Publications by authors named "Daiwen Chen"

250 Publications

Comparisons of the micronization, steam explosion, and gamma irradiation treatment on chemical composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and in vitro digestibility of dietary fiber from soybean hulls.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 17;366:130618. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the micronization (MT), steam explosion (SE), and gamma irradiation (GI) treatment on the chemical composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and in vitro digestibility of dietary fiber from soybean hulls. GI (1200 kGy) treatment exerted the optimum effects on improving soluble dietary fiber content, in vitro gross energy digestibility (IVGED), and reducing sugar yield (RS) in the three modification methods, increased by 342.88%, 55.24%, and 117.02%, respectively. Compared with GI treatment, MT-GI combined treatment could further enhance the degradation effect of irradiation and improve the physicochemical properties (p<0.05) in soybean fibers. From the results of correlation analysis, RS was a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with IVGED, and RS = -112.24 + 4.90 × IVGED (r = 0.82, p<0.01). In summary, MT-GI combined treatment could be considered the ideal modification method to improve the quality of soybean fiber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130618DOI Listing
July 2021

Functional Characterization of Porcine NK-Lysin: A Novel Immunomodulator That Regulates Intestinal Inflammatory Response.

Molecules 2021 Jul 13;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Porcine NK-Lysine (PNKL) is a new antimicrobial peptide (AMP) identified in the small intestine. In this study, PNKL protein was obtained through heterologous expression in and was estimated by SDS-PAGE at 33 kDa. The antibacterial activities of PNKL were determined using various bacterial strains and showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, K88-challenged IPEC-J2 cells were used to determine PNKL influences on inflammatory responses. Hemolytic assays showed that PNKL had no detrimental impact on cell viability. Interestingly, PNKL elevated the viability of IPEC-J2 cells exposure to K88. PNKL significantly decreased the cell apoptosis rate, and improved the distribution and abundance of tight junction protein ZO-1 in IPEC-J2 cells upon K88-challenge. Importantly, PNKL not only down regulated the expressions of inflammatory cytokines such as the IL-6 and TNF-α, but also down regulated the expressions of NF-κB, Caspase3, and Caspase9 in the K88-challenged cells. These results suggest a novel function of natural killer (NK)-lysin, and the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of PNKL may allow it a potential substitute for conventionally used antibiotics or drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307250PMC
July 2021

Prebiotic inulin as a treatment of obesity related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through gut microbiota: a critical review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 22:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition, Ministry of Education, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan, People's Republic of China.

The microbial-derived products, including short chain fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide and secondary bile acids, have been shown to participate in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that prebiotics, such as oligosaccharide and inulin, have abilities to change the concentration of microbial-derived products through modulating the microbial community structure, thus controlling body weight and alleviating hepatic fat accumulation. However, recent evidence indicates that there are individual differences in host response upon inulin treatment due to the differences in host microbial composition before dietary intervention. Probably it is because of the multiple relationships among bacterial species (e.g., competition and mutualism), which play key roles in the degradation of inulin and the regulation of microbial structure. Thereby, analyzing the composition and function of initial gut microbiota is essential for improving the efficacy of prebiotics supplementation. Furthermore, considering that different structures of polysaccharides can be used by different microorganisms, the chemical structure of processed inulin should be tested before using prebiotic inulin to treat obesity related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1955654DOI Listing
July 2021

rich enterotype may benefit gut health in finishing pigs fed diet with a high amylose-to-amylopectin ratio.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 25;7(2):400-411. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of Ministry of Education of China, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition and Feed of Ministry of Agriculture of China, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, And Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

To investigate the influence of baseline enterotypes and dietary starch type on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), numbers of butyrate producing bacteria and the expression of genes related to intestinal barrier and inflammatory response in the colon of finishing pigs, a 60-d in vivo trial was conducted. A 2-wk pre-trial with 102 crossbred (Duroc × [Landrace × Yorkshire]) finishing barrows (90 d old) was conducted to screen enterotypes. Then, a total of 32 pigs (87.40 ± 2.76 kg) with high (HPBR, ≥ 14) and low (LPBR, ≤ 2) -to- ratios (PBR) in equal measure were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates per group and 1 pig per replicate. The trial was designed following a 2 (PBR) × 2 (amylose-to-amylopectin ratio, AMR) factorial arrangement. Pigs with different PBR were fed diets based on corn-soybean meal with high AMR (HAMR, 1.24) or low AMR (LAMR, 0.23), respectively. Results showed that neither PBR nor AMR influenced the growth performance of pigs. HPBR pigs fed HAMR diet had a higher number of colonic cluster XIVa and higher gene expression of butyrate kinase compared to the LPBR pigs ( < 0.05). The HPBR pigs fed HAMR diets also had increased colonic concentrations of total SCFA and propionate compared to the LPBR pigs ( < 0.05). Comparing with other pigs, HPBR pigs fed HAMR diets showed a lower ( < 0.05) expression of histone deacetylases () gene and higher ( < 0.05) expression of G protein-coupled receptor 43 gene () in the colonic mucosa. The interaction ( < 0.05) of HPBR and HAMR was also found to decrease the gene expression of interleukin ()-6, , and tumor necrosis factor-α () in colonic mucosa. These findings show that HAMR diet increased the abundance and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria and the concentration and absorption of SCFA, which may be associated with the decreased gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in the colonic mucosa of pigs with -rich enterotype. All these alterations are likely to have a positive effect on the intestinal health of finishing pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.08.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245826PMC
June 2021

Effects of soybean raffinose on growth performance, digestibility, humoral immunity and intestinal morphology of growing pigs.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 6;7(2):393-399. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, 625014, Sichuan, China.

