Publications by authors named "Daiju Fukuda"

135 Publications

Emerging Roles of the Innate Immune System Regulated by DNA Sensors in the Development of Vascular and Metabolic Diseases.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.

Sterile chronic inflammation causes cardiometabolic disorders; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Previous studies have demonstrated the degradation of cells/tissues in the vasculature and metabolic organs in lifestyle-associated diseases, such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia, suggesting the release and/or accumulation of nucleic acids from damaged cells. DNA is indispensable for life; however, DNA fragments, especially those from pathogens, strongly induce inflammation by the activation of DNA sensors. Growing evidence suggests that DNA-sensing mechanisms, which are normally involved in self-defense against pathogens as the innate immune system, are associated with the progression of inflammatory diseases in response to endogenous DNA fragments. There are several types of DNA sensors in our bodies. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-one of the most studied DNA sensors-recognizes DNA fragments in endosome. In addition, stimulator of interferon genes (STING), which has recently been extensively investigated, recognizes cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) generated from DNA fragments in the cytosol. Both TLR9 and STING are known to play pivotal roles in host defense as the innate immune system. However, recent studies have indicated that the activation of these DNA sensors in immune cells, such as macrophages, promotes inflammation leading to the development of vascular and metabolic diseases associated with lifestyle. In this review, we discuss recent advances in determining the roles of DNA sensors in these disease contexts. Revealing a novel mechanism of sterile chronic inflammation regulated by DNA sensors might facilitate clinical interventions for these health conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.RV17059DOI Listing
July 2021

STING, a cytosolic DNA sensor, plays a critical role in atherogenesis: a link between innate immunity and chronic inflammation caused by lifestyle-related diseases.

Eur Heart J 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 3-18-15, Kuramoto-Cho, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan.

Aims : Lifestyle-related diseases promote atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease; however, the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Endogenous DNA fragments released under over-nutrient condition provoke sterile inflammation through the recognition by DNA sensors. Here, we investigated the role of stimulator of interferon genes (STING), a cytosolic DNA sensor, in atherogenesis.

Methods And Results : Apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice fed a western-type diet (WTD), a hypercholesterolaemic mouse model, showed higher STING expression and markers for DNA damage such as γH2AX, p53, and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) accumulation in macrophages in the aorta compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The level of cGAMP, a STING agonist, in the aorta was higher in Apoe-/- mice. Genetic deletion of Sting in Apoe-/- mice reduced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic arch, lipid, and macrophage accumulation in plaques, and inflammatory molecule expression in the aorta compared with the control. Pharmacological blockade of STING using a specific inhibitor, C-176, ameliorated atherogenesis in Apoe-/- mice. In contrast, bone marrow-specific STING expression in Apoe-/- mice stimulated atherogenesis. Expression or deletion of STING did not affect metabolic parameters and blood pressure. In vitro studies revealed that STING activation by cGAMP or mitochondrial DNA accelerated inflammatory molecule expression (e.g. TNF-α or IFN-β) in mouse and human macrophages. Activation of nuclear factor-κB and TANK binding kinase 1 was involved in STING-associated vascular inflammation and macrophage activation. Furthermore, human atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid arteries expressed STING and cGAMP.

Conclusion : Stimulator of interferon genes stimulates pro-inflammatory activation of macrophages, leading to the development of atherosclerosis. Stimulator of interferon genes signalling may serve as a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab249DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical Utility of Overlap Time for Incomplete Relaxation to Predict Cardiac Events in Heart Failure.

J Card Fail 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Hospital.

Background: The overlap time of transmitral flow can be a novel marker of subclinical left ventricular dysfunction for predicting adverse events in heart failure (HF). We aimed to (1) investigate the role of overlap time of the E-A wave in association with clinical parameters and (2) evaluate whether the overlap time could add prognostic information with respect to other conventional clinical prognosticators in HF.

Methods: We prospectively evaluated 153 patients hospitalized with HF (mean age 68 ± 15 years; 63% male). The primary endpoint was readmission following HF or cardiac death.

Results: During a median period of 25 months, 43 patients were readmitted or died. Overlap time appeared to be associated with worse outcomes. After adjustment for readmission scores and ratios of diastolic filling period and cardiac cycle length in a Cox proportional-hazards model, overlap time was associated with event-free survival, independent of elevated left atrial pressure based on guidelines. When overlap time was added to the model based on clinical variables and elevated left atrial pressure, the C-statistic significantly improved from 0.70 (95% CI: 0.63-0.77) to 0.77 (95% CI: 0.69-0.83, compared) (P = 0.035).

Conclusion: This preliminary study suggested that prolonged overlap time may have potential for predicting readmission and cardiac mortality risk assessment in patients with HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.05.018DOI Listing
June 2021

Predictive value of left atrial function for latent paroxysmal atrial fibrillation as the cause of embolic stroke of undetermined source.

J Cardiol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima, Japan.

Background: In patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS), paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) is often diagnosed, however, the risk of paroxysmal AF in ESUS has not been well described. Several studies have suggested a linkage between left atrial (LA) functional parameters and risk of AF in stroke patients. The aim of this study was to assess the role of LA functional parameters as predictors of latent paroxysmal AF in ESUS on admission.

