the car stimulus. Finally, the results showed that introducing lateral global motion of the scene, such as might occur if the observer was moving steadily forward from a junction, negatively affected detection thresholds. The theoretical implications of the findings are discussed, including how vehicles traveling at high speed are often below the threshold for detecting visual looming. Practical implications for road design and layout are discussed that address the perceptual errors noted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0033286DOI Listing
June 2013

Errors in motion processing amongst older drivers may increase accident risk.

Accid Anal Prev 2013 Aug 17;57:150-6. Epub 2013 Apr 17.

University of Greenwich, Department of Psychology and Counselling, Avery Hill Road, Eltham, London SE9 2UG, United Kingdom.

Accident statistics highlight that older drivers are more frequently involved in right-of-way collisions than younger drivers. Accurately gauging vehicle speed is critical for judgement of when to pull out from a junction safely in front of oncoming traffic. We used psychophysical methods to measure drivers' ability to discriminate between different rates of looming presented by vehicles approaching at different speeds. We demonstrate that sensitivity to approach speed reduces by between 2.8 and 3.4 mph, dependent upon vehicle type, for every decade that age increases. We show that perceptual limitations for drivers over the age of 75 years can lead to a 50% reduction in time available to perform traffic manoeuvres, which may contribute in part to their overrepresentation in casualty statistics at junction. Results are discussed in terms of implications for road safety policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.03.031DOI Listing
August 2013

Reduced looming sensitivity in primary school children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder.

Dev Sci 2012 May 1;15(3):299-306. Epub 2012 Mar 1.

Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK.

Almost all locomotor animals are sensitive to optical expansion (visual looming) and for most animals this sensitivity is evident very early in their development. In humans there is evidence that responses to looming stimuli begin in the first 6 weeks of life, but here we demonstrate that as children become independent their perceptual acuity needs to be 50 to 100 times better than has been demonstrated in infants in order to be skilful at collision avoidance at a roadside. We have recently established that sensitivity to the detection of visual looming in 6- to 11-year-old children is significantly below that of adults (Wann, Poulter & Purcell, 2011). Here, using comparable methods, we explore looming detection sensitivity in children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD), who show broad patterns of impairment in visuo-motor control. We presented visual simulations of approaching vehicles, scaled to represent different approach rates, to children with DCD aged between 6 and 11 years (n = 11) and typically developing age and gender matched controls (n = 11). Looming detection thresholds were measured under foveal and perifoveal viewing conditions, for isotropic expansion and isotropic expansion with simulated viewpoint motion. Our results show that there are situations in which children with DCD may fail to detect vehicles approaching at speeds in excess of 22 km/h, suggesting a developmental immaturity in looming sensitivity. This provides one of the first clear demonstrations of low-level motion processing deficits in children with DCD. The decrement observed may give rise to potential errors in the road crossing behaviour of these children, whereby approaching vehicles could be perceived as stationary. These findings further contribute towards understanding the adverse statistic that children under 9 years of age are four times more likely than adults to be involved in a road accident as a pedestrian.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01123.xDOI Listing
May 2012

Reduced sensitivity to visual looming inflates the risk posed by speeding vehicles when children try to cross the road.

Psychol Sci 2011 Apr 9;22(4):429-34. Epub 2011 Mar 9.

Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX, United Kingdom.

Almost all locomotor animals respond to visual looming or to discrete changes in optical size. The need to detect and process looming remains critically important for humans in everyday life. Road traffic statistics confirm that children up to 15 years old are overrepresented in pedestrian casualties. We demonstrate that, for a given pedestrian crossing time, vehicles traveling faster loom less than slower vehicles, which creates a dangerous illusion in which faster vehicles may be perceived as not approaching. Our results from perceptual tests of looming thresholds show strong developmental trends in sensitivity, such that children may not be able to detect vehicles approaching at speeds in excess of 20 mph. This creates a risk of injudicious road crossing in urban settings when traffic speeds are higher than 20 mph. The risk is exacerbated because vehicles moving faster than this speed are more likely to result in pedestrian fatalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797611400917DOI Listing
April 2011

Roadside judgments in children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder.

Res Dev Disabil 2011 Jul-Aug;32(4):1283-92. Epub 2011 Jan 17.

Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX, UK.

As pedestrians, the perceptual ability to accurately judge the relative rate of approaching vehicles and select a suitable crossing gap requires sensitivity to looming. It also requires that crossing judgments are synchronized with motoric capabilities. Previous research has suggested that children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD) may have deficits in visual processing, specifically in detecting visual motion. It is possible, therefore that this population are at greater risk at the roadside. In a series of motion prediction tasks, several component roadside skills were assessed in 15 children with DCD, or at risk of DCD, aged between 6 and 11 years along with 15 typically developing age and gender matched controls. First, threshold errors for relative approach rate judgments (looming) were measured when vehicle size (car or truck) varied. Second, thresholds for crossing gap selection were measured for vehicle approach speeds of 32, 48, 64 and 80 km/h (20-50 mph). These were related to the walking speeds of children of different ages and profiles. We found that children with DCD showed a deficit in making relative approach rate judgments, using looming, which suggests they may not discern that a vehicle is travelling faster than the urban speed limit. Children with DCD also left considerably longer temporal crossing gaps than controls perhaps reflecting a lack of confidence in their ability, these preferred gaps were over twice the average inter-car gaps that occurred on roads around their school. Our findings raise a number of issues concerning children with DCD and their competence and potential limitations as pedestrians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2010.12.022DOI Listing
October 2011

Evaluating the effectiveness of a road safety education intervention for pre-drivers: an application of the theory of planned behaviour.