There are appreciable does of raffinose in soybean, but the impacts of raffinose on pigs are poorly investigated. We used 2 experiments to investigate the influence of soybean raffinose on growth performance, digestibility, humoral immunity and intestinal morphology of growing pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 30 crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) barrows (21.93 ± 0.43 kg) were randomly divided into 3 groups, and were fed with the control diet, the control diets supplemented with 0.2% and 0.5% raffinose, respectively, for 21 d. Results showed that the addition of 0.2% or 0.5% raffinose reduced ( < 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and nutrient digestibility, and dietary 0.5% raffinose increased the ratio of feed to gain ( < 0.05). For serum indexes, dietary 0.5% raffinose decreased growth hormone and increased glucagon-like peptide-2, immunoglobulin G, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 concentration ( < 0.05). In Exp. 2, a total of 24 crossbred barrows (38.41 ± 0.45 kg) were randomly divided into 3 groups, and were fed with the control diet (ad libitum), the raffinose diet (0.5% raffinose, ad libitum), and the control diet in the same amount as the raffinose group (feed-pair group) for 14 d, respectively. Compared with the control diet, dietary 0.5% raffinose decreased ADFI ( < 0.05). Intriguingly, the raffinose group had lower ADG than the feed-pair group, lower nutrient digestibility, lower amylase activity in duodenum, lower amylase, lipase and trypsin activities in jejunum and higher TNF-α concentration in serum compared with the other 2 groups, and a higher ratio of villus height to crypt depth compared with the control group ( < 0.05). These results showed that soybean raffinose could reduce feed voluntary intake and body gain while improving intestinal morphology without a significant negative influence on immunity. Taken together, dietary raffinose could decrease growth performance by reducing both feed intake and nutrient digestibility while inducing humoral immune response of growing pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.06.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245804PMC
June 2021

Gut microbiota absence and transplantation affect growth and intestinal functions: An investigation in a germ-free pig model.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 22;7(2):295-304. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, China.

This study was conducted to investigate host-microbiota interactions and explore the effects of maternal gut microbiota transplantation on the growth and intestinal functions of newborns in a germ-free (GF) pig model. Twelve hysterectomy-derived GF Bama piglets were reared in 6 sterile isolators. Among them, 6 were considered as the GF group, and the other 6 were orally inoculated with healthy sow fecal suspension as fecal microbiota transplanted (FMT) group. Another 6 piglets from natural birth were regarded as the conventional (CV) group. The GF and FMT groups were hand-fed with Co60-γ-irradiated sterile milk powder, while the CV group was reared by lactating Bama sows. All groups were fed for 21 days. Then, all piglets and then were switched to sterile feed for another 21 days. Results showed that the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in the GF group decreased ( < 0.05). Meanwhile, the serum urea nitrogen concentration and digesta pH values in the GF group increased compared with those in the FMT and CV groups ( < 0.05). Compared with the CV group, the GF group demonstrated upregulation in the mRNA expression levels of intestinal barrier function-related genes in the small intestine ( < 0.05). In addition, the mRNA abundances of intestinal development and absorption-related genes in the small intestine and colon were higher in the GF group than in the CV and FMT groups ( < 0.05). The FMT group exhibited greater growth performance, lipase activity, and nutrient digestibility ( < 0.05), higher mRNA expression levels of intestinal development and barrier-related genes in the small intestine ( < 0.05), and lower mRNA abundances of pro-inflammatory factor in the colon and jejunum ( < 0.05) than the CV group. In conclusion, the absence of gut microbes impaired the growth and nutrient digestibility, and healthy sow gut microbiota transplantation increased the growth and nutrient digestibility and improved the intestinal development and barrier function of newborn piglets, indicating the importance of intestinal microbes for intestinal development and functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.11.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245803PMC
June 2021

Effects of essential oil on growth performance, digestibility, immunity, and intestinal health in broilers.

Poult Sci 2021 Aug 13;100(8):101242. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Essential oils (EO) are concentrated hydrophobic liquids containing volatile aromatic compounds obtained from plants, which have properties as withdrawn antibiotic growth promoters. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of EO on growth performance, digestibility, immunity and intestinal health in broilers. A total of 500 1-day-old Arbor Acre broilers were randomly put into five groups with 10 replicate cages containing 10 birds each. Birds in the 5 groups were fed a basal diet (CON), and basal diet with 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg EO (EO0.5, EO1, EO2 and EO4) for 42 d respectively. Birds were euthanized at 21d and 42 d, blood and tissue samples were collected. In the study, the digestibility of DM, GE and EE in groups with EO supplementation were significantly increased compared with CON group (P < 0.05). However, only EO2 and EO4 significantly increased the digestibility of CP compared with CON group (P < 0.05). In contrast to CON group, EO0.5 and EO1 in jejunum at 21 d, and EO1 in jejunum at 42 d markedly increased the activity of sucrase (P < 0.05). In addition, the level of SOD of EO2 and EO4 in serum at 21 d was significantly increased compared with CON group (P < 0.05). What's more, the concentration of intestinal mucosa SIgA in jejunum and ileum at 21 d of groups with EO supplementation was significantly increased compared with CON group (P < 0.05). Moreover, V/C in jejunum at 21 d of groups with EO supplementation, CD in jejunum at 42 d was also significantly increased to compare with CON group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression levels of critical genes associated with nutrient transportation (i.e., GLUT2, SGLT1, SLC38A, SLC79A and SLC27A4) and barrier function (TJP1) were quadratically and linearly up-regulated in jejunum and ileum with EO supplementation (P < 0.05). These results suggest that EO has a positive impact on growth, immunity and intestinal health in broilers, and 200 mg/kg of EO was recommended in broiler diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242051PMC
August 2021

Protective effect of Bombyx mori gloverin on intestinal epithelial cells exposure to enterotoxigenic E. coli.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Sep 21;52(3):1235-1245. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan Province, Chengdu, 611130, People's Republic of China.

