Publications by authors named "Dainis Krievins"

35 Publications

Percutaneous Femoropopliteal Bypass: 2-Year Results of the DETOUR System.

J Endovasc Ther 2021 Aug 31:15266028211034862. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Purpose: This study investigated the 2-year safety and effectiveness of the PQ Bypass DETOUR system as a percutaneous femoropopliteal bypass.

Materials And Methods: Seventy-eight patients with 82 long-segment femoropopliteal lesions were enrolled in this prospective, single-arm, multicenter study. The DETOUR system deployed Torus stent grafts directed through a transvenous route. Eligible patients included those with lesions of >10 cm and average of 371±55 mm. Key safety endpoints included major adverse events (MAEs) and symptomatic deep venous thrombosis in the target limb. Effectiveness endpoints included primary patency defined as freedom from ≥50% stenosis, occlusion, or clinically-driven target vessel revascularization (CD-TVR), primary assisted, and secondary patency.

Results: Chronic total occlusions and severe calcium occurred in 96% and 67% of lesions, respectively. Core laboratory-assessed total lesion length averaged 371±51 mm with a mean occlusion length of 159±88 mm. The rates of technical and procedural success were 96%, with satisfactory delivery and deployment of the device without in-hospital MAEs in 79/82 limbs. The MAE rate was 22.0%, with 3 unrelated deaths (4%), 12 CD-TVRs (16%), and 1 major amputation (1%). Deep venous thrombosis developed in 2.8% of target limbs, and there were no reported pulmonary emboli. Primary, assisted primary, and secondary patency rates by the Kaplan-Meier analysis were 79±5%, 79±5%, and 86±4%, respectively.

Conclusions: The PQ Bypass DETOUR system is a safe and effective percutaneous alternative to femoropopliteal open bypass with favorable results through 2 years. The DETOUR system provides a durable alternative to conventional endovascular modalities and open surgery for patients with long, severely calcified, or occluded femoropopliteal lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15266028211034862DOI Listing
August 2021

Low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin in older patients with peripheral artery disease undergoing acute limb revascularization: insights from the VOYAGER PAD trial.

Eur Heart J 2021 10;42(39):4040-4048

CPC Clinical Research, 2115 N Scranton Street, Suite 2040, Aurora, CO, USA.

Aims: In this secondary analysis of the VOYAGER trial, rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice/day plus aspirin 100 mg/day was assessed in older adults. Advanced age is associated with elevated bleeding risk and unfavourable net benefit for dual antiplatelet therapy in chronic coronary artery disease. The risk-benefit of low-dose rivaroxaban in patients ≥75 years with peripheral artery disease (PAD) after lower extremity revascularization (LER) has not been described.

Methods And Results: The primary endpoint was a composite of acute limb ischaemia, major amputation, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety outcome was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major bleeding analysed by the pre-specified age cut-off of 75 years. Of 6564 patients randomized, 1330 (20%) were >75 years. Absolute 3-year Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence rates for primary efficacy (23.4% vs. 19.0%) and safety (3.5% vs. 1.5%) endpoints were higher in elderly vs. non-elderly patients. Efficacy of rivaroxaban (P-interaction 0.83) and safety (P-interaction 0.38) was consistent irrespective of age. The combination of intracranial and fatal bleeding was not increased in patients >75 years (2 rivaroxaban vs. 8 placebo). Overall, benefits (absolute risk reduction 3.8%, number needed to treat 26 for the primary endpoint) exceeded risks (absolute risk increase 0.81%, number needed to harm 123 for TIMI major bleeding).

Conclusion: Patients ≥75 years with PAD are at both heightened ischaemic and bleeding risk after LER. No excess harm with respect to major, intracranial or fatal bleeding was seen in older patients yet numerically greater absolute benefits were observed. This suggests that low-dose rivaroxaban combined with aspirin should be considered in PAD after LER regardless of age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab408DOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Surgical Revascularization: Insights From the VOYAGER PAD Trial.

Circulation 2021 Oct 12;144(14):1104-1116. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO (M.R.N., N.G., W.H.C., T.B., N.J., C.N.H., W.R.H., M.P.B.).

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease requiring lower extremity revascularization (LER) are at high risk of adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The VOYAGER PAD trial (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [Acetylsalicylic Acid] Along With Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD) demonstrated that rivaroxaban significantly reduced this risk. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban has not been described in patients who underwent surgical LER.

Methods: The VOYAGER PAD trial randomized patients with peripheral artery disease after surgical and endovascular LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin or matching placebo plus aspirin and followed for a median of 28 months. The primary end point was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major vascular amputation, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety outcome was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding. International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis bleeding was a secondary safety outcome. All efficacy and safety outcomes were adjudicated by a blinded independent committee.

Results: Of the 6564 randomized, 2185 (33%) underwent surgical LER and 4379 (67%) endovascular. Compared with placebo, rivaroxaban reduced the primary end point consistently regardless of LER method (-interaction, 0.43). After surgical LER, the primary efficacy outcome occurred in 199 (18.4%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 242 (22.0%) patients in the placebo group with a cumulative incidence at 3 years of 19.7% and 23.9%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-0.98]; =0.026). In the overall trial, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding and International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding were increased with rivaroxaban. There was no heterogeneity for Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding (-interaction, 0.17) or International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding (-interaction, 0.73) on the basis of the LER approach. After surgical LER, the principal safety outcome occurred in 11 (1.0%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 13 (1.2%) patients in the placebo group; 3-year cumulative incidence was 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.39-1.95]; =0.75) Among surgical patients, the composite of fatal bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage (=0.95) and postprocedural bleeding requiring intervention (=0.93) was not significantly increased.

Conclusions: The efficacy of rivaroxaban is associated with a benefit in patients who underwent surgical LER. Although bleeding was increased with rivaroxaban plus aspirin, the incidence was low, with no significant increase in fatal bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, or postprocedural bleeds requiring intervention. Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT02504216.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.054835DOI Listing
October 2021

Diagnosis of silent coronary ischemia with selective coronary revascularization might improve 2-year survival of patients with critical limb-threatening ischemia.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Oct 24;74(4):1261-1271. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

HeartFlow, Redwood City, Calif.

Background: Patients with critical limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) have had poor long-term survival after lower extremity revascularization owing to coexistent coronary artery disease. A new cardiac diagnostic test, coronary computed tomography-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR), can identify patients with ischemia-producing coronary stenosis who might benefit from coronary revascularization. We sought to determine whether the diagnosis of silent coronary ischemia before limb salvage surgery with selective postoperative coronary revascularization can reduce the incidence of adverse cardiac events and improve the survival of patients with CLTI compared with standard care.