Methods: Between January 2015 and December 2019, consecutive stroke patients with suspected ESUS at admission were prospectively included in this study. They were under hospital electrocardiographic monitoring for detection of new-onset AF. Various echocardiographic parameters including left atrial strain were assessed for association with new-onset AF.

Results: We gathered 1082 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke. After exclusions, 121 patients with suspected ESUS at admission formed the study cohort. New-onset AF was detected in 46 (38%) patients during hospital electrocardiographic monitoring (median follow-up: 18 days). LA pump and reservoir strains were significantly and independently associated with new-onset AF. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for the association with new-onset AF showed that the areas under the curve (AUCs) of clinical parameters plus one of each strain (LA pump strain: AUC: 0.86±0.04 and LA reservoir strain: AUC: 0.76±0.05) models were significantly better than plus LA volume index (AUC: 0.68±0.04, compared p-values <0.05).

Conclusions: LA strain was significantly associated with new development of AF. Patients with impaired LA function at admission should be carefully monitored to find AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2021.05.005DOI Listing
June 2021

Acute Hospital Mortality of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With Cancer From Registry Data.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jun 22;10(11):e019373. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine Tokushima University Hospital Tokushima Japan.

Background The prognosis of patients with cancer-venous thromboembolism (VTE) is not well known because of a lack of registry data. Moreover, there is also no knowledge on how specific types are related to prognosis. We sought to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with cancer-associated VTE, compared with a matched cohort without cancer using real-world registry data of VTE. Methods and Results This study was based on the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database in the JROAD-DPC (Japanese Registry of All Cardiac and Vascular Diseases and the Diagnosis Procedure Combination). Of 5 106 151 total patients included in JROAD-DPC, we identified 49 580 patients who were first hospitalized with VTE from April 2012 to March 2017. Propensity score was estimated with a logistic regression model, with cancer as the dependent variable and 18 clinically relevant covariates. After propensity matching, there were 25 148 patients with VTE with or without cancer. On propensity score-matched analysis with 25 148 patients with VTE, patients with cancer had higher total in-hospital mortality within 7 days (1.3% versus 1.1%, odds ratio [OR], 1.66; 95% CI, 1.31-2.11; <0.0001), 14 days (2.5% versus 1.5%, OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.72-2.49; <0.0001), and 30 days (4.8% versus 2.0%, OR, 2.85; 95% CI, 2.45-3.31; <0.0001). On analysis for each type of cancer, in-hospital mortality in 11 types of cancer was significantly high, especially pancreas (OR, 12.96; 95% CI, 6.41-26.20), biliary tract (OR, 8.67; 95% CI, 3.00-25.03), and liver (OR, 7.31; 95% CI, 3.05-17.50). Conclusions Patients with cancer had a higher in-hospital acute mortality for VTE than those without cancer, especially in pancreatic, biliary tract, and liver cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019373DOI Listing
June 2021

Infective Endocarditis from Furuncle with Meningitis Complication Caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Intern Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Japan.

Infective endocarditis (IE) may be acquired in the community as community-acquired (CA) IE or in the healthcare setting. In Japan, cases of CA-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection as skin infection have been increasing. CA-MRSA strains, including the USA300 clone, have higher pathogenicity and are more destructive to tissue than healthcare-associated MRSA strains because of the toxins they produce, including arginine-catabolic mobile element (ACME) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). However, only a few IE cases induced by USA300 have been reported. We herein report a 64-year-old man who developed CA-IE from a furuncle caused by USA300 MRSA producing PVL and ACME, which resulted in complications of meningitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.6902-20DOI Listing
April 2021

Left Atrial Strain Associated with Functional Recovery in Patients Receiving Optimal Treatment for Heart Failure.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima, Japan.

Background: Heart failure with recovered ejection fraction (HFrecEF) has been reported in several previous studies to have a better prognosis than heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, the factors associated with HFrecEF have not been identified. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that left atrial (LA) strain could help identify patients with recovered ejection fraction (EF) among those with heart failure (HF) with low EF on admission.

Methods: One hundred consecutive patients hospitalized for the first time for new-onset HF were enrolled. Patients were clinically diagnosed with HFrEF on admission (left ventricular EF < 40%) and received optimal treatment for HF. Twenty-eight patients improved to HFrecEF during 6 months of follow-up.

Results: Regarding clinical background, there were significantly more women and a lower rate of atrial fibrillation in the HFrecEF group than in the HFrEF group. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, LA strain was an independent predictor of HFrecEF, even after adjustment for gender and left ventricular EF (odds ratio: 4.06; 95% CI: 2.04-8.07; P < .001). A cutoff value of 10.8% for LA strain showed high sensitivity (96%) and specificity (82%) in identifying HFrecEF in patients with HF presenting with low EF on admission. During a follow-up period of 24 ± 13 months, 31 patients (31%) had cardiovascular death or readmission for HF. Patients with reduced LA strain (<10.8%) had significantly shorter event-free survival than those with preserved LA strain (P = .02).

Conclusions: LA strain is a useful indicator for predicting HFrecEF and should be considered as a routine measurement in patients with HFrEF on admission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2021.03.016DOI Listing
April 2021

Frontiers of inflammatory disease research: inflammation in cardiovascular-cerebral diseases.

Inflamm Regen 2021 Mar 29;41(1):10. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 3-18-15, Kuramoto-Cho, Tokushima, 770-8503, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41232-021-00160-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008555PMC
March 2021

Pemafibrate, A Novel Selective Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Modulator, Reduces Plasma Eicosanoid Levels and Ameliorates Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetic Mice.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.