Bombyx mori gloverin A2 (BMGlvA2) is an induced antimicrobial insect protein isolated from Bombyx mori. This study was conducted to explore the effect and potential mechanisms of BMGlvA2 on inflammatory responses and cellular functions in intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) exposure to enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). IPEC-J2 cells pretreated with or without BMGlvA2 (12.5 μg/mL) were challenged by ETEC K88 (1×10 CFU/well) or culture medium. We show that BMGlvA2 pretreatment increased the cell viability and improved the distribution and abundance of tight junction protein ZO-1 in IPEC-J2 cells exposure to ETEC (P < 0.05). Interestingly, BMGlvA2 not only decreased the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but also decreased the expression level of Caspase3 and the apoptosis rate in the ETEC-challenged cells (P < 0.05). Importantly, BMGlvA2 decreased the protein abundances of two critical inflammation-associated signaling proteins, phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (p-IκBα) and phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (p-NF-κB), in the ETEC-challenged cells. These results indicate that BMGlvA2 attenuates ETEC-induced inflammation in the IPEC-J2 cells by regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokine and reduced cell apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-021-00532-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Dietary dihydromyricetin supplementation enhances antioxidant capacity and improves lipid metabolism in finishing pigs.

Food Funct 2021 Aug;12(15):6925-6935

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, P. R. China.

Nowadays, chronic diseases have become a potential danger to human health and are highly concerning. Given that pigs are a suitable animal model for human nutrition and metabolism for its similar anatomical and physiological properties to those of humans, this study has used 24 castrated male Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire (DLY) pigs as experimental subjects to explore the effects of dietary dihydromyricetin (DHM) supplementation on the antioxidant capacity and lipid metabolism. Results showed that dietary 300 and 500 mg DHM kg-1 diet supplementation increased the serum total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) level, serum and liver reduced glutathione (GSH), muscle catalase (CAT) level and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, and reduced the liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and muscle triglyceride (TG) level in finishing pigs. Western blot analysis showed that dietary DHM supplementation activated the nuclear-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) signals. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that dietary DHM supplementation upregulated the mRNA levels of lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation-related genes, and down-regulated the mRNA expression of lipogenesis-related genes in finishing pigs. Together, we provide evidence that dietary DHM supplementation improved the antioxidant capacity and lipid metabolism in finishing pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo03094eDOI Listing
August 2021

Protective effects of sodium butyrate on rotavirus inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis via PERK-eIF2α signaling pathway in IPEC-J2 cells.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Jun 11;12(1):69. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Huimin Road 211#, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, 611130, P. R. China.

Background: Rotavirus (RV) is a major pathogen that causes severe gastroenteritis in infants and young animals. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent apoptosis play pivotal role in virus infection. However, the protective mechanisms of intestinal damage caused by RV are poorly defined, especially the molecular pathways related to enterocytes apoptosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of sodium butyrate (SB) on RV-induced apoptosis of IPEC-J2 cells.

Results: The RV infection led to significant cell apoptosis, increased the expression levels of ER stress (ERS) markers, phosphorylated protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK), eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), caspase9, and caspase3. Blocking PERK pathway using specific inhibitor GSK subsequently reversed RV-induced cell apoptosis. The SB treatment significantly inhibited RV-induced ERS by decreasing the expression of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), PERK, and eIF2α. In addition, SB treatment restrained the ERS-mediated apoptotic pathway, as indicated by downregulation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA level, as well as decreased cleaved caspase9 and caspase3 protein levels. Furthermore, siRNA-induced GPR109a knockdown significantly suppressed the protective effect of SB on RV-induced cell apoptosis.

Conclusions: These results indicate that SB exerts protective effects against RV-induced cell apoptosis through inhibiting ERS mediated apoptosis by regulating PERK-eIF2α signaling pathway via GPR109a, which provide new ideas for the prevention and control of RV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-021-00592-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194137PMC
June 2021

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D inhibits porcine epidemic diarrhea virus replication by regulating cell cycle resumption in IPEC-J2 porcine epithelial cells.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jun 7;158:105017. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, NO. 46 Xinkang Road, Yucheng District, Yaan, Sichuan, 625014, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection causes heavy economic losses in the pig industry. Currently, the lack of effective treatments prompts new antiviral researches. We have shown that 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplementation alleviated PEDV infection in weaned pigs before. However, it is not clear whether vitamin D inhibits PEDV replication. In this study, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)D) inhibited PEDV induced mitochondria damage and cell apoptosis. In addition, 1,25(OH)D treatment decreased PEDV nucleocapsid gene and protein levels in IPEC-J2 cells. Transcriptomic data showed that PEDV infection altered the expression of 5316 genes (2498 up, 2818 down) in IPEC-J2 cells. The differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in cell cycle process, ribonucleoprotein complex biogenesis, mitotic nuclear division, and other biological processes. Then we examined the effects of PEDV infection on cell cycle progression in IPEC-J2 cells, and the results showed that PEDV induced G0/G1 phase arrest. G0/G1-phase arrest was also conducive to PEDV replication. However, 1,25(OH)D treatment decreased G0/G1 phase percentage induced by PEDV. Cyclin D and cyclin E mRNA expression were also increased by 1,25(OH)D supplementation upon PEDV infection. Moreover, the regulation of 1,25(OH)D on cell cycle progression was abrogated by ERK1/2 inhibitor, as well as the mRNA expression of cyclin D. The inhibition of 1,25(OH)D on PEDV replication was also eliminated by ERK1/2 inhibitor. Taken together, these results demonstrated that 1,25(OH)D supplementation inhibited PEDV replication, and the anti-virus effect of 1,25(OH)D was mediated in part by regulating cell cycle progression through ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105017DOI Listing
June 2021