Methods: Patients with CLTI and no cardiac history or symptoms who had undergone preoperative testing to detect silent coronary ischemia with selective postoperative coronary revascularization (group I) were compared with patients with standard preoperative cardiac clearance and no elective postoperative coronary revascularization (group II). Both groups received guideline-directed medical care. Lesion-specific coronary ischemia in group I was defined as FFR of ≤0.80 distal to a stenosis, with severe ischemia defined as FFR of ≤0.75. The endpoints included all-cause death, cardiovascular (CV) death, myocardial infarction (MI), major adverse CV events (i.MACE; CV death, MI, unplanned coronary revascularization, stroke) through 2 years of follow-up.

Results: Groups I (n = 111) and II (n = 120) were similar in age (66 ± 9 vs 66 ± 7 years), gender (78% vs 83% men), comorbidities, and surgery performed. In group I, unsuspected, silent coronary ischemia was found in 71 of 103 patients (69%), with severe ischemia in 58% and left main coronary ischemia in 8%. Elective postoperative coronary revascularization was performed in 47 of 71 patients with silent ischemia (66%). In group II, the status of silent coronary ischemia was unknown. The median follow-up was >2 years for both groups. The 2-year outcomes for groups I and II were as follows: all-cause death, 8.1% and 20.0% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-0.84; P = .016); CV death, 4.5% and 13.3% (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.88; P = .028); MI, 6.3% and 17.5% (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.14-0.79; P = .012); and major adverse CV events, 10.8% and 23.3% (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22-0.88; P = .021), respectively.

Conclusions: The preoperative evaluation of patients with CLTI and no known coronary artery disease using coronary FFR revealed silent coronary ischemia in two of every three patients. Selective coronary revascularization of patients with silent coronary ischemia after recovery from limb salvage surgery resulted in fewer CV deaths and MIs and improved 2-year survival compared with patients with CLTI who had received standard cardiac evaluation and care. Prospective controlled studies are required to further define the role of FFR in the evaluation and treatment of patients with CLTI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.03.059DOI Listing
October 2021

Venous outcomes at 1 year after using the femoral vein as a conduit for passage of percutaneous femoropopliteal bypass.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2021 09 8;9(5):1266-1272.e3. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Syntactx, New York, NY.

Objective: The DETOUR 1 study was performed to assess the safety of the femoral vein as a "pass through" conduit for covered stent placement during fully percutaneous femoropopliteal bypass, also known as the DETOUR procedure.

Methods: At eight participating centers in this prospective, single-arm, international trial, 78 patients (82 femoropopliteal lesions) were enrolled. All patients had patent femoral veins measuring ≥10 mm in diameter at baseline. The DETOUR procedure involved delivery of a series of TORUS stent grafts, deployed from contralateral common femoral artery access, to the ipsilateral proximal superficial femoral artery, with entry into the femoral vein and re-entry into the arterial vasculature at the above-the-knee popliteal artery. The TORUS stent grafts are deployed in an overlapping configuration as an arterial-arterial conduit. Due to this novel transvenous approach, we assessed specific considerations related to the venous system to analyze the risk of risk of venous thromboembolic complications. Symptomatic deep vein thrombosis, nonocclusive material associated with the graft such as benign endovenous graft-associated material, pulmonary embolism, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and Villalta scores, and luminal occupancy by the stent graft were assessed as the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the stent graft to the native vein at baseline and 1 year after the procedure.

Results: A duplicate femoral vein was present in 20.7% of cases. The majority of patients (86.8%) had a femoral vein luminal area preservation of ≥55%. Thirty-two patients experienced an increase in the vein diameter over time after the procedure, but this pattern of venous remodeling was not uniform. The patients who had a compensatory increase in the vein diameter had a smaller average baseline vein diameter compared with the patients who did not have a compensatory increase in vein diameter (P = .0414). Only two patients (2.4%) developed ipsilateral symptomatic deep vein thrombosis) through 1 year of follow-up. There were no pulmonary embolism in any patient in the series. The overall VCSS and Villata scores did not change during follow-up. Mean VCSS and Villata were 0.8 ± 1.4 and 0.5 ± 1.1 at 1 year, compared with 0.6 ± 1.0 and 0.4 ± 0.9 at baseline, respectively.

Conclusions: As a percutaneous alternative to open surgical bypass for complex femoropopliteal peripheral arterial disease, the transvenous bypass has a low rate of deep venous thrombotic and obstructive complications. Cross-sectional vein area is preserved, and in some patients, the compensatory vein diameter increases with time, supporting the feasibility and safety of using the lower extremity deep venous system as a pass-through conduit for the DETOUR percutaneous femoropopliteal bypass.

Trial Registration: NCT02471638.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2020.12.080DOI Listing
September 2021

Multidisciplinary approach to treat ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm into the vena cava.

J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech 2020 Dec 28;6(4):588-589. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital, Riga, Latvia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvscit.2020.07.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7591546PMC
December 2020

Pre-operative Diagnosis of Silent Coronary Ischaemia May Reduce Post-operative Death and Myocardial Infarction and Improve Survival of Patients Undergoing Lower Extremity Surgical Revascularisation.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 09 22;60(3):411-420. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

HeartFlow, Redwood City, CA, USA.

Objective: Patients undergoing peripheral vascular surgery have increased risk of death and myocardial infarction (MI), which may be due to unsuspected (silent) coronary ischaemia. The aim was to determine whether pre-operative diagnosis of silent ischaemia using coronary computed tomography (CT) derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) can facilitate multidisciplinary care to reduce post-operative death and MI, and improve survival.

Methods: This was a single centre prospective study with historic controls. Patients with no cardiac symptoms undergoing lower extremity surgical revascularisation with pre-operative coronary CTA-FFR testing were compared with historic controls with standard pre-operative testing. Silent coronary ischaemia was defined as FFR ≤ 0.80 distal to coronary stenosis with FFR ≤ 0.75 indicating severe ischaemia. End points included cardiovascular (CV) death, MI, and all cause death through one year follow up.

Results: There were no statistically significant differences between CT angiography (CTA-FFR (n = 135) and control (n = 135) patients with regard to age (66 ± 8 years), sex, comorbidities, or surgery performed. Coronary CTA showed ≥ 50% stenosis in 70% of patients with left main stenosis in 7%. FFR revealed silent coronary ischaemia in 68% of patients with severe ischaemia in 53%. The status of coronary ischaemia was unknown in the controls. At 30 days, CV death and MI in the CTA-FFR group were not statistically significantly different from controls (0% vs. 3.7% [p = .060] and 0.7% vs. 5.2% [p = .066], respectively). Post-operative coronary revascularisation was performed in 54 patients to relieve silent ischaemia (percutaneous coronary intervention in 47, coronary artery bypass graft in seven). At one year, CTA-FFR patients had fewer CV deaths (0.7% vs. 5.9%; p = .036) and MIs (2.2% vs. 8.1%; p = .028) and improved survival (p = .018) compared with controls.

