Publications by authors named "Daisuke Tomizawa"

136 Publications

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for infants with high-risk KMT2A gene rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

The role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and KMT2A gene rearrangement (KMT2A-r) is controversial in terms of both its efficacy and potential of acute and late toxicities. In the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group trial MLL-10, by introducing intensive chemotherapy, indication of HSCT was restricted to the patients with high-risk (HR) features only (KMT2A-r and either age <180 days or presence of central nervous system leukemia). Of the 56 HR patients, 49 achieved complete remission. Forty-three patients received HSCT in first remission including the 38 patients receiving protocol-specified HSCT with conditioning consisting of individualized targeted doses of busulfan, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide. Three-year event-free survival (EFS) of 56.8% (95%CI, 42.4%-68.8%) and overall survival of 80.2% (95%CI, 67.1%-88.5%) were accomplished. Univariable analysis showed Interfant-HR criteria and flowcytometric minimal residual disease (MRD) ≥0.01% both at end of induction and at end of consolidation (EOC) were significantly associated with poorer EFS. In the multivariable analysis, positive MRD at EOC was solely associated with poor EFS (P<0.001). Rapid pre-transplant MRD clearance and tailored HSCT strategy in the MLL-10 trial resulted in a favorable outcome for infants with HR KMT2A-r ALL. However, considering the high rate of potentially life-threatening toxicities and risk of late effects, its indication should be further restricted or even eliminated in the future by introducing more effective therapeutic modalities with minimal toxicities. This trial was registered at University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) as #UMIN000004801.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020004157DOI Listing
September 2021

Genetic features of precursor B-cell phenotype Burkitt leukemia with IGH-MYC rearrangement.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 Sep 2:e1545. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Research, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: An atypical form of Burkitt leukemia/lymphoma (BL), BL with a phenotype of precursor B-cells (preBLL), is listed in the WHO Classification. Recent reports suggested that preBLL and classical BL could be distinguished by the differences in IG-MYC translocation architecture and an additional mutated genes profile. The characteristics of classical BL are IG-MYC by aberrant somatic hypermutation or class switch recombination, and BL-specific gene mutations such as MYC, ID3, and CCND3. Meanwhile, preBLL is characterized by IG-MYC due to aberrant VDJ recombination and mutations in NRAS and KRAS. However, it is not clear whether all preBLL cases can be differentiated. This report investigated the molecular characteristics of an infant preBLL case, with a more advanced stage of maturity than typical preBLL.

Case: The patient showed BL-like morphology with IGH-MYC rearrangement. In the immunophenotyping, CD20 and surface immunoglobulin were negative, whereas other markers were consistent with BL. To evaluate the genetic contribution, we performed whole-exome sequencing. The breakpoint analysis revealed the IG-MYC occurred due to an aberrant VDJ recombination. Meanwhile, additional somatic mutations were detected in FBXO11, one of the mutant genes specific to BL. In the analysis of the specimen in complete remission, mutation in KRAS, frequently mutated in preBLL, was detected with low frequency, suggesting somatic mosaicism.

Conclusion: The present case showed the characteristics of both typical preBLL and classical BL. Because preBLL includes atypical cases such as the present case, further studies are required to elucidate preBLL features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cnr2.1545DOI Listing
September 2021

Sudden unexpected death caused by infantile acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2021 Aug 13;2021(8):omab073. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Paediatrics, Japanese Red Cross Maebashi Hospital, Gunma 371-0811, Japan.

A 7-week-old girl with a normal birth history suddenly developed respiratory distress while feeding. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated at home after she had a cardiac arrest and was continued in the emergency room but all efforts at resuscitation proved unsuccessful and she died 2 h after presentation. Investigations performed in the emergency room revealed that she had a significantly high white blood cell count and severe anaemia. The cause of death was identified as -rearranged infantile acute lymphoblastic leukaemia based on cytogenetic tests. She had no abnormalities at the 4-week check-up; however, she developed a skin nodule on her abdomen thereafter, and the family did not consult a doctor for fear of contracting COVID-19. Early detection and diagnosis could have changed the prognosis of the patient. The present case highlights the negative impact of the reduction of outpatient consultations during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/omcr/omab073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8366071PMC
August 2021

PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion-negative alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in Schuurs-Hoeijmakers syndrome.

J Hum Genet 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pediatrics and Developmental Biology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Tokyo, Japan.

PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion-negative alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) developed in a patient presenting with intellectual disability and dysmorphic facial features. Whole exome sequencing analysis of a germline sample identified a PACS1 c.607 C>T de novo variant and the patient was diagnosed with Schuurs-Hoeijmakers syndrome (SHS). SHS is a rare disease characterized by intellectual disability and dysmorphic facial features, among various physical abnormalities, due to PACS1 c.607 C>T de novo variant. Due to the rarity of the SHS, diagnosis based on phenotypic information is difficult. To date, there have been no previous reports describing malignancy associated with SHS. Comprehensive somatic mutation analysis revealed a unique pattern of genetic alterations in the PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion-negative ARMS tumor, including mutations in the oncogene, HRAS; MYOD1, a molecule essential for muscle differentiation; and KMT2C and TET1, genes encoding factors involved in epigenetic regulation. Although the role of PACS1 in tumorigenesis is unclear, it is reported to function in apoptosis regulation. Our case suggests that PACS1 could have a novel role in oncogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-021-00965-3DOI Listing
August 2021

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in infants: a quarter century of nationwide efforts in Japan.