Aims: Various pathological processes related to diabetes cause endothelial dysfunction. Eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid (AA) have roles in vascular regulation. Fibrates have recently been shown to attenuate vascular complications in diabetics. Here we examined the effects of pemafibrate, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator, on plasma eicosanoid levels and endothelial function in diabetic mice.

Methods: Diabetes was induced in 7-week-old male wild-type mice by a single injection of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg). Pemafibrate (0.3 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 3 weeks. Untreated mice received vehicle. Circulating levels of eicosanoids and free fatty acids were measured using both gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vascular responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, were analyzed.

Results: Pemafibrate reduced both triglyceride and non-high-density lipoprotein -cholesterol levels (P<0.01), without affecting body weight. It also decreased circulating levels of AA (P<0.001), thromboxane B (P<0.001), prostaglandin E, leukotriene B (P<0.05), and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (P<0.001), all of which were elevated by the induction of diabetes. In contrast, the plasma levels of 15-deoxy-Δ-prostaglandin J, which declined following diabetes induction, remained unaffected by pemafibrate treatment. In diabetic mice, pemafibrate decreased palmitic acid (PA) and stearic acid concentrations (P<0.05). Diabetes induction impaired endothelial function, whereas pemafibrate ameliorated it (P<0.001). The results of ex vivo experiments indicated that eicosanoids or PA impaired endothelial function.

Conclusion: Pemafibrate diminished the levels of vasoconstrictive eicosanoids and free fatty acids accompanied by a reduction of triglyceride. These effects may be associated with the improvement of endothelial function by pemafibrate in diabetic mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.61101DOI Listing
March 2021

Long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids improve endothelial function with altering microbial flora.

Transl Res 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan; Diabetes Therapeutics and Research Centre, Tokushima University, Tokushima, Japan. Electronic address:

Fish oil-derived long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LCMUFAs) with a carbon chain length longer than 18 units ameliorate cardiovascular risk in mice. In this study, we investigated whether LCMUFAs could improve endothelial functions in mice and humans. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multi-center study, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either an LCMUFA oil (saury oil) or a control oil (olive and tuna oils) group. Sixty subjects were enrolled and administrated each oil for 4 weeks. For the animal study, ApoE mice were fed a Western diet supplemented with 3% of either gadoleic acid (C20:1) or cetoleic acid (C22:1) for 12 weeks. Participants from the LCMUFA group showed improvements in endothelial function and a lower trimethylamine-N-oxide level, which is a predictor of coronary artery disease. C20:1 and C22:1 oils significantly improved atherosclerotic lesions and plasma levels of several inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α. These beneficial effects were consistent with an improvement in the gut microbiota environment, as evident from the decreased ratio of Firmicutes and/ or Bacteroidetes, increase in the abundance of Akkermansia, and upregulation of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-induced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) expression and serum GLP-1 level. These data suggest that LCMUFAs alter the microbiota environment that stimulate the production of SCFAs, resulting in the induction of GLP-1 secretion. Fish oil-derived long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids might thus help to protect against cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2021.03.016DOI Listing
March 2021

Activated Factor X Signaling Pathway via Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Is a Novel Therapeutic Target for Preventing Atrial Fibrillation.

Circ J 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.

Background: Activated factor X (FXa), which contributes to chronic inflammation via protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), might play an important role in atrial fibrillation (AF) arrhythmogenesis. This study aimed to assess whether PAR2 signaling contributes to AF arrhythmogenesis and whether rivaroxaban ameliorates atrial inflammation and prevents AF.Methods and Results:In Study 1, PAR2 deficient (PAR2-/-) and wild-type mice were infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) or a vehicle via an osmotic minipump for 2 weeks. In Study 2, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with rivaroxaban, warfarin, or vehicle for 2 weeks after 8 h of right atrial rapid pacing. The AF inducibility and atrial remodeling in both studies were examined. Ang II-treated PAR2-/- mice had a lower incidence of AF and less mRNA expression of collagen1 and collagen3 in the atrium compared to wild-type mice treated with Ang II. Rivaroxaban significantly reduced AF inducibility compared with warfarin or vehicle. In SHRs treated with a vehicle, rapid atrial pacing promoted gene expression of inflammatory and fibrosis-related biomarkers in the atrium. Rivaroxaban, but not warfarin, significantly reduced expression levels of these genes.

Conclusions: The FXa-PAR2 signaling pathway might contribute to AF arrhythmogenesis associated with atrial inflammation. A direct FXa inhibitor, rivaroxaban, could prevent atrial inflammation and reduce AF inducibility, probably by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-1006DOI Listing
March 2021

Cardiac reserve by 6-minute walk stress echocardiography in systemic sclerosis.

Open Heart 2021 02;8(1)

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima, Japan.

Objectives: There is a high prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) which is associated with high mortality. Thus, early detection of LVDD could be important in management of SSc. We hypothesised that exercise echocardiography in SSc patients with normal resting haemodynamics may expose early phase LVDD, which could affect its prognosis, defined as cardiovascular death and unplanned hospitalisation for heart failure.