Conclusion: Pre-operative diagnosis of silent coronary ischaemia in patients undergoing lower extremity revascularisation surgery can facilitate multidisciplinary patient care with selective post-operative coronary revascularisation. This strategy reduced post-operative death and MI and improved one year survival compared with standard care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.05.027DOI Listing
September 2020

Diagnosis and management of silent coronary ischemia in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy.

J Vasc Surg 2021 02 3;73(2):533-541. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

HeartFlow, Inc, Redwood City, Calif.

Background: Coronary artery disease is the primary cause of death in patients with carotid artery disease and silent ischemia is a marker for adverse coronary events. A new noninvasive cardiac diagnostic test, coronary computed tomography-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) can reliably identify ischemia-producing coronary stenosis in patients with coronary artery disease and help to select patients for coronary revascularization. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of silent coronary ischemia in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and to evaluate the usefulness of FFR in selecting patients for coronary revascularization to decrease cardiac events and improve survival.

Methods: Patients with no cardiac history or symptoms admitted for elective CEA were enrolled in a prospective, open-label, institutional review board-approved study and underwent preoperative coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and FFR with results available to physicians for patient management. Lesion-specific coronary ischemia was defined as FFR of 0.80 or less distal to a focal coronary stenosis with an FFR of 0.75 or less, indicating severe ischemia. Primary end point was incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) at 30 days and 1 year.

Results: Coronary CTA and FFR was performed in 90 CEA patients (age 67 ± 8 years; male 66%). Lesion-specific coronary ischemia was found in 51 patients (57%) with a mean FFR of 0.71 ± 0.14. Severe coronary ischemia was present in 39 patients (43%), 26 patients had multivessel ischemia, and 5 had left main disease. CEA was performed as scheduled in all patients with no postoperative deaths or myocardial infarctions. There were no MACE events at 30 days. After recovery from surgery, 36 patients with significant lesion-specific ischemia underwent coronary angiography with coronary revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) in 30 patients (33%). Survival at 1 year was 100% and freedom from MACE was 98%.

Conclusions: Patients undergoing CEA have a high prevalence of unsuspected (silent) coronary ischemia, which may place them at risk for coronary events. Preoperative diagnosis of silent ischemia using CTA and FFR can identify high-risk patients and help to guide patient management. Selective postoperative coronary revascularization of patients with significant ischemia may decrease the risk of cardiac events and improve survival, but longer follow-up is needed and prospective, controlled trials are indicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.06.045DOI Listing
February 2021

One-year results from the DETOUR I trial of the PQ Bypass DETOUR System for percutaneous femoropopliteal bypass.

J Vasc Surg 2020 11 8;72(5):1648-1658.e2. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

division/department, University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Angiology, Leipzig, Germany.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the 1-year safety and effectiveness outcomes associated with the PQ Bypass DETOUR System (PQ Bypass, Milpitas, Calif) for the percutaneous bypass of long-segment femoropopliteal occlusive disease.

Methods: This prospective, single-arm, multicenter trial enrolled patients with long-segment femoropopliteal arterial disease. The DETOUR System percutaneously deploys modular stent grafts to bypass femoropopliteal lesions through a transvenous route. Eligible patients included those with TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus C and D lesions >100 mm in length. The primary safety end point was the major adverse event (MAE) rate through 1 month, defined as the composite of death, clinically driven target vessel revascularization (CD-TVR), or major amputation. The primary effectiveness end point was stent graft patency through 6 months, defined as freedom from stenosis ≥50%, occlusion, or CD-TVR.

Results: During a 24-month period, 78 patients (82 limbs) were enrolled. The average core laboratory-measured lesion length was 371 ± 55 mm; 79 of 82 lesions (96%) were chronic total occlusions, and 55 of 82 lesions (67%) had severe calcification. The rates of technical and procedural success measured during the index procedure were both 96%, with satisfactory delivery and deployment of the device without MAEs in 79 of 82 limbs. Through 1 month, there were no deaths or amputations; CD-TVRs occurred in 2 of 81 limbs (3%), and freedom from MAEs was 98% (79/81). The 1-year Kaplan-Meier primary, assisted primary, and secondary patency rates were 81% ± 4%, 82% ± 4%, and 90% ± 3%, respectively. The ankle-brachial index increased an average of 0.25 ± 0.27 between baseline and 1 year (P < .001). Through 1 year, the Kaplan-Meier estimates of freedom from stent graft thrombosis, CD-TVR, and MAE were 84% ± 4%, 85% ± 4%, and 84% ± 4%, respectively. At 1 year, the Rutherford class improved in 77 of 80 limbs (96%), and 65 of 80 (81%) were asymptomatic. Deep venous thrombosis developed in 2 of 79 target limbs (3%) through 1 year, both at the femoropopliteal vein level. There were no instances of pulmonary embolism.

Conclusions: The 1-year results from the DETOUR I trial show that the PQ Bypass DETOUR System is a safe and effective percutaneous treatment option for patients with longer, severely calcified, above-knee femoropopliteal lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.02.043DOI Listing
November 2020

Rivaroxaban in Peripheral Artery Disease after Revascularization.

N Engl J Med 2020 05 28;382(21):1994-2004. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

From Colorado Prevention Center (CPC) Clinical Research (M.P.B., M.R.N., W.H.C., L.D., N.J., C.N.H., W.R.H.), the Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine (M.P.B., C.N.H., W.R.H.), the Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery (M.R.N.), and the Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology (W.H.C.), University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, and the Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health (J.M.K.) - all in Aurora; the Department of Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt, Darmstadt, and Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University of Mainz, Mainz (R.M.B.), the Department of Vascular Medicine, Vascular Surgery-Angiology-Endovascular Therapy, University of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (E.S.D.), and Bayer, Wuppertal (A.F.P., E.M.) - all in Germany; the Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences and McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada (S.S.A.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Division of Cardiology, Duke University, Durham, NC (M.R.P.); the Vascular and Interventional Radiology Department, Careggi University Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy (F.F.); Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine (I.G.); B-A-Z County University Teaching Hospital, Miskolc, Hungary (L.M.); University of Latvia, Pauls Stradins University Hospital, Riga (D.K.K.); ECLA (Estudios Clínicos Latino América), ICR (Instituto Cardiovascular de Rosario), Rosario, Argentina (R.D.); the Division of Angiology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria (M.B.); and Janssen Research and Development, Raritan (L.P.H.), and Thrombosis Group Head, Clinical Development, Bayer U.S., Whippany (S.D.B.) - both in New Jersey.

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease who have undergone lower-extremity revascularization are at high risk for major adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in this context are uncertain.