Fermented Diet Liquid Feeding Improves Growth Performance and Intestinal Function of Pigs.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 19;11(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Accumulating evidences demonstrate that fermented feed and liquid feeding exerted a great beneficial influence on growth performance and health in the pig industry. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fermented liquid feeding on the growth performance and intestinal function of pigs. Two hundred and eighty-eight 27-day-old weaned piglets (8.21 ± 0.27 kg) were randomly allocated to a control group (basal diet (CON)), an antibiotic group (basal diet supplemented with antibiotics (AB)) and a fermented liquid feeding group (basal diet with fermented liquid feeding (FLF)), with 6 replicates per treatment and 16 weaned piglets per replicate. The experiment lasted for 160 days. Fresh fecal samples were collected to evaluate the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients from the last 4 days of each stage. The results are shown as follows: (1) Compared with the CON group, in the whole stage, the FLF diet significantly increased the final body weight (BW) and ADG of pigs ( < 0.05), and had a tendency to increase ADFI ( = 0.086), but had no effect on F/G. (2) The ATTD of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude ash (CA), crude fiber (CF), gross energy (GE), calcium (Ca) and total phosphorus (TP) in the FLF group was significantly elevated compared with those of the CON group at 8-20 kg stage ( < 0.05). Meanwhile, the ATTD of EE in the FLF group was significantly increased compared with that of the CON group at the 50-75 kg and 100-125 kg stages ( < 0.05), and the ATTD of Ca was higher than that of CON group at the 100-125 kg stage ( < 0.05). (3) Compared with that of the CON group, the level of serum leptin in the FLF group had a tendency to decrease ( = 0.054), the level of serum ghrelin in the FLF group was significantly elevated ( < 0.05) and the level of serum peptide YY in the FLF group was significantly decreased ( < 0.05). (4) The abundance of in cecal and colonic digesta was observably enhanced in FLF group. Meanwhile, the abundance of in cecal and colonic digesta were dramatically reduced in the FLF group compared with that in the CON and AB groups ( < 0.05). (5) The levels of acetic acid in colonic digesta were significantly increased in the FLF group ( < 0.05), and an increasing trend was observed in total VFA in colonic digesta compared with CON ( < 0.1). The levels of acetic acid in colonic digesta were significantly promoted in the FLF group compared with that of the AB group ( < 0.05). In conclusion, these results indicate that fermented liquid feeding improved the growth performance of pigs, which might be associated with gastrointestinal hormone and intestinal functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11051452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158733PMC
May 2021

Procyanidin B2 induces porcine skeletal slow-twitch myofiber gene expression by AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

Anim Biotechnol 2021 Jun 1:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, P. R. China.

In this study, our aim is to investigate the effect of dimer procyanidin B2 [epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin] (PB2) on porcine skeletal myofiber gene expression . Our data showed PB2 promoted the protein expression of slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) in porcine myotubes, concomitant with the increases in mRNA levels of , and . We also found PB2 activated AMPK signaling in porcine myotubes. NRF1 and CaMKKβ that are two important upstream factors of AMPK, and Sirt1 and PGC-1α that are two major downstream factors of AMPK, were also up-regulated by PB2. The mechanism study showed the effect of PB2 on slow-twitch myofiber gene expression was abolished by AMPK inhibitor compound C or by AMPKα1 siRNA. Together, we found PB2 induced porcine skeletal slow-twitch myofiber gene expression by AMPK signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2021.1927065DOI Listing
June 2021

Infusion of short chain fatty acids in the ileum improves the carcass traits, meat quality and lipid metabolism of growing pigs.

Anim Nutr 2021 Mar 22;7(1):94-100. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition and Feed of China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Ya'an, 625014, China.

Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are the main products of indigestible carbohydrates undergoing bacterial fermentation in the hindgut, which are related to some physiological functions. This study was designed to investigate the effects of SCFA infusion by ileum on the carcass traits, meat quality and lipid metabolism of growing pigs. In a 28-day study, 24 growing barrows fitted with a T-cannula in distal ileum were divided into 4 treatments: 1) Control, 2) antibiotics (AB), 3) AB + 300 mL of SCFA1 solution (ABS1), 4) AB + 300 mL of SCFA2 solution (ABS2). The concentrations of acetate, propionate and butyrate in SCFA1 solution were respectively 61.84, 18.62 and 12.55 mmol/L, and in SCFA2 were respectively 40.08, 15.41 and 9.78 mmol/L. The results showed that the SCFA infusion increased the average daily feed intake and average daily gain of pigs ( 0.05). Meanwhile, the SCFA treatments increased longissimus dorsi area ( 0.05) and carcass weight ( = 0.058), decreased the drip loss of longissimus dorsi ( = 0.059), and reduced serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and urea nitrogen ( 0.05). Besides, the SCFA administration inhibited the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase () and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in longissimus dorsi ( 0.05), the mRNA expression of in the liver ( 0.05), and the mRNA expression of hormone-sensitive lipase in abdominal fat ( 0.05). Short chain fatty acid infusion also enhanced the mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α in the liver ( 0.05), the mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma and lipoprotein lipase in abdominal fat ( 0.05), and the mRNA expressions of free fatty acid receptor 2, glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in the colon ( 0.05). These results suggested that SCFA administration in the ileum could improve the carcass traits and meat quality of growing pigs, which was possibly due to the fact that SCFA modulated lipid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.05.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110845PMC
March 2021

Bioavailability of the dl-methionine and the calcium salt of dl-methionine hydroxy analog compared with l-methionine for nitrogen retention in starter pigs.

J Anim Sci 2021 Jun;99(6)

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Two nitrogen balance studies were conducted to evaluate the relative bioavailability values (RBV) of dl-methionine (dl-Met) and dl-methionine hydroxy analog calcium salt (MHA-Ca) to l-methionine (l-Met) as Met sources fed to pigs. In experiment 1, 42 pigs were assigned to 7 treatments feeding with basal diet (BD) formulated to be deficient in Met (0.22% standardized ileal digestible basis) but adequate in other amino acids. Diets included (1) BD, (2) BD + 0.025% dl-Met, (3) BD + 0.050% dl-Met, (4) BD + 0.075% dl-Met, (5) BD + 0.025% l-Met, (6) BD + 0.050% l-Met, and (7) BD + 0.075% l-Met. Increasing levels of l-Met and dl-Met enhanced N retained (g/d) and N retention (% of intake) linearly (P < 0.01). Using a linear slope ratio procedure, a product-to-product RBV of dl-Met compared with l-Met was 94% (95% confidence limits: 65% to 123%) based on N retained expressed as g/d and 99% (95% confidence limits: 70% to 128%) for N retention expressed as % of intake. In experiment 2, 42 pigs were allotted to 7 treatments in another N-balance trial. Diets included (1) BD, (2) BD + 0.025% l-Met, (3) BD + 0.050% l-Met, (4) BD + 0.075% l-Met, (5) BD + 0.030% MHA-Ca, (6) BD + 0.060% MHA-Ca, and (7) BD + 0.089% MHA-Ca. An increase in dietary inclusion rates of l-Met increased (P < 0.01) N retained (g/d) linearly while increasing levels of MHA-Ca had no effects (P > 0.05) on N retained (g/d) and N retention (% of intake). Using linear slope-ratio regression, the RBV of MHA-Ca compared with l-Met was 70% (95% confidence limits: 59% to 81%) on a product-to-product basis or 83% on equimolar basis based on N retained expressed as g/d. Overall, the mean RBV of dl-Met to l-Met of 97% (95% confidence limits cover 100%) indicated that dl-Met and l-Met are equally bioavailable as Met sources in pigs. Compared with l-Met, the RBV of MHA-Ca was lower at 70% (95% confidence limits: 59% to 81%) on a product-to-product basis or 83% on equimolar basis in starter pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202088PMC
June 2021