Pediatr Int 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Japan.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with KMT2A gene rearrangement (KMT2A-r) in infants is a biologically and clinically unique disease and one of the most difficult-to-cure forms of pediatric leukemia. Continuing nationwide efforts by conducting multicenter clinical trials have been carried out in Japan since the mid-1990s by introducing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first remission, which led to a modest improvement in outcome of infants with KMT2A-r ALL. Because of the emerging evidence that HSCT does not benefit every infant with KMT2A-r ALL, the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) trial MLL-10 introduced risk stratification using age and presence of CNS leukemia and introduced intensive chemotherapy including high-dose cytarabine in early consolidation; indication of HSCT was restricted to the patients with high-risk features. The trial resulted in excellent 3-year event-free survival of 66.2% (standard error [SE], 5.6%) and overall survival of 83.9% (SE, 4.3%) for 75 patients with KMT2A-r ALL recruited between 2011 and 2015. This Japanese experience and the results of the infant ALL trials worldwide suggest the importance of introducing effective therapy in the early phase of therapy, thus clearing minimal residual disease as rapidly as possible. However, further improvement in outcome is unlikely with conventional treatment approaches. Introduction of biology-driven novel agents and/or immunotherapies through international collaboration would be key solutions to overcome the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.14935DOI Listing
July 2021

A Prospective Viral Monitoring Study After Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Malignant and Nonmalignant Diseases.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Advanced Medicine for Viral Infections, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the treatment of choice for many high-risk pediatric hematological malignant diseases (MD) and several nonmalignant diseases (NMD), including primary immune deficiencies. Infections must be managed to obtain better outcomes after HSCT. In this prospective observational study, viral monitoring was performed on 74 pediatric patients with MD and NMD who underwent HSCT. The incidence, risk factors, and impact of common opportunistic viral infections occurring within the first 100 days following HSCT were assessed. The viral pathogens included human herpesviruses, BK polyomavirus (BKV), adenovirus, parvovirus B19, and hepatitis B virus. In total, 52 (70%) patients had viral DNAemia, and 53% and 41% of patients developed human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAemia, respectively. The risk factors were as follows: negative CMV serology for any viral infections; age ≥ 2 years and negative CMV serology for HHV-6; age ≥5 years and female sex for BKV. The risk of viral infection did not significantly differ between MD and NMD, and no risk factor was identified for viral disease, likely because of the small sample numbers. However, despite the absence of symptoms, CMV DNAemia was found to increase the risk of mortality. The findings of the current study could improve the risk stratification and the management of pediatric HSCT recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.07.014DOI Listing
July 2021

Life-threatening oral mucositis following chemotherapy in a pediatric patient.

Clin Case Rep 2021 Jun 10;9(6):e04356. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Critical Care Medicine National Center for Child Health and Development Tokyo Japan.

Severe oral mucositis as a complication of chemotherapy may lead to airway obstruction and require prolonged intubation. As its course is consistent with the course of neutropenia, airway management strategies should be determined individually.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.4356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190677PMC
June 2021

Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of the minor clone of KIT D816V in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia especially showing RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcripts.

Br J Haematol 2021 Jul 13;194(2):414-422. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

KIT D816V mutation within exon 17 has been particularly reported as one of the poor prognostic factors in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with RUNX1-RUNX1T1. The exact frequency and the prognostic impact of KIT D816V minor clones at diagnosis were not examined. In this study, the minor clones were examined and the prognostic significance of KIT D816V mutation in pediatric patients was investigated. Consequently, 24 KIT D816V mutations (7.2%) in 335 pediatric patients were identified, and 12 of 24 were only detected via the digital droplet polymerase chain reaction method. All 12 patients were confined in core binding factor (CBF)-AML patients. The 5 year event-free survival of the patients with KIT D816V mutation was significantly inferior to those without KIT D816V mutation (44.1% [95% confidence interval (CI), 16.0%-69.4%] vs. 74.7% [95% CI, 63.0%-83.2%] P-value = 0.02, respectively). The 5 year overall survival was not different between the two groups (92.9% [95% CI, 59.0%-NA vs. 89.7% [95% CI, 69.6%-96.8%] P-value = 0.607, respectively). In this study, KIT D816V minor clones in patients with CBF-AML were confirmed and KIT D816V was considered as a risk factor for relapse in patients with RUNX1-RUNX1T1-positive AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17569DOI Listing
July 2021

Utility of emergent plain X-ray for childhood acute leukemia with bone pain.