Methods: In a double-blind trial, patients with peripheral artery disease who had undergone revascularization were randomly assigned to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin or placebo plus aspirin. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major amputation for vascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes. The principal safety outcome was major bleeding, defined according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) classification; major bleeding as defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) was a secondary safety outcome.

Results: A total of 6564 patients underwent randomization; 3286 were assigned to the rivaroxaban group, and 3278 were assigned to the placebo group. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 508 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 584 in the placebo group; the Kaplan-Meier estimates of the incidence at 3 years were 17.3% and 19.9%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 0.96; P = 0.009). TIMI major bleeding occurred in 62 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 44 patients in the placebo group (2.65% and 1.87%; hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.97 to 2.10; P = 0.07). ISTH major bleeding occurred in 140 patients in the rivaroxaban group, as compared with 100 patients in the placebo group (5.94% and 4.06%; hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.84; P = 0.007).

Conclusions: In patients with peripheral artery disease who had undergone lower-extremity revascularization, rivaroxaban at a dose of 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin was associated with a significantly lower incidence of the composite outcome of acute limb ischemia, major amputation for vascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes than aspirin alone. The incidence of TIMI major bleeding did not differ significantly between the groups. The incidence of ISTH major bleeding was significantly higher with rivaroxaban and aspirin than with aspirin alone. (Funded by Bayer and Janssen Pharmaceuticals; VOYAGER PAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02504216.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2000052DOI Listing
May 2020

Changes in Cognition, Depression and Quality of Life after Carotid Stenosis Treatment.

Curr Neurovasc Res 2019 ;16(1):47-62

Department of Neurology, Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital, Riga, Latvia.

Background: Although several studies have evaluated the change of cognitive performance after severe carotid artery stenosis, the results still remain elusive. The objective of this study was to assess changes in cognitive function, depressive symptoms and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) after carotid stenosis revascularisation and Best Medical Treatment (BMT).

Methods: Study involved 213 patients with ≥70% carotid stenosis who underwent assessment of cognitive function using Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), depressive symptoms - using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and HRQoL - using Medical Outcome Survey Short Form version 2 (SF-36v2). The assessment was performed before and at 6 and 12 months followup periods in patients who had Carotid Endarterectomy (CEA), Carotid Artery Stenting (CAS) or received BMT only.

Results: Improvement in the total MoCA scores was observed after 6 and 12 months (p<0.001, Kendall's W=0.28) in the CEA group. In the CAS group - after 12 months (p=0.01, Kendall's W=0.261) whereas in the BMT group - no significant changes (p=0.295, Kendall's W=0.081) were observed. Reduction of depressive symptoms was not found in any of the study groups. Comparing mean SF-36v2 scores in the CEA group, there was no significant difference in any of 10 subscales. Likewise in the CAS group - no significant difference in 9 of 10 subscales (p=0.028, η2=0.343) was observed. Three subscales worsened in the BMT group during the 1-year follow-up period.

Conclusion: Patients with severe carotid stenosis who underwent revascularisation enhanced their cognitive performance without exerting significant change of depressive symptoms. Preoperative HRQoL may be maintained for at least one year in the CEA group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567202616666190129153409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6696820PMC
March 2020

Initial Clinical Experience Using the Low-Profile Altura Endograft System With Double D-Shaped Proximal Stents for Endovascular Aneurysm Repair.

J Endovasc Ther 2018 Jun 20;25(3):379-386. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

7 Department of Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA, USA.

Purpose: To report the initial clinical results of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) using the low-profile (14-F) Altura Endograft System, which features a double "D-shaped" stent design with suprarenal fixation and modular iliac components that are deployed from distal to proximal.

Methods: From 2011 to 2015, 90 patients (mean age 72.8±8.3 years; 79 men) with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA; mean diameter 53.8±5.7 mm) were treated at 10 clinical sites in 2 prospective, controlled clinical studies using the Altura endograft. Outcomes evaluated included mortality, major adverse events (MAEs: all-cause death, stroke, paraplegia, myocardial infarction, respiratory failure, bowel ischemia, and blood loss ≥1000 mL), and clinical success (freedom from procedure-related death, type I/III endoleak, migration, thrombosis, and reintervention).

Results: Endografts were successfully implanted in 89 (99%) patients; the single failure was due to delivery system malfunction before insertion in the early-generation device. One (1%) patient died and 4 patients underwent reinterventions (1 type I endoleak, 2 iliac limb stenoses, and 1 endograft occlusion) within the first 30 days. During a median follow-up of 12.5 months (range 11.5-50.9), there were no aneurysm ruptures, surgical conversions, or AAA-related deaths. The cumulative MAE rates were 3% (3/89) at 6 months and 7% (6/89) at 1 year. Two patients underwent coil embolization of type II endoleaks at 6.5 months and 2.2 years, respectively. Clinical success was 94% (84/89) at 30 days, 98% (85/87) at 6 months, and 99% (82/83) at 1 year.

Conclusion: Early results suggest that properly selected AAA patients can be safely treated using the Altura Endograft System with favorable midterm outcome. Thus, further clinical investigation is warranted to evaluate the role of this device in the treatment of AAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1526602818771973DOI Listing
June 2018

Characteristics of clinical trials in rare vs. common diseases: A register-based Latvian study.

PLoS One 2018 3;13(4):e0194494. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Department of Pharmacology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia.

Background: Conducting clinical studies in small populations may be very challenging; therefore quality of clinical evidence may differ between rare and non-rare disease therapies.

Objective: This register-based study aims to evaluate the characteristics of clinical trials in rare diseases conducted in Latvia and compare them with clinical trials in more common conditions.

Methods: The EU Clinical Trials Register (clinicaltrialsregister.eu) was used to identify interventional clinical trials related to rare diseases (n = 51) and to compose a control group of clinical trials in non-rare diseases (n = 102) for further comparison of the trial characteristics.

Results: We found no significant difference in the use of overall survival as a primary endpoint in clinical trials between rare and non-rare diseases (9.8% vs. 13.7%, respectively). However, clinical trials in rare diseases were less likely to be randomized controlled trials (62.7% vs. 83.3%). Rare and non-rare disease clinical trials varied in masking, with rare disease trials less likely to be double blind (45.1% vs. 63.7%). Active comparators were less frequently used in rare disease trials (36.4% vs. 58.8% of controlled trials). Clinical trials in rare diseases enrolled fewer participants than those in non-rare diseases: in Latvia (mean 18.3 vs. 40.2 subjects, respectively), in the European Economic Area (mean 181.0 vs. 626.9 subjects), and in the whole clinical trial (mean 335.8 vs. 1406.3 subjects). Although, we found no significant difference in trial duration between the groups (mean 38.3 vs. 36.4 months).

