Publications by authors named "Damian J Grybowski"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Diabetic wound healing: The impact of diabetes on myofibroblast activity and its potential therapeutic treatments.

Wound Repair Regen 2021 Jul 22;29(4):573-581. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Diabetes is a systemic disease in which the body cannot regulate the amount of sugar, namely glucose, in the blood. High glucose toxicity has been implicated in the dysfunction of diabetic wound healing, following insufficient production (Type 1) or inadequate usage (Type 2) of insulin. Chronic non-healing diabetic wounds are one of the major complications of both types of diabetes, which are serious concerns for public health and can impact the life quality of patients significantly. In general, diabetic wounds are characterized by deficient chemokine production, an unusual inflammatory response, lack of angiogenesis and epithelialization, and dysfunction of fibroblasts. Increasing scientific evidence from available experimental studies on animal and cell models strongly associates impaired wound healing in diabetes with dysregulated fibroblast differentiation to myofibroblasts, interrupted myofibroblast activity, and inadequate extracellular matrix production. Myofibroblasts play an important role in tissue repair by producing and organizing extracellular matrix and subsequently promoting wound contraction. Based on these studies, hyperglycaemic conditions can interfere with cytokine signalling pathways (such as growth factor-β pathway) affecting fibroblast differentiation, alter fibroblast apoptosis, dysregulate dermal lipolysis, and enhance hypoxia damage, thus leading to damaged microenvironment for myofibroblast formation, inappropriate extracellular matrix modulation, and weakened wound contraction. In this review, we will focus on the current available studies on the impact of diabetes on fibroblast differentiation and myofibroblast function, as well as potential treatments related to the affected pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/wrr.12954DOI Listing
July 2021

Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation in diabetic and pre-diabetic patients with intractable chronic pancreatitis.

J Pancreatol 2020 Jun;3(2):86-92

Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is an effective treatment option for non-diabetic patients with intractable chronic pancreatitis. The outcome and potential benefits for pre-diabetic and diabetic patients are less well established. Thirty-four patients underwent TPIAT were retrospectively divided into 3 groups according to pre-operative glycemic control: diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=5, 15%), pre-DM (n=11, 32%) and non-DM (n=18, 54%). Pre-operative fasting c-peptide was detectable and similar in all 3 groups. Islet yield in the DM group was comparable to pre-DM and non-DM groups (median islet equivalents [IEQ] was 191,800, 111,800, and 232,000IEQ, respectively). Patients received islet mass of over the target level of 2000IEQ/kg in pre-DM and DM at lower but clinically meaningful rates compared to the non-DM group: 45% (5/11) and 60% (3/5) for a combined 50% (8/16) rate, respectively, compared to 83% (15/18) for the non-DM group. At 1 year, fasting c-peptide and HbA1c did not differ between DM and pre-DM groups but c-peptide was significantly higher in non-DM. Islet transplantation failed (negative c-peptide) only in 1 patient. Pre-operatively, all patients experienced pancreatic pain with daily opioid dependence in 60% to 70%. Pancreatic-type pain gradually subsided completely in all groups with no differences in other painful somatic symptoms. Diabetic patients with measurable pre-operative c-peptide can achieve similar benefit from TPIAT, with comparable outcomes to pre-diabetic and non-diabetic patients including pain relief and the metabolic benefit of transplanted islets. Not surprisingly, endocrine outcomes for diabetic and pre-diabetics patients are substantially worse than in those with normal pre-operative glucose control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/jp9.0000000000000048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526866PMC
June 2020

Modeling of the immune response in the pathogenesis of solid tumors and its prognostic significance.

Cell Oncol (Dordr) 2020 Aug 2;43(4):539-575. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Division of Histology and Embryology, Department of Human Morphology and Embryology, Wroclaw Medical University, ul. Chalubinskiego 6a, 50-368, Wroclaw, Poland.

Background: Tumor initiation and subsequent progression are usually long-term processes, spread over time and conditioned by diverse aspects. Many cancers develop on the basis of chronic inflammation; however, despite dozens of years of research, little is known about the factors triggering neoplastic transformation under these conditions. Molecular characterization of both pathogenetic states, i.e., similarities and differences between chronic inflammation and cancer, is also poorly defined. The secretory activity of tumor cells may change the immunophenotype of immune cells and modify the extracellular microenvironment, which allows the bypass of host defense mechanisms and seems to have diagnostic and prognostic value. The phenomenon of immunosuppression is also present during chronic inflammation, and the development of cancer, due to its duration, predisposes patients to the promotion of chronic inflammation. The aim of our work was to discuss the above issues based on the latest scientific insights. A theoretical mechanism of cancer immunosuppression is also proposed.

Conclusions: Development of solid tumors may occur both during acute and chronic phases of inflammation. Differences in the regulation of immune responses between precancerous states and the cancers resulting from them emphasize the importance of immunosuppressive factors in oncogenesis. Cancer cells may, through their secretory activity and extracellular transport mechanisms, enhance deterioration of the immune system which, in turn, may have prognostic implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13402-020-00519-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7363737PMC
August 2020

BETA-2 score is an early predictor of graft decline and loss of insulin independence after pancreatic islet allotransplantation.

Am J Transplant 2020 03 13;20(3):844-851. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

This study aimed to evaluate whether the BETA-2 score is a reliable early predictor of graft decline and loss of insulin independence after islet allotransplantation. Islet transplant procedures were stratified into 3 groups according to clinical outcome: long-term insulin independence without islet graft decline (group 1, N = 9), initial insulin independence with subsequent islet graft decline and loss of insulin independence (group 2, N = 13), and no insulin independence (group 3, N = 13). BETA-2 was calculated on day 75 and multiple times afterwards for up to 145 months posttransplantation. A BETA-2 score cut-off of 17.4 on day 75 posttransplantation was discerned between group 1 and groups 2 and 3 (area under the receiver operating characteristic 0.769, P = .005) with a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100%. Additionally, BETA-2 ≥ 17.4 at any timepoint during follow-up reflected islet function required for long-term insulin independence. While BETA-2 did not decline below 17.4 for each of the 9 cases from group 1, the score decreased below 17.4 for all transplants from group 2 with subsequent loss of insulin independence. The reduction of BETA-2 below 17.4 predicted 9 (1.5-21) months in advance subsequent islet graft decline and loss of insulin independence (P = .03). This finding has important implications for posttransplant monitoring and patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15645DOI Listing
March 2020
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