Pediatr Int 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Radiology, NCCHD, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: We aimed to evaluate the utility of plain X-ray radiograph (PXR) findings in suggesting a diagnosis of acute leukemia in children presenting with bone pain in the emergency department (ED) of a children's hospital.

Methods: Using our radiology reporting system and registered data for childhood acute leukemia, we collected data regarding patients who underwent musculoskeletal PXR examinations in the ED because of bone pain in their extremities from March 1, 2002 to June 30, 2015. We retrospectively reviewed their PXR findings and clinical information from the electronic medical records.

Results: A total of 1331 patients underwent PXR examinations and 12 among them had suspected acute leukemia from PXR findings. From the registered data, we found 12 acute leukemia patients who underwent emergency extremity PXR. Ten patients were finally confirmed to have acute leukemia by bone marrow examinations. The most common finding was lucent metaphyseal bands demonstrated in seven cases, whereas six patients did not show any abnormalities in their peripheral blood cell counts. Sensitivity and specificity values of PXR for acute leukemia diagnosis were 90.0% and 99.8%, respectively. Positive predictive value and negative predictive values were 75.0% and 99.9%.

Conclusions: PXR is a useful diagnostic tool to detect possible acute leukemia in patients presenting with bone pain earlier than abnormalities of their peripheral blood cell counts. Our results implied the possibility of having acute leukemia and re-examining PXRs more carefully, even when there are no abnormalities in blood cell counts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.14843DOI Listing
May 2021

Intestinal outcome of bone marrow transplantation for monogenic inflammatory bowel disease.

Pediatr Int 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Center for Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Division of Gastroenterology, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Some monogenic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are known to be refractory to conventional treatments. Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has become a curative therapeutic option for certain monogenic IBDs, its effectiveness regarding endoscopic improvements has not been clarified.

Methods: The clinical course and endoscopic findings of patients with monogenic IBDs who were treated with allo-HSCT between December 2017 and November 2018 at the National Center for Child Health and Development, were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical disease activity was assessed using the weighted Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (wPCDAI) and the endoscopic finding was evaluated using the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD). Clinical remission was defined as a wPCDAI <10 and endoscopic remission was defined as an SES-CD of 2 or less.

Results: Four patients with severe monogenic IBDs, including three with X-linked inhibitors of apoptosis protein (XIAP) deficiency and one with interleukin-10 signaling defect, were treated with allo-HSCT with reduced-intensity conditioning. In four patients, the maximum scores of wPCDAI and SES-CD before allo-HSCT ranged from 67.5 to 120 and 20 to 34, respectively. After allo-HSCT, all four patients showed a significant improvement in intestinal inflammation and achieved both clinical and endoscopic remission. Although patients with XIAP deficiency presented with post-transplant hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and a relatively late engraftment, all patients achieved prolonged clinical remission, and IBD medications were successfully discontinued in all patients.

Conclusion: Allo-HSCT for monogenic IBD resulted in complete clinical resolution with endoscopically confirmed mucosal healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.14750DOI Listing
April 2021

Two-point blood sampling is sufficient and necessary to estimate the area under the concentration-time curve for intravenous busulfan in infants and young children.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Aug 21;68(8):e29069. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pharmaceuticals, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Therapeutic drug monitoring for busulfan is important to prevent adverse events and improve outcomes in stem cell transplantation. We investigated intravenous busulfan pharmacokinetics and evaluated the utility of limited sampling strategy (LSS) as a simple method to estimate the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC).

Procedure: The study comprised 87 busulfan measurements in 54 children who received intravenous busulfan between August 2015 and May 2020. AUCs were calculated from three to five blood sampling points in each patient, and the correlation between AUC and plasma concentrations (ng/mL) at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after initiating busulfan infusion (C , C , C , C , and C , respectively).

Results: By one-point sampling strategy, the most relevant predicted AUC was based on C (r  = 0.789; precision, 11.0%) in all patients. The predicted AUC based on C was acceptable (r  = 0.937; precision, 5.9%) for adolescent patients weighing >23 kg, but the correlation was poor in infants and young children weighing ≤ 23 kg (r  = 0.782; precision, 11.4%). By two-point sampling strategy, the predicted AUC based on C and C showed the most relevant concentrations (r  = 0.943; precision, 6.4%), even in infants and young children, whereas the predicted AUC based on C and C was acceptable (r  = 0.963; precision, 5.7%).

Conclusions: The AUC of busulfan can be predicted based on C in adolescent patients. However, there was substantial interindividual variation in busulfan pharmacokinetics in infants and young children, in whom two-point LSS was necessary for accurate AUC prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.29069DOI Listing
August 2021

Clinical significance of RAS pathway alterations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.

Haematologica 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Gunma Children's Medical Center, Gunma, Japan; Institute of Physiology and Medicine, Jobu University, Gunma.