Methods: Between January 2014 and December 2018, we prospectively enrolled 140 patients with SSc who underwent 6-minute walk (6MW) stress echocardiographic studies with normal range of estimated mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) (<25 mm Hg) and mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure (mPAWP) (<15 mm Hg) at rest. We used ΔmPAP/Δcardiac output (CO) to assess pulmonary vascular reserve and ΔmPAWP/ΔCO to assess LV cardiac reserve between resting and post-6MW.

Results: During a median period of 3.6 years (IQR 2.0-5.1 years), 25 patients (18%) reached the composite outcome. Both ΔmPAP/ΔCO and ΔmPAWP/ΔCO in patients with events were significantly greater than in those without events (8.9±3.8 mm Hg/L/min vs 3.0±1.7 mm Hg/L/min; p=0.002, and 2.2±0.9 mm Hg/L/min vs 0.9±0.5 mm Hg/L/min; p<0.001, respectively). Patients with both impaired LV cardiac reserve (ΔmPAWP/ΔCO>1.4 mm Hg/L/min) and impaired pulmonary vascular reserve (ΔmPAP/ΔCO>3.0 mm Hg/L/min) had worse outcomes compared with those without these abnormalities (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The 6MW stress echocardiography revealed impaired LV cardiac reserve in SSc patients with normal resting haemodynamics. Furthermore, LV cardiac reserve independently associates with clinical worsening in SSc, providing incremental prognostic utility, in addition to pulmonary vascular parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2020-001559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898855PMC
February 2021

Deleterious Effects of Epicardial Adipose Tissue Volume on Global Longitudinal Strain in Patients With Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2020 15;7:607825. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.

It is known that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume is linked to cardiac dysfunction. However, it is unclear whether EAT volume (EATV) is closely linked to abnormal LV strain. We examined the relationship between EATV and global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), and global radial strain (GRS) in patients with preserved LV function. Notably, 180 consecutive subjects (68 ± 12 years; 53% men) underwent 320-slice multi-detector computed tomography coronary angiography and were segregated into coronary artery disease (CAD) (≥1 coronary artery branch stenosis ≥50%) and non-CAD groups. GLS, GCS, and GRS were evaluated by 2-dimensional speckle tracking in patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥50%. First, GLS, but not GRS and GCS, was lower in the high EATV group though the LVEF was comparable to the low EATV group. Frequency of GLS ≤18 was higher in the high EATV group. Second, multiple regression model showed that EATV, age, male sex, and CAD, were determinants of GLS. Third, the cutoff points of EATV were comparable (~116-117 mL) in both groups. The cutoff of EATV ≥116 showed a significant correlation with GLS ≤18 in overall subjects. Increasing EATV was independently associated with global longitudinal strain despite the preserved LVEF and lacking obstructive CAD. Our findings suggest an additional role of EAT on myocardial systolic function by impaired LV longitudinal strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2020.607825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843424PMC
January 2021

Association between Vitamin D and Heart Failure Mortality in 10,974 Hospitalized Individuals.

Nutrients 2021 Jan 23;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan.

A broad range of chronic conditions, including heart failure (HF), have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. Existing clinical trials involving vitamin D supplementation in chronic HF patients have been inconclusive. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of patients with vitamin D supplementation, compared with a matched cohort using real-world big data of HF hospitalization. This study was based on the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database in the Japanese Registry of All Cardiac and Vascular Datasets (JROAD-DPC). After exclusion criteria, we identified 93,692 patients who were first hospitalized with HF between April 2012 and March 2017 (mean age was 79 ± 12 years, and 52.2% were male). Propensity score (PS) was estimated with logistic regression model, with vitamin D supplementation as the dependent variable and clinically relevant covariates. On PS-matched analysis with 10,974 patients, patients with vitamin D supplementation had lower total in-hospital mortality (6.5 vs. 9.4%, odds ratio: 0.67, < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality within 7 days and 30 days (0.9 vs. 2.5%, OR, 0.34, and 3.8 vs. 6.5%, OR: 0.56, both < 0.001). In the sub-group analysis, mortalities in patients with age < 75, diabetes, dyslipidemia, atrial arrhythmia, cancer, renin-angiotensin system blocker, and β-blocker were not affected by vitamin D supplementation. Patients with vitamin D supplementation had a lower in-hospital mortality for HF than patients without vitamin D supplementation in the propensity matched cohort. The identification of specific clinical characteristics in patients benefitting from vitamin D may be useful for determining targets of future randomized control trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911510PMC
January 2021

Effects of L-/N-Type Calcium Channel Blockers on Angiotensin II-Renin Feedback in Hypertensive Patients.

Int J Hypertens 2020 22;2020:6653851. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima, Japan.

Objectives: Cilnidipine, an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), has unique organ-protective properties due to suppression of hyperactivity in the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In this study, we hypothesized that cilnidipine might exert a renoprotective effect by suppressing the RAS.

Methods: A total of 25 hypertensive patients receiving a RAS inhibitor were randomly assigned to a cilnidipine ( = 12) or amlodipine ( = 13) group. The effects of cilnidipine on proteinuria and angiotensin II-renin feedback were assessed.