Conclusions: The current study confirms that clinical trials in rare diseases vary from those in non-rare conditions, with notable differences in enrollment, randomization, masking, and the use of active comparators. However, we found no significant difference in trial duration and the use of overall survival as a primary endpoint.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0194494PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5882124PMC
July 2018

A randomized, controlled trial of Veriset™ hemostatic patch in halting cardiovascular bleeding.

Med Devices (Auckl) 2018 8;11:65-75. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Covidien, Medical Affairs, Bedford, MA, USA.

Background: Obtaining hemostasis during cardiovascular procedures can be a challenge, particularly around areas with a complex geometry or that are difficult to access. While several topical hemostats are currently on the market, most have caveats that limit their use in certain clinical scenarios such as pulsatile arterial bleeding. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of Veriset™ hemostatic patch in treating cardiovascular bleeding.

Methods: Patients (N=90) scheduled for cardiac or vascular surgery at 12 European institutions were randomized 1:1 to treatment with either Veriset™ hemostatic patch (investigational device) or TachoSil (control). After application of the hemostat, according to manufacturer instructions for use, time to hemostasis was monitored. Follow-up occurred up to 90 days post-surgery.

Results: Median time to hemostasis was 1.5 min with Veriset™ hemostatic patch, compared to 3.0 min with TachoSil (<0.0001). Serious adverse events within 30 days post-surgery were experienced by 12/44 (27.3%) patients treated with Veriset™ hemostatic patch and 10/45 (22.2%) in the TachoSil group (=0.6295). None of these adverse events were device-related, and no reoperations for bleeding were required within 5 days post-surgery in either treatment group.

Conclusion: This study reinforces the difference in minimum recommended application time between Veriset™ hemostatic patch and TachoSil (30 s versus 3 min respectively). When compared directly at 3 min, Veriset™ displayed no significant difference, showing similar hemostasis and safety profiles on the cardiovascular bleeding sites included in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/MDER.S145651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5846302PMC
March 2018

The DETOUR procedure: no more need for conventional bypass surgery?

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2018 Apr 9;59(2):172-177. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Department of Radiology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Long segment occlusive disease in the superficial femoral artery remains a treatment challenge despite advances in open surgical and endovascular approaches. We report initial clinical results of an entirely new procedure to perform percutaneous femoro-popliteal bypass using the DETOUR System. First-in-human patients were performed in New Zealand from December 2013 to June 2014. After modifications to the technique and devices had significantly refined the procedure, the Detour I Trial commenced.

Methods: Review of initial results in the first five patients treated at a single site enrolled in IRB-approved, prospective clinical study using the DETOUR System. All patients signed informed consent with planned 2-year follow-up. The DETOUR System was used to create a stent graft bypass which originates in the SFA, travels through the femoral vein, and ends in the popliteal artery, bypassing the diseased segment.

Results: A cohort of patients were treated in Latvia from January 2015 to October 2015. The initial five patients in this cohort (age 67.2±11.4 years) with long femoral artery occlusions (29.5±14.1 cm) were treated at a single clinical site. TORUS stent grafts were successfully implanted in all 5 patients (100%) using an 8F delivery system. There were no perioperative 30-day major adverse events (death, major bleeding, deep vein thrombosis, target vessel revascularization or major amputation) observed. At 24 months' follow-up, the primary patency rate was 80% (4/5) and primary assisted patency was 100% (5/5). Significant improvement in ankle-brachial index and Rutherford class were observed in all patients. There was a single secondary procedure performed in these patients (proximal stent edge stenosis at 24 months). The venous function has not been damaged or compromised in any patient.

Conclusions: Early results suggest that properly-selected patients with long-segment occlusive disease above the knee can be safely treated using the DETOUR System for percutaneous bypass, with favorable clinical outcomes extending to 2 years. Further clinical investigation is warranted to evaluate the role of this approach in the treatment of long femoral lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.18.10353-3DOI Listing
April 2018

Influence of Severe Carotid Stenosis on Cognition, Depressive Symptoms and Quality of Life.

Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health 2017 19;13:168-180. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

Vascular Surgery Centre, Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital, , Latvia.

Background: Carotid artery disease is not just a causal risk factor of ischemic stroke, but may predispose patients to depressive symptoms and low health related quality of life (HRQoL).

Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the association between severe carotid artery stenosis (CAS) and cognitive impairment, frequency of depressive symptoms and status of HRQoL.

Methods: Cross - sectional study involved 55 patients with severe CAS and 54 patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Cognitive impairment was assessed using Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA), depressive symptoms - PHQ-9 scale. HRQoL was measured using Medical Outcome Survey Short Form version 2 (SF-36v2).

Results: Median MoCA score 24 [23;26] was significantly lower in patients with severe CAS than in patients with PAD - 26 [25-28],(=0.005; effect size =0.3). There was no statistically significant difference of median PHQ-9 scores the in CAS group (median PHQ-9 score 4.0 [5]) and in the PAD group (median PHQ-9 score 5.5 [7]), (=0.08, effect size =0.18). Mean SF-36v2 scores were similar in CAS and PAD groups except for bodily pain (=0.001, Cohen's value = 0.77) and vitality (=0.02, Cohen's value = 0.49).

Conclusion: In summary, our findings indicate that severe CAS could play a role in cognitive decline. Further studies should be conducted using larger patient cohorts without ischemic brain lesions and with balanced vascular risk profiles to investigate impact of CAS on cognition. There was no association between severe CAS and depressive symptoms in the present study. As patients with severe CAS did not exhibit physical symptoms, HRQoL was better for those patients than for patients with lower extremity PAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1745017901713010168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712638PMC
October 2017

Endovascular Repair of Contained Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Using a Bilateral D-Shaped Stent System.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2017 Apr 23;51(3):139-140. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

1 Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

To report the first case of the treatment of a contained aortic aneurysm rupture using a bilateral D-shaped endovascular stent graft system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1538574416689428DOI Listing
April 2017

Chimney Technique with Nellix EndoVascular Aneurysm Sealing System in a Patient with Single Kidney and Juxtarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

Aorta (Stamford) 2016 Aug 1;4(4):134-137. Epub 2016 Aug 1.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital, Riga, Latvia; University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.

We present a saccular asymptomatic juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm in a 70-year-old male with a very short left renal artery supplying the only kidney. The case was successfully treated with the Nellix EndoVascular Aneurysm Sealing system combined with a chimney technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12945/j.aorta.2016.16.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5217731PMC
August 2016

Extended use of endovascular aneurysm sealing for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

Semin Vasc Surg 2016 Sep 22;29(3):106-113. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands.

Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) is now an established treatment modality for suitable patients presenting with aneurysm rupture. EVAR for ruptured aneurysms reduces transfusion, mechanical ventilation, intensive care. and hospital stay when compared with open surgery. In the emergency setting, however, EVAR is limited by low applicability due to adverse clinical or anatomical characteristics and increased need for reintervention. In addition, ongoing bleeding from aortic side branches post-EVAR can cause hemodynamic instability, larger hematomas, and abdominal compartment syndrome. Endovascular aneurysm sealing, based on polymer filling of the aneurysm, has the potential to overcome some of the limitations of EVAR for ruptured aneurysms and to improve outcomes. Recent literature suggests that endovascular aneurysm sealing can be performed with early mortality similar to that of EVAR for ruptured aortic aneurysms, but experience is limited to a few centers and a small number of patients. The addition of chimney grafts can increase the applicability of endovascular aneurysm sealing in order to treat short-neck and juxtarenal aneurysms as an alternative to fenestrated endografts. Further evaluation of the technique, with larger longitudinal studies, is necessary before advocating wider implementation of endovascular aneurysm sealing in the emergency setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semvascsurg.2016.09.002DOI Listing
September 2016

Preservation of hypogastric flow and control of iliac aneurysm size in the treatment of aortoiliac aneurysms using the Nellix EndoVascular Aneurysm Sealing endograft.

J Vasc Surg 2016 Nov;64(5):1262-1269

Department of Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, Calif.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effectiveness of endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) in the treatment of complex aortoiliac aneurysms with preservation of hypogastric artery flow.

Methods: We reviewed all patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and common iliac aneurysms (CIAs) enrolled and treated in prospective studies of EVAS using the Nellix endograft (Endologix, Irvine, Calif) at two centers from 2008 to 2014. Patients with 1 year or more of computed tomography follow-up underwent quantitative morphometric assessment by two independent vascular radiologists blinded to clinical outcome results. Hypogastric patency and CIA diameter changes over time were assessed and compared in three treatment groups: totally excluded CIA, partially excluded CIA, and untreated CIA.

Results: Among 125 patients with EVAS, 68 patients (mean age, 75 ± 8 years; 79% men) had both AAA (mean diameter, 55.8 ± 2.0 mm) and CIA (median diameter, 23.4; interquartile range, 21.3-27.0 mm), with bilateral CIAs in 33 patients. Treatment of 101 CIAs included complete CIA exclusion in 40 (39.6%), partial CIA exclusion in 33 (32.7%), and no CIA treatment in 28 (27.7%), with successful AAA exclusion in all patients. Internal iliac flow was preserved in all 122 hypogastric arteries that were patent before treatment (14 hypogastric arteries were occluded at baseline). During the 5-year follow-up period (median follow-up, 24.7 months; range, 11.5-61.7 months), three patients required secondary treatment with hypogastric occlusion and graft extension to the external iliac. Thus, internal iliac flow was maintained in 98% of at-risk hypogastric arteries. There were no aneurysm-related clinical events, except for the three secondary treatments. Totally excluded iliac aneurysms did not change in diameter over time (P = .85), whereas untreated CIAs enlarged at a rate of 0.16 mm/y (95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.23; P < .0001). Partially excluded CIAs enlarged at a higher rate of 0.59 mm/y (95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.71; P < .0001). Enlargement ≥3 mm occurred only in partially treated CIAs larger than 3 cm.

Conclusions: EVAS was effective in treating aortoiliac aneurysms with preservation of internal iliac patency in most cases. Complete CIA exclusion prevented aneurysm enlargement over time, whereas partial exclusion did not prevent continued CIA enlargement, particularly in larger aneurysms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2016.04.010DOI Listing
November 2016

Endovascular Aneurysm Sealing: Early and Midterm Results From the EVAS FORWARD Global Registry.

J Endovasc Ther 2016 10 22;23(5):685-92. Epub 2016 Aug 22.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Auckland Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

Purpose: To report the early and 12-month results of a global registry of patients treated with endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs).

Methods: The EVAS FORWARD Global Registry was a postmarket, multicenter, open-label, single-arm registry that enrolled 277 patients (mean age 75 years; 228 men) treated with the Nellix EVAS system for nonruptured AAAs at 18 sites over a 1-year period. The cohort had challenging aortic anatomy, with 17% having a proximal aortic neck length <10 mm, 8% a neck angulation >60°, and 20% an iliac diameter >25 mm. Baseline and follow-up computed tomography images were assessed by an independent core laboratory, and major adverse events were reviewed by an independent safety committee.

Results: Three patients died within 30 days of the procedure (none device-related). There were 13 endoleaks recorded in this time frame: 8 type Ia, 1 type Ib, and 5 type II. Root cause analysis demonstrated that the majority of type Ia endoleaks were due to technical error (low device placement and underfilling of the endobags). Between 30 days and 1 year, there were 4 new type Ia endoleaks; all were treated. There was also 1 type III endoleak between a Nellix device and a distal extension limb. At 1 year, the persistent endoleak rate was 0.7% (1 type Ia and 1 type II). The Kaplan-Meier estimates of freedom from types I and II endoleak at 12-month follow-up were 96% and 98%, respectively. The estimate of freedom from open conversion (n=7) was 98% at 12 months and the rate of freedom from any reintervention was 92%. The need for secondary intervention was associated with aortic morphology; for patients meeting the requirements of the instructions for use (IFU), the freedom from reintervention at 12 months was 98% compared with 86% when the implant was outside the IFU (p=0.009). At 1 year, the estimates of freedom from aortic-related and all-cause mortality were 98% and 95%, respectively.

Conclusion: The EVAS FORWARD Global Registry documents the 12-month outcome of EVAS in an unselected group of patients with challenging aortic morphology. The results at present appear acceptable with regard to perioperative outcomes and complications. The type II endoleak rate is low. The place of EVAS in the armamentarium of techniques to treat AAAs will be defined by durability data in the longer term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1526602816664365DOI Listing
October 2016

Impact of orphan drugs on Latvian budget.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2016 05 11;11(1):59. Epub 2016 May 11.

Department of Pharmacology, Riga Stradins University, 13 Pilsonu Street, Riga, LV-1002, Latvia.

Background: Number of orphan medicinal products on the market and number of rare disease patients, taking these usually expensive products, are increasing. As a result, budget impact of orphan drugs is growing. This factor, along with the cost-effectiveness of orphan drugs, is often considered in the reimbursement decisions, directly affecting accessibility of rare disease therapies. The current study aims to assess the budget impact of orphan drugs in Latvia.

Methods: Our study covered a 5-year period, from 2010 to 2014. Impact of orphan drugs on Latvian budget was estimated from the National Health Service's perspective. It was calculated in absolute values and relative to total pharmaceutical market and total drug reimbursement budget. A literature review was performed for comparison with other European countries.