RAS pathway alterations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various hematological malignancies. However, their clinical relevance in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is not well characterized. We analyzed the frequency, clinical significance, and prognostic relevance of RAS pathway alterations in 328 pediatric patients with de novo AML. RAS pathway alterations were detected in 80 (24.4%) out of 328 patients: NF1 (n = 7, 2.1%), PTPN11 (n = 15, 4.6%), CBL (n = 6, 1.8%), NRAS (n = 44, 13.4%), KRAS (n = 12, 3.7%). Most of these alterations were mutually exclusive and were also mutually exclusive with other aberrations of signal transduction pathways such as FLT3-ITD (p = 0.001) and KIT mutation (p = 0.004). NF1 alterations were frequently detected in patients with complex karyotype (p = 0.031) and were found to be independent predictors of poor overall survival (OS) in multivariate analysis (p = 0.007). At least four of seven patients with NF1 alterations had bi-allelic inactivation. NRAS mutations were frequently observed in patients with CBFB-MYH11 and were independent predictors of favorable outcomes in multivariate analysis [OS, p = 0.023; event-free survival (EFS), p = 0.037]. Patients with PTPN11 mutations more frequently received stem cell transplantation (p = 0.035) and showed poor EFS than patients without PTPN11 mutations (p = 0.013). Detailed analysis of RAS pathway alterations may enable a more accurate prognostic stratification of pediatric AML and may provide novel therapeutic molecular targets related to this signal transduction pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.269431DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of extramedullary disease on allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: a nationwide retrospective study.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Aug 10;56(8):1859-1865. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Japanese Data Center for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Nagoya, Japan.

Children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) commonly develop extramedullary disease (EMD), which comprises central nervous system (CNS) lesions and myeloid sarcoma (MS). In this retrospective analysis, we aimed to determine the effect of EMD on the outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in 678 pediatric patients with de novo AML (median age, 7 years; range, 0.3-15 years) between 2006 and 2016. We compared the outcomes between patients with (EMD group, n = 158; CNS lesion, n = 47, CNS lesion + MS, n = 9, and MS, n = 102) and without EMD at diagnosis (non-EMD group, n = 520). Survivors were followed for a median of 4.5 years, and the 4-year overall survival (OS) rates were 60.6% and 56.4% in the EMD and non-EMD groups, respectively (P = 0.60). No significant differences in OS were observed with respect to the EMD site, except bone lesions, which were associated with poor OS after HCT in a non-remission status. A multivariate analysis revealed that EMD did not affect the outcomes of HCT. In conclusion, the study findings suggest that EMD should not be considered a poor prognostic factor in HCT for children with AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01250-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Post-induction MRD by FCM and GATA1-PCR are significant prognostic factors for myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome.

Leukemia 2021 09 15;35(9):2508-2516. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Division of Leukemia and Lymphoma, Children's Cancer Center, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome (ML-DS) is associated with good response to chemotherapy, resulting in favorable outcomes. However, no universal prognostic factors have been identified to date. To clarify a subgroup with high risk of relapse, the role of minimal residual disease (MRD) was explored in the AML-D11 trial by the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group. MRD was prospectively evaluated at after induction therapy and at the end of all chemotherapy, using flow cytometry (FCM-MRD) and GATA1-targeted deep sequencing (GATA1-MRD). A total of 78 patients were eligible and 76 patients were stratified to the standard risk (SR) group by morphology. In SR patients, FCM-MRD and GATA1-MRD after induction were positive in 5/65 and 7/59 patients, respectively. Three-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 95.0% and 96.7% in the FCM-MRD-negative population, and 60.0% and 80.0% in the positive population. Three-year EFS and OS rates were both 98.1% in the GATA1-MRD-negative population, and 57.1% and 71.4% in the positive population. Adjusted hazard ratios for associations of FCM-MRD with EFS were 14.67 (p = 0.01). Detection of MRD by either FCM or GATA1 after initial induction therapy represents a significant prognostic factor for predicting ML-DS relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01157-wDOI Listing
September 2021

Targeting critical kinases and anti-apoptotic molecules overcomes steroid resistance in MLL-rearranged leukaemia.

EBioMedicine 2021 Feb 10;64:103235. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Laboratory for Human Disease Models, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with mixed lineage leukaemia gene rearrangement (MLL-ALL) frequently affects infants and is associated with a poor prognosis. Primary refractory and relapsed disease due to resistance to glucocorticoids (GCs) remains a substantial hurdle to improving clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to overcome GC resistance of MLL-ALL.

Methods: Using leukaemia patient specimens, we performed bioinformatic analyses to identify target genes/pathways. To test inhibition of target pathways in vivo, we created pre-clinical therapeutic mouse patient-derived xenograft (PDX)-models by transplanting human MLL-ALL leukaemia initiating cells (LIC) into immune-deficient NSG mice. Finally, we conducted B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) homology domain 3 (BH3) profiling to identify BH3 peptides responsible for treatment resistance in MLL-leukaemia.