Short-chain fatty acids can improve lipid and glucose metabolism independently of the pig gut microbiota.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 May 6;12(1):61. Epub 2021 May 6.

Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, China.

Background: Previous studies have shown that exogenous short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) introduction attenuated the body fat deposition in conventional mice and pigs. However, limited studies have evaluated the effects of exogenously introduced SCFAs on the lipid and glucose metabolism independently of the gut microbiota. This study was to investigate the effects of exogenous introduction of SCFAs on the lipid and glucose metabolism in a germ-free (GF) pig model.

Methods: Twelve hysterectomy-derived newborn pigs were reared in six sterile isolators. All pigs were hand-fed with sterile milk powder for 21 d, then the sterile feed was introduced to pigs for another 21 d. In the second 21-d period, six pigs were orally administrated with 25 mL/kg sterile saline per day and considered as the GF group, while the other six pigs were orally administrated with 25 mL/kg SCFAs mixture (acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, 45, 15, and 11 mmol/L, respectively) per day and regarded as FA group.

Results: Orally administrated with SCFAs tended to increase the adiponectin concentration in serum, enhance the CPT-1 activity in longissimus dorsi, and upregulate the ANGPTL4 mRNA expression level in colon (P < 0.10). Meanwhile, the mRNA abundances of ACC, FAS, and SREBP-1C in liver and CD36 in longissimus dorsi of the FA group were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with those in the GF group. Besides, the mRNA expression of PGC-1α in liver and LPL in longissimus dorsi tended to (P < 0.10) upregulate and downregulate respectively in the FA group. Moreover, oral administration of SCFAs tended to increase the protein level of GPR43 (P < 0.10) and decrease the protein level of ACC (P < 0.10) in liver. Also, oral administration of SCFAs upregulated the p-AMPK/AMPK ratio and the mRNA expressions of GLUT-2 and GYS2 in liver (P < 0.05). In addition, the metabolic pathway associated with the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was most significantly promoted (P < 0.05) by oral administration of SCFAs.

Conclusions: Exogenous introduction of SCFAs might attenuate the fat deposition and to some extent improve the glucose control in the pig model, which occurred independently of the gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-021-00581-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101156PMC
May 2021

Lycopene increases the proportion of slow-twitch muscle fiber by AMPK signaling to improve muscle anti-fatigue ability.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Aug 29;94:108750. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Lycopene has a wide range of biological functions, especially its antioxidant capacity. However, effects of lycopene on muscle fatigue resistant and muscle fiber type conversion are unknown. In this study, we found that lycopene significantly prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion in mice. We also showed that lycopene increased the proportion of slow-twitch muscle fiber by promoting muscle fiber type conversion from fast-twitch to slow-twitch in mice and in C2C12 myotubes. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling was activated by lycopene. AMPK upstream and downstream regulators including nuclear respiratory factor 1, calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β, sirtuin 1 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1ɑ were also increased by lycopene. AMPK inhibitor compound C markedly attenuated the lycopene-induced skeletal muscle fiber type conversion in C2C12 myotubes. Taken together, we provided the first evidence that lycopene increases the proportion of slow-twitch muscle fiber through AMPK signaling pathway to improve fatigue resistant of skeletal muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108750DOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of slaughter age on carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) finishing pigs.

Anim Biotechnol 2021 Apr 30:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, P. R. China.

Thirty castrated Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire (DLY) pigs were randomly divided into three groups and slaughtered at 180, 210, and 240 days of age, respectively. Here, we found that the live weight, carcass weight, carcass length, dressing percentage, eye muscle area, backfat deposit, muscle yellowness b* value, drip loss, and cooking loss increased significantly, and the muscle pH 45 min value decreased dramatically as the slaughter age of DLY pigs extended. Moreover, increasing the slaughter age of DLY pigs could obtain higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) percentage, crude protein, essential amino acids (EAA) contents and EAA/NEAA level, and lower n-6/n-3 PUFA level and antioxidant capacity. Together, this study suggests that the older slaughter age improves the carcass traits and nutritional value of pork, but leads to a significant decrease in pork sensory quality in DLY finishing pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2021.1916512DOI Listing
April 2021

Carbohydrates effects on nutrition and health functions in pigs.

Anim Sci J 2021 Jan;92(1):e13557

Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

The greatest improvement in carbohydrates studies on pig nutrition and health is that carbohydrates are classified more clearly, which is based not only on their chemical structure but also on their physiological characteristics. Besides its primary energy source, different types and structures of carbohydrates are a benefit for nutrition and health functions in pigs, which are involved in promoting growth performance and intestinal functions, regulating the community of gut microbiota, and modulating the lipids and glucose metabolism. The underlying mechanism of carbohydrates regulates the lipids and glucose metabolism through their metabolites (short-chain fatty acids [SCFAs]) and mainly via the SCFAs-GPR43/41-PYY/GLP1, SCFAs-AMP/ATP-AMPK, and SCFAs-AMPK-G6Pase/PEPCK pathways. Emerging research had evaluated an optimal combination in different types and structures of carbohydrates, which could enhance growth performance and nutrient digestibility, promote intestinal functions, and increase the abundances of butyrate-producing bacteria in pigs. Overall, compelling evidence supports the notion that carbohydrates play important roles in both nutrition and health functions in pigs. Moreover, identifying the carbohydrates combinations will be of both theoretical and practical values for developing the technology of carbohydrates balance in pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.13557DOI Listing
January 2021

Influences of Selenium-Enriched Yeast on Growth Performance, Immune Function, and Antioxidant Capacity in Weaned Pigs Exposure to Oxidative Stress.