Br J Educ Psychol 2010 Jun 12;80(Pt 2):163-81. Epub 2010 Jan 12.

Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, UK.

Background: Young drivers are overrepresented in road traffic fatalities and collisions. Attempts to address this problem with pre-driver education have not met with unambiguous success. However, there is a lack of research on whether pre-driver education can change psychological antecedents to behaviour.

Aims: The framework of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was employed to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention used across the UK that aims to improve attitudes to road safety in pre-drivers.

Sample(s): Secondary school students aged 15-16 years participated in the research, drawn from 12 schools in the UK. A total of 199 students took part in Expt 1 and 430 in Expt 2.

Method: Expt 1 employed a within-participants design to measure any changes in road safety beliefs from pre- to post-intervention and 5-month follow-up. Expt 2 used a between-participants design to test whether any changes were genuine or due to experimenter effects.

Results: Results of Expt 1 revealed a small, short-term improvement in some pre-driver beliefs immediately following the educational intervention, but no effect on other beliefs, and some evidence of unintended outcomes. The small, significant improvements found in Expt 1 were replicated in Expt 2, which is consistent with there being a genuine effect.

Conclusions: Considering evidence from both experiments suggests the effectiveness of road safety education interventions are at best short term, and limited to some but not all psychological factors, with some risk of unintended consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466509X468421DOI Listing
June 2010

Home advantage and player nationality in international club football.

Authors:
Damian R Poulter

J Sports Sci 2009 Jun;27(8):797-805

Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK.

The home advantage effect was investigated at a team and player level in Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Champions League football using in-depth performance and disciplinary variables. Performance analysis revealed that the home team scored more goals, had more shots on and off target, had a greater share of possession, and won more corners than the away team. There was an opposite trend for disciplinary variables, with the home team committing less fouls than the away team, and receiving less yellow and red cards. There were home advantage effects at player level for goals, total shots, shots on target, assists, and yellow cards, as found in the team analysis. In addition, foreign players demonstrated a home advantage effect for goals scored, whereas domestic players scored an equivalent number of goals at home and away venues. Results are discussed in relation to the home advantage literature and wider implications for the sport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410902893364DOI Listing
June 2009

An application of the theory of planned behaviour to truck driving behaviour and compliance with regulations.

Accid Anal Prev 2008 Nov 26;40(6):2058-64. Epub 2008 Sep 26.

School of Psychology, Faculty of Science, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom.

A questionnaire study was conducted with truck drivers to help understand driving and compliance behaviour using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Path analysis examined the ability of the TPB to explain the direct and indirect factors involved in self-reported driving behaviour and regulation compliance. Law abiding driving behaviour in trucks was related more to attitudes, subjective norms and intentions than perceived behavioural control. For compliance with UK truck regulations, perceived behavioural control had the largest direct effect. The differing results of the path analyses for driving behaviour and compliance behaviour suggest that any future interventions that may be targeted at improving either on-road behaviour or compliance with regulations would require different approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2008.09.002DOI Listing
November 2008

Is speeding a "real" antisocial behavior? A comparison with other antisocial behaviors.

Accid Anal Prev 2007 Mar 23;39(2):384-9. Epub 2006 Oct 23.

School of Psychology, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AL, UK.

The relationship between speed and crashes has been well established in the literature, with the consequence that speed reduction through enforced or other means should lead to a reduction in crashes. The extent to which the public regard speeding as a problem that requires enforcement is less clear. Analysis was conducted on public perceptions of antisocial behaviors including speeding traffic. The data was collected as part of the British Crime Survey, a face-to-face interview with UK residents on issues relating to crime. The antisocial behavior section required participants to state the degree to which they perceived 16 antisocial behaviors to be a problem in their area. Results revealed that speeding traffic was perceived as the greatest problem in local communities, regardless of whether respondents were male or female, young, middle aged, or old. The rating of speeding traffic as the greatest problem in the community was replicated in a second, smaller postal survey, where respondents also provided strong support for enforcement on residential roads, and indicated that traveling immediately above the speed limit on residential roads was unacceptable. Results are discussed in relation to practical implications for speed enforcement, and the prioritization of limited police resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2006.08.015DOI Listing
March 2007

Attentional focus on suprapostural tasks affects balance learning.

Q J Exp Psychol A 2003 Oct;56(7):1191-211

Department of Kinesiology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154-3034, USA.

We examined whether the attentional focus induced by a suprapostural task has an influence on the learning of a dynamic balance task. Participants balanced on a stabilometer and were required to hold a tube horizontal with both hands. In Experiment 1, the tube contained a table tennis ball, whereas it was empty in Experiment 2. Participants were instructed to focus on either their hands (internal focus) or the tube (external focus). We measured balance performance as a function of attentional focus on the suprapostural task. Participants practised for 2 days, and on Day 3 they performed a retention test (with tube) and a transfer test (without tube). In both experiments, the external focus groups demonstrated more effective retention and transfer than the internal focus groups (and than the control group in transfer in Experiment 2). In addition, in Experiment 1 the external group was superior in keeping the tube horizontal. This suggests that the performer's attentional focus regarding the suprapostural task affects performance and learning not only of the suprapostural task itself, but also of the postural task.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02724980343000062DOI Listing
October 2003
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