Findings: Src family kinases (SFKs) and Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) signaling pathway were over-represented in MLL-ALL cells. PDX-models of infant MLL- ALL recapitulated GC-resistance in vivo but RK-20449, an inhibitor of SFKs and FLT3 eliminated human MLL-ALL cells in vivo, overcoming GC-resistance. Further, we identified BCL-2 dependence as a mechanism of treatment resistance in MLL-ALL through BH3 profiling. Furthermore, MLL-ALL cells resistant to RK-20449 treatment were dependent on the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein for their survival. Combined inhibition of SFKs/FLT3 by RK-20449 and of BCL-2 by ABT-199 led to substantial elimination of MLL-ALL cells in vitro and in vivo. Triple treatment combining GCs, RK-20449 and ABT-199 resulted in complete elimination of MLL-ALL cells in vivo.

Interpretation: SFKs/FLT3 signaling pathways are promising targets for treatment of treatment-resistant MLL-ALL. Combined inhibition of these kinase pathways and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 successfully eliminated highly resistant MLL-ALL and demonstrated a new treatment strategy for treatment-resistant poor-outcome MLL-ALL.

Funding: This study was supported by RIKEN (RIKEN President's Discretionary Grant) for FI, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (the Basic Science and Platform Technology Program for Innovative Biological Medicine for FI and by NIH CA034196 for LDS. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation nor writing of the report.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878180PMC
February 2021

Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Reduced Intensity Conditioning Using Fludarabine/Busulfan or Fludarabine/Melphalan for Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 1;41(5):944-957. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Pediatrics and Developmental Biology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: The purpose of our study was to compare the safety and efficacy of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using fludarabine (Flu)-based reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) with busulfan (BU) or melphalan (Mel) for primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed transplant outcome, including engraftment, chimerism, immune reconstitution, and complications in 15 patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and 27 patients with non-SCID PID. The patients underwent Flu-based RIC-HCT with BU (FluBU: 7 SCID, 16 non-SCID) or Mel (FluMel: 8 SCID, 11 non-SCID). The targeted low-dose BU with therapeutic drug monitoring was set to 30 mg hour/L for SCID.

Results: The 2-year overall survival of all patients was 79.6% and that of patients with SCID in the FluBU and FluMel groups was 100% and 62.5%, respectively. In the FluBU group, all seven patients achieved engraftment, good immune reconstitution, and long-term survival. All five patients receiving umbilical cord blood transplantation achieved complete or high-level mixed chimerism and sufficient specific IgG production. In the FluMel group, six of eight patients achieved complete or high-level mixed chimerism. Viral reactivation or new viral infection occurred in one FluBU group patient and four FluMel group patients. In the non-SCID group, 10 of 11 patients (91%) who received FluMel achieved complete or high-level mixed chimerism but had variable outcomes. Patients with WAS (2/2 patients), NEMO deficiency (2/2 patients), and X-linked hyper IgM syndrome (2/3 patients) who received FluBU achieved complete or high-level mixed chimerism and long-term survival.

Conclusions: RIC-HCT with FluBU is a safe and effective strategy for obtaining high-level donor chimerism, immune reconstitution including B cell function, and long-term survival in patients with SCID. In patients with non-SCID PID, the results varied according to the subtype of the disease. Further prospective studies are required to optimize the conditioning regimen for non-SCID PID.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-021-00966-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Fusion partner-specific mutation profiles and KRAS mutations as adverse prognostic factors in MLL-rearranged AML.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(19):4623-4631

Department of Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangements are among the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). MLL fusion patterns are associated with the patient's prognosis; however, their relationship with driver mutations is unclear. We conducted sequence analyses of 338 genes in pediatric patients with MLL-rearranged (MLL-r) AML (n = 56; JPLSG AML-05 study) alongside data from the TARGET study's pediatric cohorts with MLL-r AML (n = 104), non-MLL-r AML (n = 581), and adult MLL-r AML (n = 81). KRAS mutations were most frequent in pediatric patients with high-risk MLL fusions (MLL-MLLLT10, MLL-MLLT4, and MLL-MLLT1). Pediatric patients with MLL-r AML (n = 160) and a KRAS mutation (KRAS-MT) had a significantly worse prognosis than those without a KRAS mutation (KRAS-WT) (5-year event-free survival [EFS]: 51.8% vs 18.3%, P < .0001; 5-year overall survival [OS]: 67.3% vs 44.3%, P = .003). The adverse prognostic impact of KRAS mutations was confirmed in adult MLL-r AML. KRAS mutations were associated with adverse prognoses in pediatric patients with both high-risk (MLLT10+MLLT4+MLLT1; n = 60) and intermediate-to-low-risk (MLLT3+ELL+others; n = 100) MLL fusions. The prognosis did not differ significantly between patients with non-MLL-r AML with KRAS-WT or KRAS-MT. Multivariate analysis showed the presence of a KRAS mutation to be an independent prognostic factor for EFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-3.59; P = .002) and OS (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.01-3.31; P = .045) in MLL-r AML. The mutation is a distinct adverse prognostic factor in MLL-r AML, regardless of risk subgroup, and is potentially useful for accurate treatment stratification. This trial was registered at the UMIN (University Hospital Medical Information Network) Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR; http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm) as #UMIN000000511.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556160PMC
October 2020

The outcomes of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia in children: Results from the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-05R study.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 01 29;68(1):e28736. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Division of Leukemia and Lymphoma, Children's Cancer Center, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The prognosis of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has improved with the efficacy of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) as a second-line therapy and improvements in supportive care following anthracycline- and cytarabine-based chemotherapy; however, the outcomes of children with relapsed AML still remain unsatisfactory.