Results: After 6 months of treatment, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly reduced to a similar extent in both groups. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly lower in the cilnidipine group ( < 0.05) than in the amlodipine group. Amlodipine increased plasma angiotensin I and angiotensin II levels ( < 0.05), whereas cilnidipine did not. Interestingly, the cilnidipine group had a higher ratio of angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) to angiotensin II in plasma than the amlodipine group ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: The L-/N-type CCB cilnidipine, but not amlodipine, decreased urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive patients. Cilnidipine also increased the ratio of Ang-(1-7) to angiotensin II in plasma, which might be one factor underlying its beneficial effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6653851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803135PMC
December 2020

Roles of Epicardial Adipose Tissue in the Pathogenesis of Coronary Atherosclerosis - An Update on Recent Findings.

Circ J 2020 12 1;85(1):2-8. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.

Adipose tissue serves not only as an energy store or a mechanical cushion, but also as an endocrine organ. Recent evidence revealed that perivascular adipose tissue is involved in vascular homeostasis and pathophysiology of adjacent arteries by producing various adipokines. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is located between the surface of the heart and the visceral layer of the pericardium and surrounds the coronary arteries. Many clinical studies suggest that an increase in EAT volume is associated with coronary artery disease. It has been reported that exercise and some antidiabetic drugs can reduce EAT volume. In this review, we outline recent findings on the roles of EAT in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0935DOI Listing
December 2020

Inhibition of S1P Receptor 2 Attenuates Endothelial Dysfunction and Inhibits Atherogenesis in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Jun 2;28(6):630-642. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.

Aim: The bioactive lipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), has various roles in the physiology and pathophysiology of many diseases. There are five S1P receptors; however, the role of each S1P receptor in atherogenesis is still obscure. Here we investigated the contribution of S1P receptor 2 (S1P2) to atherogenesis by using a specific S1P2 antagonist, ONO-5430514, in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe ) mice.

Methods: Apoe mice fed with a western-type diet (WTD) received ONO-5430514 (30 mg/kg/day) or vehicle. To examine the effect on atherogenesis, Sudan IV staining, histological analysis, qPCR, and vascular reactivity assay was performed. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used for in vitro experiments.

Results: WTD-fed Apoe mice had significantly higher S1P2 expression in the aorta compared with wild-type mice. S1P2 antagonist treatment for 20 weeks reduced atherosclerotic lesion development (p<0.05). S1P2 antagonist treatment for 8 weeks ameliorated endothelial dysfunction (p<0.05) accompanied with significant reduction of lipid deposition, macrophage accumulation, and inflammatory molecule expression in the aorta compared with vehicle. S1P2 antagonist attenuated the phosphorylation of JNK in the abdominal aorta compared with vehicle (p<0.05). In HUVEC, S1P promoted inflammatory molecule expression such as MCP-1 and VCAM-1 (p<0.001), which was attenuated by S1P2 antagonist or a JNK inhibitor (p<0.01). S1P2 antagonist also inhibited S1P-induced JNK phosphorylation in HUVEC (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Our results suggested that an S1P2 antagonist attenuates endothelial dysfunction and prevents atherogenesis. S1P2, which promotes inflammatory activation of endothelial cells, might be a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.54916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219539PMC
June 2021

Emerging roles of Toll-like receptor 9 in cardiometabolic disorders.

Inflamm Regen 2020 21;40:18. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 3-18-15, Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima, 770-8503 Japan.

Growing evidence suggests that damage-associated molecule patterns (DAMPs) and their receptors, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), are associated with the progression of cardiometabolic disorders, including obesity-related insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Cardiometabolic disorders share sterile chronic inflammation as a major cause; however, the exact mechanisms are still obscure. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), one of the nucleic acid-sensing TLRs, recognizes DNA fragments derived from pathogens and contributes to self-defense by activation of the innate immune system. In addition, previous studies demonstrated that TLR9 recognizes DNA fragments released from host cells, accelerating sterile inflammation, which is associated with inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune diseases. In obese adipose tissue and atherosclerotic vascular tissue, various stresses release DNA fragments and/or nuclear proteins as DAMPs from degenerated adipocytes and vascular cells. Recent studies indicated that the activation of TLR9 in immune cells including macrophages and dendritic cells by recognition of these DAMPs promotes inflammation in these tissues, which causes cardiometabolic disorders. This review discusses recent advances in understanding the role of sterile inflammation associated with TLR9 and its endogenous ligands in cardiometabolic disorders. New insights into innate immunity may provide better understanding of cardiometabolic disorders and new therapeutic options for these major health threats in recent decades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41232-020-00118-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374824PMC
July 2020

Association between Sarcopenia/Lower Muscle Mass and Short-Term Regression of Deep Vein Thrombosis Using Direct Oral Anticoagulants.

Int Heart J 2020 Jul 18;61(4):787-794. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Hospital.

Advanced age, obesity, and muscle weakness are independent factors in the onset of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Recently, an association between sarcopenia and DVT has been reported. We hypothesized that sarcopenia related factors, observed by ultrasonography, are associated with the regression effect on the thrombus following anticoagulation therapy. The present study focused on gastrocnemius muscle (GCM) thickness and the GCM's internal echogenic brightness. We examined the association with DVT regression following direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) treatment.The prospective cohort study period was between October 2017 and August 2018. We enrolled 46 patients diagnosed with DVT by ultrasonography, who were aged >60 years old and treated with DOACs. Sarcopenia was evaluated using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia flowchart. The average DOACs treatment period was 94 days, and 29 patients exhibited thrombus regression. On univariate logistic regression analysis, sarcopenia, average GCM diameter index, and gastrocnemius integrated backscatter index were significantly associated with thrombus regression. In a multivariate model, only the average GCM diameter index correlated with thrombus regression.The average GCM diameter index is associated with DVT regression treated with DOACs. Considering the GCM diameter during DVT treatment can be a marker to make a decision for the treatment of DVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.20-032DOI Listing
July 2020

Clinically Feasible and Accurate View Classification of Echocardiographic Images Using Deep Learning.