Results: Orphan drug annual expenditure ranged between EUR 2.065 and 3.065 million, with total 5-year expenditure EUR 12.467 million. It constituted, on average, 0.84 % of total pharmaceutical market and 2.14 % of total drug reimbursement budget, respectively. Average annual per patient expenditures varied widely, from EUR 1 534 to EUR 580 952. The most costly treatment was enzyme replacement therapy (Elaprase) for MPS II. Glivec had the highest share (34 %) of the total orphan drug expenditure. Oncological drugs represented more than a half of the total orphan drug expenditure, followed by drugs for metabolic and endocrine conditions and medicines for cardiopulmonary diseases. Three indications: Ph+ CML, MPS II, and PAH accounted for nearly 90 % of the total orphan drug expenditure.

Conclusions: Budget impact of orphan drugs in Latvia is very small. It increased slightly over a period of five years, due to the slight increase in the number of patients and the number of orphan drugs reimbursed. Current Latvian drug reimbursement system is not sufficient for most orphan drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-016-0434-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4864910PMC
May 2016

CXC chemokine ligand 4 (CXCL4) is predictor of tumour angiogenic activity and prognostic biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing surgical treatment.

Biomarkers 2016 Jul 21;21(5):474-8. Epub 2016 Apr 21.

e Department of Vascular Surgery , Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital , Riga , Latvia ;

Objective: To evaluate the association of CXC chemokine ligand 4 (CXCL4) plasma levels with tumour angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to assess association of CXCL4 with clinical outcomes.

Patients And Methods: Fifty patients with early stage NSCLC who underwent pulmonary resection. CXCL4 levels were analysed by ELISA. Angiogenesis was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and microvessel density (MVD) count.

Results: There was positive correlation between MVD and CXCL4 levels. Patients with higher CXCL4 levels had worse overall and disease-free survival.

Conclusions: Plasma levels of CXCL4 are associated with tumour vascularity. Increased CXCL4 levels in NSCLC patients undergoing treatment may indicate active cancer-induced angiogenesis associated with relapse and worse outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/1354750X.2016.1172111DOI Listing
July 2016

Diagnostic Value of Circulating CXC Chemokines in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Anticancer Res 2015 Dec;35(12):6979-83

Department of Vascular Surgery, Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital, Riga, Latvia University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.

Background/aim: To evaluate the diagnostic value of circulating CXC chemokines as biomarkers for non-small cell lung cancer and compare them against a standard panel of already existing cancer biomarkers.

Materials And Methods: A total of 90 individuals were enrolled in the study. We analyzed 30 patients with stage IA-IIB carcinoma of the lung who underwent pulmonary resection, 30 patients with metastatic NSCLC, and 30 healthy volunteers. The biomarkers levels were measured in plasma blood samples, by ELISA and immunoassays.

Results: The levels of circulating CXCL4, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 were higher and those of circulating CXCL1 were lower in patients with early-stage NSCLC compared to metastatic NSCLC patients and controls (p<0.05). CXCL4, CXCL9 and CXCL11 were included in the panel that showed a sensitivity of 100% versus 60% for CEA, CA125 and CYFRA21-1 (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Combination of CXCL4, CXCL9 and CXCL11 has a high diagnostic value.
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December 2015

Global Experience With the Nellix Endosystem for Ruptured and Symptomatic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

J Endovasc Ther 2016 Feb 30;23(1):21-8. Epub 2015 Nov 30.

Department of Vascular Surgery, St George's Vascular Institute, London, UK.

Purpose: To assess the feasibility and safety of the endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) technique in the treatment of acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).

Methods: A retrospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted at 8 centers (7 European and 1 in New Zealand) experienced with EVAS in the elective setting. From February 2013 to April 2015, 58 patients (mean age 74±9 years; 46 men) with an acute AAA were treated (28 ruptured and 30 symptomatic). The primary endpoint of the study was 30-day mortality; secondary endpoints included endoleak, reinterventions, and 30-day morbidity.

Results: The overall intensive care unit and hospital stays were 2.2±6.6 days and 9.7±11.4 days, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rates were 32% (9/28) for the ruptured group and 7% (2/30) for the symptomatic group, with morbidity rates of 57% and 17%, respectively. Early endoleak was present in only 2 (3%) patients, one in each group; both leaks were type Ia. Reinterventions within 30 days were performed in 8 patients in the ruptured group; in the symptomatic patients, the only perioperative reintervention was embolization a type Ia endoleak. The mean follow-up was 9.3±3.1 months in the ruptured group and 12.4±5.4 months in the symptomatic group. The mean aneurysm diameter at 30-day follow-up was 71.8±16.0 mm compared with 74.7±15.7 mm preoperatively in the ruptured group and 66.1±13.5 mm compared with 65.8±13.0 mm in the symptomatic group.

Conclusion: EVAS in the acute setting appears safe and feasible and concordant with the literature for endovascular aneurysm repair. More robust prospective and comparative data are required to establish the position of the technique in the treatment algorithm of acute AAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1526602815618492DOI Listing
February 2016

A Randomized Clinical Trial of Single-Dose Versus Weekly Dalbavancin for Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infection.

Clin Infect Dis 2016 Mar 26;62(5):545-51. Epub 2015 Nov 26.

Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Springhouse, Pennsylvania.

Background: Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) are a cause of significant morbidity and therapy can be a burden to the healthcare system. New antibiotics that simplify treatment and avoid hospitalization are needed. This study compared the safety and efficacy of a single intravenous infusion of 1500 mg of dalbavancin to the 2-dose regimen.

Methods: This study was a randomized, double-blind trial in patients aged >18 years with ABSSSIs. Patients were randomized to dalbavancin 1500 mg either as a single intravenous (IV) infusion or 1000 mg IV on day 1 followed 1 week later by 500 mg IV. The primary endpoint was a ≥20% reduction in the area of erythema at 48-72 hours in the intent-to-treat population. Noninferiority was to be declared if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) on the difference in the outcomes was greater than -10%. Clinical outcome was also assessed at days 14 and 28.

Results: Six hundred ninety-eight patients were randomized. Demographic characteristics were similar on each regimen, although there were more patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at baseline on the 2-dose regimen (36/210 [17.1%] vs 61/220 [27.7%]). Dalbavancin delivered as a single dose was noninferior to a 2-dose regimen (81.4% vs 84.2%; difference, -2.9% [95% CI, -8.5% to 2.8%]). Clinical outcomes were also similar at day 14 (84.0% vs 84.8%), day 28 (84.5% vs 85.1%), and day 14 in clinically evaluable patients with MRSA in a baseline culture (92.9% vs 95.3%) in the single- and 2-dose regimens, respectively. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 20.1% of the single-dose patients and 19.9% on the 2-dose regimen.