Procedure: In order to identify prognostic factors and improve their prognosis, we analyzed 111 patients who relapsed after treatment with the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) AML-05 protocol and who were registered in the retrospective JPLSG AML-05R study.

Results: The 5-year overall survival rate was 36.1%. The major determinant of survival was duration from the diagnosis to relapse. The mean duration in the nonsurviving group (10.1 ± 4.1 months) was shorter than that in the surviving group (16.3 ± 8.3 months) (P < .01). Moreover, achieving a second complete remission (CR2) prior to HCT was associated with a good prognosis (P < .01). Etoposide, cytarabine, and mitoxantrone (ECM)- or fludarabine, cytarabine, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (FLAG)-based regimens were therefore recommended for reinduction therapy (P < .01). A genetic analysis also revealed the prognostic significance of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-internal tandem duplication as a poor prognostic marker (P = .04) and core binding factor-AML, t(8;21), and inv(16) as good prognostic markers (P < .01).

Conclusions: Achieving a CR2 prior to HCT is important in order to improve the prognosis of relapsed pediatric AML. Recent molecular targeted therapies, such as FLT3 inhibitors, may contribute to overcome their prognoses. Larger prospective investigations are necessary to establish individualized treatment strategies for patients with relapsed childhood AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28736DOI Listing
January 2021

Long-term outcome in patients with Fanconi anemia who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective nationwide analysis.

Int J Hematol 2021 Jan 19;113(1):134-144. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Innovative Medical Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa, 259-1193, Japan.

We retrospectively analyzed nationwide records of 163 Fanconi anemia (FA) patients [aplastic anemia (AA), n = 118; myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), n = 30; acute leukemia, n = 15] who underwent first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between 1987 and 2015 in Japan. An alternative donor was used in 119 (73%) patients, and 160 (98%) patients received a non-T-cell-depleted graft. With an 8.7-year median follow-up, 5-year overall survival (OS) was 81%. The 5-year OS was significantly higher in AA patients than in MDS and acute leukemia patients (89%, 71%, and 44%, respectively). In the MDS/leukemia group, factors associated with poor outcome in univariate analysis were older age at HSCT (≥ 18 years), conditioning regimen without anti-thymocyte or lymphocyte globulin, and grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease. After 1 year, of 137 survivors, 15 developed subsequent malignancies, of whom 12 were diagnosed with head and neck (HN)/esophageal cancer. An irradiation regimen and older age were associated with the risk of HN/esophageal cancer. Five of seven deaths were attributed to subsequent malignancies more than 5 years after HSCT. On the basis of the risk factors for HSCT in MDS/leukemia patients and subsequent malignancies, a more effective HSCT approach is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02991-xDOI Listing
January 2021

Attempts to optimize postinduction treatment in childhood acute myeloid leukemia without core-binding factors: A report from the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG).

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 12 4;67(12):e28692. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Human Health Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

We previously reported that risk-stratified therapy and intensive postremission chemotherapy (PRC) contributed to the improved survival of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the AML99 study, which led us to consider a reduction in the number of PRC courses with more restrictive indications for stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the successor AML-05 study. We here report the outcome of AML patients without core-binding factor mutation (non-CBF AML) in the AML-05 study. Two-hundred eighty-nine children (age < 18 years old) with non-CBF AML were eligible. Patients with unfavorable cytogenetics and/or poor bone marrow response to the first induction course were candidates for SCT in the AML-05 study. After two courses of induction, a further three courses of PRC were given in AML-05, while four courses were given in the AML99 study. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) rate in the AML-05 study (46.7%, 95% CI: 40.6-52.6%) was comparable to that of non-CBF AML in the AML99 study (51.5%, 95% CI: 42.7-59.6%) (P = .16). However, the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate in the AML-05 study (62.9%, 95% CI: 56.3-68.8%) was slightly lower than that in the AML99 study (71.6%, 95% CI: 63.2-78.5%) (P = .060), mainly due to decreased remission induction rate and increased nonrelapsed mortality. In conclusion, reductions in the number of PRC courses from four to three, together with repetitive cycles of high-dose cytarabine, were acceptable for non-CBF childhood AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28692DOI Listing
December 2020

A risk-stratified therapy for infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the JPLSG MLL-10 trial.