Biomolecules 2020 04 25;10(5). Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan.

A proper echocardiographic study requires several video clips recorded from different acquisition angles for observation of the complex cardiac anatomy. However, these video clips are not necessarily labeled in a database. Identification of the acquired view becomes the first step of analyzing an echocardiogram. Currently, there is no consensus whether the mislabeled samples can be used to create a feasible clinical prediction model of ejection fraction (EF). The aim of this study was to test two types of input methods for the classification of images, and to test the accuracy of the prediction model for EF in a learning database containing mislabeled images that were not checked by observers. We enrolled 340 patients with five standard views (long axis, short axis, 3-chamber view, 4-chamber view and 2-chamber view) and 10 images in a cycle, used for training a convolutional neural network to classify views (total 17,000 labeled images). All DICOM images were rigidly registered and rescaled into a reference image to fit the size of echocardiographic images. We employed 5-fold cross validation to examine model performance. We tested models trained by two types of data, averaged images and 10 selected images. Our best model (from 10 selected images) classified video views with 98.1% overall test accuracy in the independent cohort. In our view classification model, 1.9% of the images were mislabeled. To determine if this 98.1% accuracy was acceptable for creating the clinical prediction model using echocardiographic data, we tested the prediction model for EF using learning data with a 1.9% error rate. The accuracy of the prediction model for EF was warranted, even with training data containing 1.9% mislabeled images. The CNN algorithm can classify images into five standard views in a clinical setting. Our results suggest that this approach may provide a clinically feasible accuracy level of view classification for the analysis of echocardiographic data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277840PMC
April 2020

Atherosclerotic Coronary Plaque Is Associated With Adventitial Vasa Vasorum and Local Inflammation in Adjacent Epicardial Adipose Tissue in Fresh Cadavers.

Circ J 2020 04 10;84(5):769-775. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.

Background: The coronary adventitia has recently attracted attention as a source of inflammation because it harbors nutrient blood vessels, termed the vasa vasorum (VV). This study assessed the link between local inflammation in adjacent epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and coronary arterial atherosclerosis in fresh cadavers.Methods and Results:Lesion characteristics in the left anterior descending coronary artery of 10 fresh cadaveric hearts were evaluated using integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound (IB-IVUS), and the density of the VV and levels of inflammatory molecules from the adjacent EAT were measured for each of the assessed lesions. The lesions were divided into lipid-rich, lipid-moderate, and lipid-poor groups according to percentage lipid volume assessed by IB-IVUS. Higher expression of inflammatory molecules (i.e., vascular endothelial growth factor A [VEGFA] andVEGFB) was observed in adjacent EAT of lipid-rich (n=11) than in lipid-poor (n=11) lesions (7.99±3.37 vs. 0.45±0.85 arbitrary units [AU], respectively, forVEGFA; 0.27±0.15 vs. 0.11±0.07 AU, respectively, forVEGFB; P<0.05). The density of adventitial VV was greater in lipid-rich than lipid-poor lesions (1.50±0.58% vs. 0.88±0.23%; P<0.05).

Conclusions: Lipid-rich coronary plaques are associated with adventitial VV and local inflammation in adjacent EAT in fresh cadavers. This study suggests that local inflammation of EAT is associated with coronary plaque progression via the VV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-19-0914DOI Listing
April 2020

Levels of Adiponectin Expression in Peri-Renal and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Its Determinants in Human Biopsied Samples.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019 6;10:897. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.

The interactions of adipose tissue with the kidney are hypothesized to affect kidney function. Also, excessive peri-renal fat may increase the risk of cardiometabolic risk. However, the role(s) of peri-renal fat adipocytokine has never been evaluated. To elucidate levels of adiponectin expression in peri-renal and subcutaneous adipose tissue and its determinants in human biopsied samples. A pair of subcutaneous and perirenal fat tissue samples were collected from 80 patients (men: 54; women: 26) who underwent urological operations. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) area, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area and peri-renal adipose tissue (RAT) volume were quantified on abdominal computed tomography. Cytokine/adipocytokine expression was evaluated by real-time semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Probability was considered significant if < 0.05. Current study evaluated determinants of plasma adiponectin levels and expression levels of adiponectin in SAT and RAT in human samples. We found that: first, plasma adiponectin levels were correlated with VAT area but not with BMI, waist circumference, SAT area, and RAT volume; second, expression levels of adiponectin in SAT were correlated with BMI, waist circumference, and SAT area but not with VAT area and RAT volume; and third, expression levels of adiponectin in RAT were correlated with all adiposity indices including BMI, waist circumference, SAT area, VAT area, and RAT volume. This study evaluated levels of adiponectin expression in RAT and SAT and its determinants in patients who underwent urological operation. Levels of adiponectin mRNA in RAT were negatively correlated with remote fat mass in SAT and VAT and also with local fat mass in RAT, while level of adiponectin in SAT was not correlated with RAT volume. Further studies are warranted to evaluate roles of peri-renal fat mass accumulation and its pathophysiological machineries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7025473PMC
February 2020

Empagliflozin ameliorates endothelial dysfunction and suppresses atherogenesis in diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 May 27;875:173040. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima, 770-8503, Japan.