Biomed Res Int 2021 27;2021:5533210. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, China.

This study elucidated the function role of dietary selenium-enriched yeast (SeY) supplementation on growth performance, immune function, and antioxidant capacity in weaned pigs exposure to oxidative stress. Thirty-two similarity weight pigs were randomly divided into four treatments: (1) nonchallenged control, (2) control+SeY, (3) control+diquat, and (4) control+SeY+diquat. The period of experiment was 21 days; on day 16, pigs were injected with diquat or sterile saline. Results revealed that oxidative stress was notably detrimental to the growth performance of piglets, but SeY supplementation ameliorated this phenomenon, which might be regarding the increasing of body antioxidant capacity and immune functions. In details, SeY supplementation improved the digestibility of crude protein (CP), ash, and gross energy (GE). Moreover, the serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase(GPT), and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were reduced via SeY supplemented, and serum concentrations of immunoglobulins A (IgA), IgG, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) ,and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were improved in the diquat-challenged pigs ( < 0.05). In addition, SeY supplementation acutely enhanced the activities of these antioxidant enzymes in the liver and thymus upon diquat challenge, which involved with the upregulation of the critical genes related antioxidant signaling such as the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) ( < 0.05). Importantly, we also found that SeY supplementation apparently reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in the liver, thymus, and serum ( < 0.05). Specifically, the expression levels of TNF-, IL-6, IL-1, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) in the liver and thymus were downregulated by SeY upon diquat challenge. These results suggested that SeY can attenuate oxidative stress-induced growth retardation, which was associated with elevating body antioxidant capacity, immune functions, and suppressed inflammatory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5533210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019624PMC
May 2021

Sodium acetate, propionate, and butyrate reduce fat accumulation in mice via modulating appetite and relevant genes.

Nutrition 2021 Jul-Aug;87-88:111198. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition and Feed of China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Ya'an, Sichuan Province, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, three of the most common short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), can be produced when some non-digestible carbohydrates enter the large intestine and undergo bacterial fermentation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three SCFAs on appetite regulation and lipid metabolism and to determine the extent that appetite contributes to the beneficial influences of SCFAs.

Methods: In a 35-d study, 48 C57BL/6J male mice were randomly allocated to six groups: control; 5% sodium acetate; 5% sodium propionate; 5% sodium butyrate; pair fed 1; and pair fed 2.

Results: The study showed that dietary supplementation of sodium acetate reduced serum triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, glucose, and interleukin (IL)-6 levels (P < 0.05), increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1, and leptin levels (P < 0.05), downregulated the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and lipoprotein lipase (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expressions of fasting-induced adipose factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9, cytochrome-C oxidase IV and free fatty acid receptor 2 (P < 0.05). Sodium propionate also reduced serum IL-1β level (P < 0.05), increased serum peptide YY level (P < 0.05), downregulated the mRNA expressions of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expression of transmembrane protein 26 (P < 0.05). Additionally, sodium butyrate decreased average daily feed intake (P < 0.05) downregulated the mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHc) Ⅱb (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expressions of lipase hormone-sensitive, MyHC Ⅱa and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α (P < 0.05). Moreover, the metabolic benefits of SCFAs were partly attributed to the reduction of feed intake.

Conclusion: Taken together, SCFAs could reduce appetite and fat accumulation via modulating relevant genes and hormones, which might further illustrate the potential mechanisms that underlay the effects of SCFAs on lipid homeostasis and control of body weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111198DOI Listing
June 2021

Lentinan administration alleviates diarrhea of rotavirus-infected weaned pigs via regulating intestinal immunity.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Mar 9;12(1):43. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition and Feed of China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, No. 211, Gongpinghuimin Road, Wenjiang District, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Lentinan (LNT) may regulate many important physiological functions of human and animals. This study aimed to verify whether LNT administration could relieve diarrhea via improving gut immunity in rotavirus (RV)-challenged weaned pigs.

Methods: Twenty-eight weaned pigs were randomly fed 2 diets containing 0 or 84 mg/kg LNT product for 19 d (n = 14). RV infection was executed on d 15. After extracting polysaccharides from LNT product, its major monosaccharides were analyzed. Then, LNT polysaccharide was used to administrate RV-infected IPEC-J2 cells.

Results: Dietary LNT supplementation supported normal function of piglets even when infected with RV, as reflected by reduced growth performance loss and diarrhea prevalence, and maintained gut immunity (P < 0.05). The polysaccharide was isolated from LNT product, which molecular weight was 5303 Da, and major monosaccharides included glucose, arabinose and galactose. In RV-infected IPEC-J2 cells, this polysaccharide significantly increased cell viability (P < 0.05), and significantly increased anti-virus immunity via regulating pattern recognition receptors and host defense peptides (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Those results suggest that LNT administration increases the piglets' resistance to RV-induced stress, likely by supporting intestinal immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-021-00562-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7945689PMC
March 2021

Effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans and yeast hydrolysate supplementation on growth performance, immune response and intestinal barrier function in weaned piglets.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Mar 14. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