Conclusions: A single 1500-mg infusion of dalbavancin is noninferior to a 2-dose regimen, has a similar safety profile, and removes logistical constraints related to delivery of the second dose.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02127970.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/civ982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4741365PMC
March 2016

Imaging After Nellix Endovascular Aneurysm Sealing: A Consensus Document.

J Endovasc Ther 2016 Feb 12;23(1):7-20. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

St George's Vascular Institute, St George's NHS Trust Hospital, London, UK.

Endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) using the Nellix system is a new and different method of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Normal postoperative imaging has unique appearances that change with time; complications also have different and specific appearances. This consensus document on the imaging findings after Nellix EVAS is based on the collective experience of the sites involved in the Nellix EVAS Global Forward Registry and the US Investigational Device Exemption Trial. The normal findings on computed tomography (CT), duplex ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and plain radiography are described. With time, endobag appearances change on CT due to contrast migration to the margins of the hydrogel polymer within the endobag. Air within the endobag also has unique appearances that change over time. Among the complications after Nellix EVAS, type I endoleak usually presents as a curvilinear area of flow between the endobag and aortic wall, while type II endoleak is typically small and usually occurs where an aortic branch artery lies adjacent to an irregular aortic blood lumen that is not completely filled by the endobag. Procedural aortic injury is an uncommon but important complication that occurs as a result of overfilling of the endobags during Nellix EVAS. The optimum imaging surveillance algorithm after Nellix EVAS has yet to be defined but is largely CT-based, especially in the first year postprocedure. However, duplex ultrasound also appears to be a sensitive modality in identifying normal appearances and complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1526602815616251DOI Listing
February 2016

Aortic neck enlargement after endovascular aneurysm repair using balloon-expandable versus self-expanding endografts.

J Vasc Surg 2015 Sep 26;62(3):541-9. Epub 2015 Jul 26.

Department of Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, Calif. Electronic address:

Objective: This study evaluated changes in aortic neck diameter after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) using a balloon-expandable stent (BES) endograft compared with a commercially available self-expanding stent (SES) endograft. We hypothesized that forces applied to the aortic neck by SES endografts may induce aortic neck enlargement over time and that such enlargement may not occur in aneurysm patients treated with a device that does not use a proximal SES.

Methods: This was a retrospective quantitative computed tomography (CT) image analysis of patients treated with the Nellix (Endologix, Irvine, Calif) BES (n = 49) or the Endurant II (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minn) SES (n = 56) endograft from 2008 to 2010. Patients with preimplant, postimplant, and at least 1-year serial CT scans underwent quantitative morphometric assessment by two independent vascular radiologists blinded to the outcome results. Changes in the infrarenal neck over time were compared with the suprarenal aorta for each patient.

Results: Follow-up extended to 4.8 years for the BES and to 4.6 years for the SES, with no significant difference in median follow-up time (34 months for BESs and 24 months for SESs; P = .06). There were no differences in preimplant neck diameter (25.2 ± 0.9 mm vs 25.7 ± 1.1 mm; P = .54) or length (27.7 ± 3.7 mm vs 23.6 ± 3.7 mm; P = .12) between BESs and SESs at baseline. After implantation, neck diameter increased by 1.1 ± 0.5 mm in BES patients and 2.6 ± 0.5 mm in SES patients (P = .07) compared with the preoperative diameter. At 3 years, neck diameter increased by 0.5 ± 0.9 mm in BES patients and by 3.8 ± 1.0 mm in SES patients (P = .0002) compared with the first postoperative CT scan. The annual postimplant rate of increase in the infrarenal neck diameter was fivefold greater in SES patients (1.1 ± 0.1 mm/y) than in BES patients (0.22 ± 0.04 mm/y; P < .0001). There were no significant differences in the diameter of the suprarenal aorta at baseline or at 3 years and no differences in the annual rate of change in suprarenal aortic diameter between BES and SES endografts.

Conclusions: EVAR using SES endografts resulted in progressive infrarenal aortic neck enlargement, whereas EVAR using BES endografts resulted in no neck enlargement over time. These data suggest that infrarenal neck enlargement after EVAR with SES endografts is likely related to the force exerted by SES elements rather than disease progression in the infrarenal neck.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2015.04.393DOI Listing
September 2015

Multicenter Nellix EndoVascular Aneurysm Sealing system experience in aneurysm sac sealing.

J Vasc Surg 2015 Aug 5;62(2):290-8. Epub 2015 May 5.

Department of Surgery, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands.

Objective: Despite improvements in endograft devices, operator technique, and patient selection, endovascular repair has not achieved the long-term durability of open surgical aneurysm repair. Persistent or recurrent aneurysm sac flow from failed proximal sealing, component failure, or branch vessel flow underpins a significant rate of reintervention after endovascular repair. The Nellix device (Endologix, Irvine, Calif) employs a unique design with deployment of polymer-filled EndoBags surrounding the endograft flow lumens, sealing the aneurysm sac space and potentially reducing complications from persistent sac flow. This retrospective analysis represents the initial experience in consecutive patients treated with the device in real-world practice.

Methods: This study was performed at six clinical centers in Europe and one in New Zealand during the initial period after commercialization of the Nellix device. Patients underwent evaluation with computed tomography and other imaging modalities following local standards of care. Patients were selected for treatment with Nellix and treated by each institution according to its endovascular repair protocol. Clinical and imaging end points included technical success (successful device deployment and absence of any endoleak at completion angiography), freedom from all-cause and aneurysm-related mortality, endoleak by type, limb occlusion, aneurysm rupture, and reintervention.

Results: During a 17-month period, 171 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated with the Nellix device and observed for a median of 5 months (range, 0-14 months). The 153 male and 18 female patients with mean age of 74 ± 7 years had aneurysms 61 ± 9 mm in diameter with an average infrarenal neck length of 28 ± 15 mm and infrarenal angulation of 37 ± 22 degrees. Technical success was achieved in all but two patients (99%); one patient had a type Ib endoleak and another had a type II endoleak. Through the last available follow-up, type Ia endoleak was observed in five patients (3%), type Ib endoleak in four patients (2%), and type II endoleak in four patients (2%). There were eight limb occlusions (5%), among which seven were evident at the 1-month follow-up visit. Aneurysm-related reinterventions were performed in 15 patients (9%). There were no aneurysm ruptures or open surgical conversions.

Conclusions: This first multicenter postmarket report of the Nellix device for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair demonstrates satisfactory results during the initial learning phase of this new technology. The rate of aneurysm exclusion was high, and frequency of complications was low. More definitive conclusions on the value of this novel device await the results of the ongoing Nellix EVAS FORWARD Global Registry and the EVAS FORWARD investigational device exemption trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2015.03.031DOI Listing
August 2015

Gigantic 25-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm.

J Vasc Surg 2015 Apr;61(4):1067

Department of Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, Calif. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2014.09.005DOI Listing
April 2015
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