Recent studies reported cardioprotective effects of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors; however, the underlying mechanisms are still obscure. Here, we investigated whether empagliflozin attenuates atherogenesis and endothelial dysfunction in diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE) mice. Male streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetic ApoE mice were treated with empagliflozin for 12 or 8 weeks. Empagliflozin lowered blood glucose (P < 0.001) and lipid levels in diabetic ApoE mice. Empagliflozin treatment for 12 weeks significantly decreased atherosclerotic lesion size in the aortic arch (P < 0.01) along with reduction of lipid deposition (P < 0.05), macrophage accumulation (P < 0.001), and inflammatory molecule expression in plaques compared with the untreated group. Empagliflozin treatment for 8 weeks significantly ameliorated diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction as determined by the vascular response to acetylcholine (P < 0.001). Empagliflozin reduced RNA expression of a macrophage marker, CD68, and inflammatory molecules such as MCP-1 (P < 0.05) and NADPH oxidase subunits in the aorta compared with the untreated group. Empagliflozin also reduced plasma levels of vasoconstrictive eicosanoids, prostaglandin E and thromboxane B (P < 0.001), which were elevated in diabetic condition. Furthermore, empagliflozin attenuated RNA expression of inflammatory molecules in perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), suggesting the reduction of inflammation in PVAT. In in vitro studies, methylglyoxal (MGO), a precursor of AGEs, significantly increased the expression of inflammatory molecules such as MCP-1 and TNF-α in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7. Our results indicated that empagliflozin attenuated endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis in diabetic ApoE mice. Reduction of vasoconstrictive eicosanoids and inflammation in the vasculature and PVAT may have a role as underlying mechanisms at least partially.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173040DOI Listing
May 2020

Deep Learning for Assessment of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction from Echocardiographic Images.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2020 05 25;33(5):632-635.e1. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2020.01.009DOI Listing
May 2020

Biodegradable Extremely-Small-Diameter Vascular Graft Made of Silk Fibroin can be Implanted in Mice.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2020 Dec 26;27(12):1299-1309. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.

Aim: Synthetic vascular grafts are widely used in surgical revascularization, mainly for medium- to large-sized vessels. However, synthetic grafts smaller than 6 mm in diameter are associated with a high incidence of thrombosis. In this study, we evaluated silk fibroin, a major protein of silk, with high biocompatibility and biodegradability, as a useful material for extremely-small-diameter vascular grafts.

Methods: A small-sized (0.9 mm inner diameter) graft was braided from a silk fibroin thread. The right carotid arteries of 8- to 14-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were cut at the midpoint, and fibroin grafts (5- to 7-mm in length) were transplanted using a cuff technique with polyimide cuffs. The grafts were harvested at different time points and analyzed histologically.

Results: CD31+ endothelial cells had already started to proliferate at 2 weeks after implantation. At 4 weeks, neointima had formed with α-smooth muscle actin+ cells, and the luminal surface was covered with CD31+endothelial cells. Mac3+ macrophages were accumulated in the grafts. Graft patency was confirmed at up to 6 months after implantation.

Conclusion: This mouse model of arterial graft implantation enables us to analyze the remodeling process and biocompatibility of extremely-small-diameter vascular grafts. Biodegradable silk fibroin might be applicable for further researches using genetically modified mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.52720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840168PMC
December 2020

Canagliflozin Prevents Diabetes-Induced Vascular Dysfunction in ApoE-Deficient Mice.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2020 Nov 26;27(11):1141-1151. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.

Aim: Recent studies have demonstrated that selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) reduce cardiovascular events, although their mechanism remains obscure. We examined the effect of canagliflozin, an SGLT2i, on atherogenesis and investigated its underlying mechanism.

Method: Canagliflozin (30 mg/kg/day) was administered by gavage to streptozotocin-induced diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE) mice. Sudan IV staining was performed at the aortic arch. Immunostaining, quantitative RT-PCR, and vascular reactivity assay were performed using the aorta. In vitro experiments using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were also performed.

Result: Canagliflozin decreased blood glucose (P<0.001) and total cholesterol (P<0.05) levels. Sudan IV staining showed that 12-week canagliflozin treatment decreased atherosclerotic lesions (P<0.05). Further, 8-week canagliflozin treatment ameliorated endothelial dysfunction, as determined by acetylcholine-induced vasodilation (P<0.05), and significantly reduced the expressions of inflammatory molecules such as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the aorta at the RNA and protein levels. Canagliflozin also reduced the expressions of NADPH oxidase subunits such as NOX2 and p22phox in the aorta and reduced urinary excretion of 8-OHdG, suggesting a reduction in oxidative stress. Methylglyoxal, a precursor of advanced glycation end products, increased the expressions of ICAM-1 and p22phox in HUVECs (P<0.05, both). Methylglyoxal also decreased the phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt but increased the phosphorylation of eNOS and p38 MAPK in HUVECs.

Conclusion: Canagliflozin prevents endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis in diabetic ApoE mice. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential due to reduced glucose toxicity to endothelial cells might be its underlying mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.52100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803832PMC
November 2020

Association of Local Epicardial Adipose Tissue Depots and Left Ventricular Diastolic Performance in Patients With Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

Circ J 2020 01 17;84(2):203-216. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University.