The present study investigated the effects of Bacillus coagulans and yeast hydrolysate supplementation on growth performance, immune response and intestinal barrier function of weaned piglets. Twenty-four weaned piglets with an average body weight (BW) of 6.89 ± 0.15 kg were divided into four diets for 28 days. The treatments were basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with antibiotic (20 mg/kg colistin sulphate and 40 mg/kg bacitracin zinc, AT), probiotics (400 mg/kg Bacillus coagulans ≥5 × 109 CFU/g, BC) or yeast hydrolysate (5000 mg/kg yeast hydrolysate, YH). Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were improved by AT and YH diets (p < 0.05), while BC diet only increased ADG (p < 0.05). The complement 3 (C3), lysozyme (LZM) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations in serum were increased in BC diet (p < 0.05). Feeding AT and YH caused the increase of jejunal villus height (p < 0.05), and a higher ratio of villus height/crypt depth was observed in AT, BC and YH groups (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in jejunal mucosa was up-regulated by AT, BC and YH diets (p < 0.05). Dietary AT, BC or YH inclusion decreased the interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentration and TNF-α mRNA expression (p < 0.05), and YH supplementation even down-regulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 expressions (p < 0.05). In summary, the dietary administration of BC or YH both improves growth performance through promoting the intestinal barrier function, indicating both of them can serve as potential alternatives to antibiotics growth promoters for the piglet production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13529DOI Listing
March 2021

The Nutritional Significance of Intestinal Fungi: Alteration of Dietary Carbohydrate Composition Triggers Colonic Fungal Community Shifts in a Pig Model.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 04 27;87(10). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of the Ministry of Education of China, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition and Feed of the Ministry of Agriculture of China, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China

Carbohydrates represent the most important energy source in the diet of humans and animals. A large number of studies have shown that dietary carbohydrates (DCHO) are related to the bacterial community in the gut, but their relationship with the composition of intestinal fungi is still unknown. Here, we report the response of the colonic fungal community to different compositions of DCHO in a pig model. Three factors, ratio (2:1, 1:1, and 1:2) of amylose to amylopectin (AM/AP), level of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; 1%, 2%, and 3%), and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS; 400, 800, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight), were considered according to an L9 (3) orthogonal design to form nine diets with different carbohydrate compositions. Sequencing based on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region showed that the fungal community in the colon of the pigs responded to DCHO in the order of MOS, AM/AP, and NSP. A large part of some low-abundance fungal genera correlated with the composition of DCHO, represented by , , , , , , and , were also associated with the concentration of glucose and fructose, as well as the activity of β-d-glucosidase in the colonic digesta, suggesting a role of these fungi in the degradation of DCHO in the colon of pigs. Our study provides direct evidence for the relationship between the composition of DCHO and the fungal community in the colon of pigs, which is helpful to understand the function of gut microorganisms in pigs. Although fungi are a large group of microorganisms along with bacteria and archaea in the gut of monogastric animals, the nutritional significance of fungi has been ignored for a long time. Our previous studies revealed a distinct fungal community in the gut of grazing Tibetan pigs (J. Li, D. Chen, B. Yu, J. He, et al., Microb Biotechnol 13:509-521, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13507) and a close correlation between fungal species and short-chain fatty acids, the main microbial metabolites of carbohydrates in the hindgut of pigs (J. Li, Y. Luo, D. Chen, B. Yu, et al., J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 104:616-628, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13300). These groundbreaking findings indicate a potential relationship between intestinal fungi and the utilization of DCHO. However, no evidence directly proves the response of intestinal fungi to changes in DCHO. Here, we show a clear alteration of the colonic fungal community in pigs triggered by different compositions of DCHO simulated by varied concentrations of starch, nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), and oligosaccharides. Our results highlight the potential involvement of intestinal fungi in the utilization of nutrients in monogastric animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00038-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117771PMC
April 2021

Wheat bran fermented by mixed fungal strains improves the digestibility of crude fiber and may benefit the gut health without impacting the growth performance in weaned pigs.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 10;12(7):2962-2971. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of Ministry of Education of China, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition and Feed of Ministry of Agriculture of China, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

This study was conducted to compare the effect of raw (WB) or mixed fungi-fermented wheat bran (FWB) on the growth, nutrient digestibility and intestinal health in weaned piglets. After the preparation of FWB, twenty-one cross-bred weaned piglets (7.20 ± 0.5 kg) were separated into three groups for a 40-day trial. The pigs in the control group were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet. For the other two groups, 8% of expanded corn in the basal diet was replaced by equivalent WB or FWB. Results showed that the content of main nutrients and the composition of dietary fiber in FWB improved compared to that for WB. The digestibility of fiber in pigs fed FWB improved (P < 0.05) compared to the control and/or WB without affecting their growth performance. Both WB and FWB decreased the conditional pathogen (Streptococcus) or/and E. coli virulence factor (STb) in the colon compared to control (P < 0.05), and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (VCR) in jejunum increased (P < 0.05). The number of goblet cells, the expression of MUC-1 and pBD1 in jejunal mucosa, and the proportion of blood CD4 T lymphocyte subset improved (P < 0.05) by FWB rather than WB. Furthermore, although only WB elevated (P < 0.05) the concentration of butyrate in the colon, both WB and FWB increased the number of butyrate-producing bacteria (P < 0.05) compared to the control. Thus, the main advantage of FWB over WB in weaned pigs is its improvement in fiber digestibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00273bDOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of dietary ferulic acid supplementation on growth performance and skeletal muscle fiber type conversion in weaned piglets.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Feb 14. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, People's Republic of China.

Background: Ferulic acid (FA) is a common polyphenolic compound. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of dietary FA supplementation on growth performance and muscle fiber type conversion in weaned piglets. In this study, eighteen 21-day-old DLY (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) weaned piglets were randomly divided into control, 0.05% FA, and 0.45% FA groups.

Results: Our study showed that dietary FA supplementation had no effect on growth performance, but it could upregulate the expression of slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein, increase the activities of succinic dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, and downregulate the expression of fast MyHC protein. Dietary FA supplementation also increased the expression levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), myocyte enhancer factor 2C, and troponin I-SS, increased the proportion of slow-twitch fiber, and decreased the proportion of fast-twitch fiber. In addition, our results showed that dietary FA supplementation increased the messenger RNA abundance of mitochondrial nuclear transcription genes, including ATP synthase membrane subunit c locus 1, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, mitochondrial transcription factor B1, and cytochrome c.