Blood 2020 10;136(16):1813-1823

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Saitama Children's Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

The prognosis for infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), particularly those with KMT2A gene rearrangement (KMT2A-r), is dismal. Continuous efforts have been made in Japan to investigate the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for infants with KMT2A-r ALL, but improvement in outcome was modest. In the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group MLL-10 trial, infants with ALL were stratified into 3 risk groups (low risk [LR], intermediate risk [IR], and high risk [HR]) according to KMT2A status, age, and presence of central nervous system leukemia. Children's Oncology Group AALL0631 modified chemotherapy with the addition of high-dose cytarabine in early intensification was introduced to KMT2A-r patients, and the option of HSCT was restricted to HR patients only. The role of minimal residual disease (MRD) was also evaluated. Ninety eligible infants were stratified into LR (n = 15), IR (n = 19), or HR (n = 56) risk groups. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) rate for patients with KMT2A-r ALL (IR + HR) was 66.2% (standard error [SE], 5.6%), and for those with germline KMT2A (KMT2A-g) ALL (LR), the 3-year EFS rate was 93.3% (SE, 6.4%). The 3-year EFS rate was 94.4% (SE, 5.4%) for IR patients and 56.6% (SE, 6.8%) for HR patients. In multivariable analysis, female sex and MRD ≥0.01% at the end of early consolidation were significant factors for poor prognosis. Risk stratification and introduction of intensive chemotherapy in this study were effective and were able to eliminate HSCT for a subset of infants with KMT2A-r ALL. Early clearance of MRD seems to have translated into favorable outcomes and should be incorporated into risk stratifications in future trials. This trial was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) as #UMIN000004801.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019004741DOI Listing
October 2020

Prospective Study of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide and Antithymocyte Globulin from HLA-Mismatched Related Donors for Nonmalignant Diseases.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 11 14;26(11):e286-e291. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Children's Cancer Center, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Research, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is performed as a curative treatment for children with nonmalignant diseases, such as bone marrow failure syndromes and primary immunodeficiencies. Because graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) is a major factor affecting survival probability and quality of life after HSCT, the availability of HLA-matched donors restricts the application of HSCT. Recently, HSCT with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has emerged as a potent method to prevent GVHD after HSCT from HLA-haploidentical donors, and some studies have suggested the safety of PTCy-HSCT for nonmalignant diseases. We conducted a prospective clinical trial aiming to help confirm the safety of HSCT and further reduction of GVHD using a combination of PTCy and low-dose antithymocyte globulin (ATG) from HLA-mismatched related donors for children with nonmalignant diseases. Six patients underwent HSCT and achieved engraftment at a median of 14.5 days, and no patient developed severe acute GVHD. All patients had sustained donor chimerism without developing chronic GVHD at the last follow-up. In conclusion, HSCT with PTCy and low-dose ATG from an HLA-mismatched related donor were feasible to control GVHD for nonmalignant diseases in the children involved in our study. © 2020 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.08.008DOI Listing
November 2020

Prevalence of germline GATA2 and SAMD9/9L variants in paediatric haematological disorders with monosomy 7.

Br J Haematol 2020 12 7;191(5):835-843. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Research, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Monosomy 7 (-7) occurs in various types of paediatric myeloid disorders and has a poor prognosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that patients with germline gain-of-function SAMD9/9L variants and loss-of-function GATA2 variants are prone to developing myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) associated with -7. However, the prevalence of the genetic variants among paediatric haematologic disorders with -7 is unknown. The present study screened germline variants of GATA2 and SAMD9/9L in 25 patients with various types of paediatric haematological disorders associated with -7. The diagnoses of the 25 patients included MDS (n = 10), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myeloid sarcomas (n = 9), juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (n = 3) and other disorders (n = 3). Seven patients with a germline pathogenic GATA2 variant were found. For SAMD9/9L screening, next-generation sequencing was used to detect low-abundance variants and found four novel germline variants. Functional analysis revealed that three out of the four variants showed growth-restricting capacity in vitro and thus, were judged to be pathogenic. Cases with GATA2 mutation tended to be older, compared to those with SAMD9/9L mutations. In conclusion, GATA2 and SAMD9/9L were sequenced in 25 patients with paediatric haematologic disorders associated with -7, and 40% of them were found to have some pathogenic germline variants in the three genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17006DOI Listing
December 2020

Isolated Central Nervous System Progression During Systemic Treatment With Brentuximab Vedotin Monotherapy in a Pediatric Patient With Recurrent ALK-negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 08;43(6):e864-e866

Department of Pediatrics, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kanagawa.