Background: Although full-volume quantification of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a predictor of LV diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), how localized EAT depots are linked to LVDD remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of local EAT depots on LV diastolic function parameters in patients with preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF).Methods and Results:From 423 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac CT angiography, we recruited 252 with sinus rhythm and normal LVEF. The EAT volume index (EATV/body surface area) and the localized EAT thickness around the right coronary artery (EAT), left anterior descending artery (EAT), left circumflex artery (EAT), right ventricle (EAT), left ventricle (EAT), right atrium (EAT), and left atrium (EAT) were measured using cardiac CT. In the LVDD group (n=71), the EATV index (75±30 vs. 64±28 mL/m, P=0.010), EAT(10.7±3.8 vs. 9.4±3.4 mm, P=0.008), and EAT(2.6±1.6 vs. 2.1±1.4 mm, P=0.024) were greater than in the non-LVDD group (n=181). In contrast, EATand EATwere markedly associated with decreased lateral e' and increased lateral E/e'. Multiple regression analysis indicated that EATand EATwere strongly associated with LV diastolic function parameters.

Conclusions: Localized EAT depots are linked to altered mitral annular motion. Further study is warranted to clarify whether localized EAT depots are functionally linked to the clinical manifestations of LVDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-19-0793DOI Listing
January 2020

Thrombin inhibition by dabigatran attenuates endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice.

Vascul Pharmacol 2020 01 20;124:106632. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan.

Diabetic patients have coagulation abnormalities, in which thrombin plays a key role. Whereas accumulating evidence suggests that it also contributes to the development of vascular dysfunction through the activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs). Here we investigated whether the blockade of thrombin attenuates endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice. Induction of diabetes by streptozotocin (STZ) increased the expression of PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4 in the aorta. STZ-induced diabetic mice showed impairment of endothelial function, while the administration of dabigatran etexilate, a direct thrombin inhibitor, significantly attenuated endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice with no alteration of metabolic parameters including blood glucose level. Dabigatran did not affect endothelium-independent vasodilation. Dabigatran decreased the expression of inflammatory molecules (e.g., MCP-1 and ICAM-1) in the aorta of diabetic mice. Thrombin increased the expression of these inflammatory molecules and the phosphorylation of IκBα, and decreased the phosphorylation of eNOS in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Thrombin significantly impaired the endothelium-dependent vascular response of aortic rings obtained from wild-type mice. Inhibition of NF-κB attenuated thrombin-induced inflammatory molecule expression in HUVEC and ameliorated thrombin-induced endothelial dysfunction in aortic rings. Dabigatran attenuated the development of diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction. Thrombin signaling may serve as a potential therapeutic target in diabetic condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vph.2019.106632DOI Listing
January 2020

Vildagliptin, a DPP-4 Inhibitor, Attenuates Endothelial Dysfunction and Atherogenesis in Nondiabetic Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice.

Int Heart J 2019 Nov 15;60(6):1421-1429. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are novel antidiabetic agents with possible vascular protection effects. Endothelial dysfunction is an initiation step in atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether vildagliptin (Vilda) attenuates the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic lesions in nondiabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE) mice. Eight-week-old nondiabetic ApoE mice fed a Western-type diet received Vilda (50 mg/kg/day) for 20 weeks or 8 weeks. After 20 weeks of treatment, Vilda administration reduced atherogenesis in the aortic arch as determined by en face Sudan IV staining compared with the vehicle group (P < 0.05). Vilda also reduced lipid accumulation (P < 0.05) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression (P < 0.05) and tended to decrease macrophage infiltration (P = 0.05) into atherosclerotic plaques compared with vehicle. After 8 weeks of treatment, endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity was examined. Vilda administration significantly attenuated the impairment of endothelial function in nondiabetic ApoE mice compared with the vehicle group (P < 0.05). Vilda treatment did not alter metabolic parameters, including blood glucose level, in both study protocols. To investigate the mechanism, aortic segments obtained from wild-type mice were incubated with exendin-4 (Ex-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Ex-4 attenuated the impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation induced by LPS (P < 0.01). Furthermore, Ex-4 promoted phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177 which was decreased by LPS in human umbilical endothelial cells (P < 0.05). Vilda inhibited the development of endothelial dysfunction and prevented atherogenesis in nondiabetic ApoE mice. Our results suggested that GLP-1-dependent amelioration of endothelial dysfunction is associated with the atheroprotective effects of Vilda.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.19-117DOI Listing
November 2019

Osteolytic primary bone lymphoma in the multiple bones.

J Med Invest 2019 ;66(3.4):347-350

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima, Japan.

Primary non-Hodgkin bone lymphoma (PBL) can involve solitary or multiple destructive bone lesions such as those of the femur or pelvis humerus, and some cases have osteolytic lesions. PBL is a rare disease in adults. Thus, PBL is rarely considered a differential diagnosis of the osteolytic tumor. In addition, PBL can be underdiagnosed because patients do not experience symptoms or show objective abnormalities in the early stage. Here, we reported an elderly patient with PBL in multiple bones, including the cranial and femoral bones that were fractured due to falling. J. Med. Invest. 66 : 347-350, August, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2152/jmi.66.347DOI Listing
June 2020