Conclusion: We provided the first evidence that FA could promote muscle fiber type conversion from fast-twitch to slow-twitch via the Sirt1/AMP-activated protein kinase/PGC-1α signaling pathway and could improve the mitochondrial function in weaned piglets. This means that FA can be used as a dietary supplement to improve the quality of pork. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11157DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of Chronic Exposure to Low Levels of Dietary Aflatoxin B on Growth Performance, Apparent Total Tract Digestibility and Intestinal Health in Pigs.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jan 29;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014, China.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to low levels of dietary aflatoxin B (AFB) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility and intestinal health in pigs. In a 102-day experiment, fourteen barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire, initial BW = 38.21 ± 0.45 kg) were randomly divided into control (CON, basal diet) and AFB groups (the basal diet supplemented with 280 μg/kg AFB). Results revealed that the AFB exposure decreased the final BW, ADFI and ADG in pigs ( < 0.10). AFB exposure also decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of dry mater and gross energy at 50 to 75 kg and 105 to 135 kg stages, and decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of ether extract at 75 to 105 kg stage ( < 0.05). Meanwhile, AFB exposure increased serum diamine oxidase activity and reduced the mRNA abundance of sodium-glucose cotransporter 1, solute carrier family 7 member 1 and zonula occluden-1 in the jejunal mucosa ( < 0.05). Furthermore, AFB exposure decreased superoxide dismutase activity ( < 0.05) and increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine content ( < 0.10) in jejunal mucosa. AFB exposure also increased tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and transforming growth factor-β mRNA abundance in jejunal mucosa and upregulated population in colon ( < 0.05). The data indicated that chronic exposure to low levels of dietary AFB suppressed growth performance, reduced the apparent total tract digestibility and damaged intestinal barrier integrity in pigs, which could be associated with the decreased intestinal antioxidant capacity and the increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11020336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911249PMC
January 2021

The effect of dietary pectic oligosaccharide supplementation on intestinal health of broiler breeders with different egg-laying rates.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 6;100(3):100938. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition and Feed of China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

This study was conducted to explore whether dietary pectic oligosaccharide (POS) supplementation could improve gut health of broiler breeders with different egg-laying rates. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used in this study. Two hundred fifty-six Arbor Acres broiler breeders (48 wk of age), including 128 average egg-laying rate and 128 low egg-laying rate (LELR) birds, were randomly fed with the diets supplemented with or without 200 mg kg of POS (n = 8). The trial lasted for 8 wk. Compared with average egg-laying rate broiler breeders, LELR broiler breeders had lower laying rate and qualified egg rate (P < 0.05), higher egg weight and feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05), higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the jejunum (P < 0.05), higher IL-6 (P < 0.05) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) (P = 0.07) mRNA expressions in the jejunal mucosa, and lower microflora diversity in cecal digesta. Dietary POS supplementation increased egg weight of broiler breeders (P < 0.05), enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in the jejunum (P < 0.05), decreased MDA level in the jejunum (P < 0.05), upregulated zonula occluden 1 mRNA expression in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05), downregulated IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expressions in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05), and regulated relative abundance of some microbiota (including the phylum and genus, P < 0.05). In addition, in LELR broiler breeders, POS administration enhanced villus height (P = 0.08) and ZO-2 mRNA expression (P = 0.09) in the jejunal mucosa, alleviated the increasing MDA level in the jejunum (P < 0.05) and IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expressions in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05), and regulated relative abundance of some microbiota (including the phylum and genus, P < 0.05). These results suggest that supplementing POS in diets may elevate gut health via improvement of intestinal barrier function, antioxidant capacity, and microbiota composition in broiler breeders with different egg-laying rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.12.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936170PMC
March 2021

Low-Molecular-Weight Chitosan Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in IPEC-J2 Cells by Inhibiting the Nuclear Factor-κB Signalling Pathway.

Molecules 2021 Jan 22;26(3). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LMWC), a product of chitosan deacetylation, possesses anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, a porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2, was used to assess the protective effects of LMWC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury. IPEC-J2 cells were pretreated with or without LMWC (400 μg/mL) in the presence or absence of LPS (5 μg/mL) for 6 h. LMWC pretreatment increased ( < 0.05) the occludin abundance and decreased ( < 0.05) the tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production, apoptosis rate and cleaved cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-3 (caspase-3) and -8 contents in LPS-treated IPEC-J2 cells. Moreover, LMWC pretreatment downregulated ( < 0.05) the expression levels of TNF receptor 1 () and TNFR-associated death domain and decreased ( < 0.05) the nuclear and cytoplasmic abundance of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 in LPS-stimulated IPEC-J2 cells. These results suggest that LMWC exerts a mitigation effect on LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell damage by suppressing TNFR1-mediated apoptosis and decreasing the production of proinflammatory cytokines via the inhibition of NF-κB signalling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865926PMC
January 2021

Tea bioactive components prevent carcinogenesis via anti-pathogen, anti-inflammation, and cell survival pathways.

IUBMB Life 2021 Feb 29;73(2):328-340. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistant Nutrition and Feed of China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Chengdu, China.

Cancer seriously impairs human health and survival. Many perturbations, such as increased oxidative stress, pathogen infection, and inflammation, promote the accumulation of DNA mutations, and ultimately lead to carcinogenesis. Tea is one of the most highly consumed beverages worldwide and has been linked to improvements in human health. Tea contains many active components, including tea polyphenols, tea polysaccharides, L-theanine, tea pigments, and caffeine among other common components. Several studies have identified components in tea that can directly or indirectly reduce carcinogenesis with some being used in a clinical setting. Many previous studies, in vitro and in vivo, have focused on the mechanisms that functional components of tea utilized to protect against cancer. One particular mechanism that has been well described is an improvement in antioxidant capacity seen with tea consumption. However, other mechanisms, including anti-pathogen, anti-inflammation and alterations in cell survival pathways, are also involved. The current review focuses on these anti-cancer mechanisms. This will be beneficial for clinical utilization of tea components in preventing and treating cancer in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.2445DOI Listing
February 2021
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