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is uncommon. CNS prophylaxis is not regularly included in second-line treatments for patients who develop CNS-negative relapses. We report a pediatric case of recurrent ALK-negative ALCL who developed isolated CNS progression during the treatment with brentuximab vedotin monotherapy. The patient achieved CNS remission after receiving the CNS-directed treatments including craniospinal irradiation. There is no evidence regarding whether brentuximab vedotin can cross the blood-brain barrier. CNS prophylaxis should be considered in high-risk patients with relapsed ALCL who receive second-line treatments containing agents with limited CNS penetration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001914DOI Listing
August 2021

Living-donor liver transplantation providing an adequate chemotherapy for a pediatric patient with anaplastic large cell lymphoma complicated with liver failure due to the aggravation of biliary hepatopathy by secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

Int J Hematol 2020 Dec 24;112(6):900-905. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Children's Cancer Center, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) accounts for 10-15% of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases; it is generally chemo-sensitive and is one of the most curable pediatric cancers. We report here a case of pediatric ALCL complicated with acute liver failure due to the aggravation of pre-existing biliary hepatopathy by lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Although the initial treatment response against ALCL was very good, poor and irreversible liver function due to biliary cirrhosis worsening by lymphoma-associated HLH prevented the patient from receiving further consolidation chemotherapies. To make matters worse, his condition was accompanied with intrahepatic fungal pseudoaneurysm and invasive fungal infection. Thus, we decided to perform an urgent living-donor liver transplantation from his father to correct the patient's liver function and make it possible to proceed with further ALCL therapy. After the living-donor liver transplantation, the patient successfully received consolidation therapy with brentuximab vedotin. To our knowledge, this may be an early reported case of a pediatric patient undergoing liver transplantation during treatment for ALCL. In most patients with HLH-associated ALCL, liver function improves when ALCL is controlled. However, acute liver failure is occasionally observed in HLH cases with pre-existing liver dysfunction. In such cases, liver transplantation should be considered to correct liver dysfunctions if the disease control of HLH is satisfactory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02949-zDOI Listing
December 2020

A case of human herpesvirus 6 encephalitis following pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: early diagnosis and treatment matters.

Int J Hematol 2020 Nov 11;112(5):751-754. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Children's Cancer Center, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is one of the life-threatening infectious complications with significant morbidity and mortality following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Clinically, the diagnosis of HHV-6 encephalitis can be challenging due to a lack of specific symptoms and definitive diagnostic tests. We report a pediatric HSCT recipient who developed late-onset HHV-6 encephalitis without typical radiographic findings. The routine viral infection monitoring protocol contributed to the prompt diagnosis of HHV-6 encephalitis and early therapeutic intervention. The patient was treated successfully without any neurological complications attributable to HHV-6 encephalitis. HHV-6 encephalitis should remain in the differential diagnosis as an important but treatable disease, even for several months after HSCT and even without radiographic findings. Whenever HHV-6 encephalitis is suspected, antivirals should be initiated promptly to prevent its complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02905-xDOI Listing
November 2020

Impact of immunophenotypic characteristics on genetic subgrouping in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group (TCCSG) study L04-16.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2020 10 16;59(10):551-561. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Research, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development (Research Institute, National Center for Child Health and Development, NCCHD), Tokyo, Japan.

Immunophenotyping was performed in 1044 consecutive childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients enrolled in the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group L04-16 trial, revealing novel findings associated with genetic abnormalities. In addition to TCF3-PBX1 and MEF2D fusions, the CD10 subtype of KMT2A-MLLT3-positive ALL frequently exhibited the cytoplasmic-μ pre-B ALL immunophenotype. Although ETV6-RUNX1 was significantly correlated with myeloid antigen expression, more than half of patients expressed neither CD33 nor CD13, while the CD27 /CD44 immunophenotype was maintained. Expression of CD117 and CD56 in B-cell precursor-ALL was limited to certain subtypes including ETV6-RUNX1 and KMT2A-MLLT3. Besides BCR-ABL1, CRLF2, hyperdiploidy, and hypodiploidy, CD66c was also expressed in Ph-like kinase fusion-, PAX5 fusion-, and DUX4 fusion-positive ALL, but not in MEF2D fusion-positive ALL, indicating constant selectivity of CD66c expression. In T-ALL, SIL-TAL1-positive patients were likely to exhibit a more mature immunophenotype. Expression of CD21 and CD10 was not rare in T-ALL, while lack of CD28 was an additional feature of early T-cell precursor-ALL. Considering the immunophenotype as a prognostic maker, MEF2D fusion-positive ALL with CD5 expression may be associated with a poorer prognosis in comparison with those lacking CD5 expression. In cases with characteristic marker expression, the presence of certain fusion transcripts could be predicted accurately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22858DOI Listing
October 2020

Predisposition to prolonged neutropenia after chemotherapy for paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia is associated with better prognosis in the Japanese Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-05 study.

Br J Haematol 2021 04 26;193(1):176-180. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Division of Leukemia and Lymphoma, Children's Cancer Center, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

The variability in myelosuppression after chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) can affect its prognosis; however, the underlying mechanism remains controversial. In the Japanese Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-05 study, we showed that prolonged neutropenia was associated with high overall survival (P = 0·011) and low frequency of relapse (P = 0·042) in patients without granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) who completed the indicated treatment protocol. Our data indicate that predisposition to prolonged neutropenia after chemotherapy is correlated with a better outcome of AML treatment. Our results promote the usage of individualised drug dosing strategies to improve the therapeutic outcome in AML patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16656DOI Listing
April 2021
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