Publications by authors named "Daichi Shimbo"

269 Publications

Number and timing of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring measurements.

Hypertens Res 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York City, NY, USA.

Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) may cause sleep disturbances. Some home BP monitoring (HBPM) devices obtain a limited number of BP readings during sleep and may be preferred to ABPM. It is unclear how closely a few BP readings approximate a full night of ABPM. We used data from the Jackson Heart (N = 621) and Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (N = 458) studies to evaluate 74 sampling approaches to estimate BP during sleep. We sampled two to four BP measurements at specific times from a full night of ABPM and computed chance-corrected agreement (i.e., kappa) of nocturnal hypertension (i.e., mean asleep systolic BP ≥ 120 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 70 mmHg) defined using the full night of ABPM and subsets of BP readings. Measuring BP at 2, 3, and 4 h after falling asleep, an approach applied by some HBPM devices obtained a kappa of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78, 0.85). The highest kappa was obtained by measuring BP at 1, 2, 4, and 5 h after falling asleep: 0.84 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.87). In conclusion, measuring BP three or four times during sleep may have high agreement with nocturnal hypertension status based on a full night of ABPM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-021-00717-yDOI Listing
August 2021

Does This Adult Patient Have Hypertension?: The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Review.

JAMA 2021 07;326(4):339-347

Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Importance: Office blood pressure (BP) measurements are not the most accurate method to diagnose hypertension. Home BP monitoring (HBPM) and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) are out-of-office alternatives, and ABPM is considered the reference standard for BP assessment.

Objective: To systematically review the accuracy of oscillometric office and home BP measurement methods for correctly classifying adults as having hypertension, defined using ABPM.

Data Sources: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and DARE databases and the American Heart Association website (from inception to April 2021) were searched, along with reference lists from retrieved articles.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Two authors independently abstracted raw data and assessed methodological quality. A third author resolved disputes as needed.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Random effects summary sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LRs) were calculated for BP measurement methods for the diagnosis of hypertension. ABPM (24-hour mean BP ≥130/80 mm Hg or mean BP while awake ≥135/85 mm Hg) was considered the reference standard.

Results: A total of 12 cross-sectional studies (n = 6877) that compared conventional oscillometric office BP measurements to mean BP during 24-hour ABPM and 6 studies (n = 2049) that compared mean BP on HBPM to mean BP during 24-hour ABPM were included (range, 117-2209 participants per analysis); 2 of these studies (n = 3040) used consecutive samples. The overall prevalence of hypertension identified by 24-hour ABPM was 49% (95% CI, 39%-60%) in the pooled studies that evaluated office measures and 54% (95% CI, 39%-69%) in studies that evaluated HBPM. All included studies assessed sensitivity and specificity at the office BP threshold of 140/90 mm Hg and the home BP threshold of 135/85 mm Hg. Conventional office oscillometric measurement (1-5 measurements in a single visit with BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) had a sensitivity of 51% (95% CI, 36%-67%), specificity of 88% (95% CI, 80%-96%), positive LR of 4.2 (95% CI, 2.5-6.0), and negative LR of 0.56 (95% CI, 0.42-0.69). Mean BP with HBPM (with BP ≥135/85 mm Hg) had a sensitivity of 75% (95% CI, 65%-86%), specificity of 76% (95% CI, 65%-86%), positive LR of 3.1 (95% CI, 2.2-4.0), and negative LR of 0.33 (95% CI, 0.20-0.47). Two studies (1 with a consecutive sample) that compared unattended automated mean office BP (with BP ≥135/85 mm Hg) with 24-hour ABPM had sensitivity ranging from 48% to 51% and specificity ranging from 80% to 91%. One study that compared attended automated mean office BP (with BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) with 24-hour ABPM had a sensitivity of 87.6% (95% CI, 83%-92%) and specificity of 24.1% (95% CI, 16%-32%).

Conclusions And Relevance: Office measurements of BP may not be accurate enough to rule in or rule out hypertension; HBPM may be helpful to confirm a diagnosis. When there is uncertainty around threshold values or when office and HBPM are not in agreement, 24-hour ABPM should be considered to establish the diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.4533DOI Listing
July 2021

Stress and Depression are Associated with Life's Simple 7 Among African Americans with Hypertension: Findings from the Jackson Heart Study.

Am J Hypertens 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Population Health, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY.

Background: The American Heart Association created the Life's Simple 7 (LS7) metrics to promote cardiovascular health by achieving optimal levels of blood pressure, cholesterol, blood sugar, physical activity, diet, weight, and smoking status. The degree to which psychosocial factors such as stress and depression impact one's ability to achieve optimal cardiovascular health is unclear, particularly among hypertensive African Americans.

Methods: Cross-sectional analyses included 1,819 African Americans with hypertension participating in the Jackson Heart Study (2000-2004). Outcomes were LS7 composite and individual component scores (defined as poor, intermediate, ideal). High perceived chronic stress was defined as the top quartile of Weekly Stress Inventory scores. High depressive symptoms were defined as Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores of ≥16. We compared four groups: high stress alone; high depressive symptoms alone; high stress and high depressive symptoms; low stress and low depressive symptoms (reference) using linear regression for total LS7 scores and logistic regression for LS7 components.

Results: Participants with both high stress and depressive symptoms had lower composite LS7 scores (B [95% confidence interval-CI]= -0.34 [-0.65 to -0.02]) than those with low stress and depressive symptoms in unadjusted and age/sex-adjusted models. They also had poorer health status for smoking (OR [95% CI]= 0.52 [0.35-0.78]) and physical activity [OR (95% CI)= 0.71 (0.52-0.95)] after full covariate adjustment.

Conclusions: The combination of high stress and high depressive symptoms was associated with poorer LS7 metrics in hypertensive African Americans. Psychosocial interventions may increase the likelihood of engaging in behaviors that promote optimal cardiovascular health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpab116DOI Listing
July 2021

Lifestyle behaviors among adults recommended for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring according to the 2017 ACC/AHA blood pressure guideline.

Am J Hypertens 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Background: The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association blood pressure (BP) guideline recommends ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) to exclude white coat hypertension (WCH) among adults with office systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) of 130-159/80-99 mmHg, and masked hypertension (MHT) among adults with office SBP/DBP of 120-129/75-79 mmHg after a 3-month trial of lifestyle modification. We estimated the proportion of individuals with ideal lifestyle factors among those who meet these office BP criteria for being recommended ABPM.

Methods: We analyzed data from participants not taking antihypertensive medication in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) and Jackson Heart Study (JHS) who met the office BP criteria for screening for WCH (CARDIA n=490, JHS n=873) and MHT (CARDIA n=486, JHS n=614). We estimated the prevalence of lifestyle factors including ideal body mass index (BMI), physical activity, diet and alcohol use among participants who met office BP criteria for WCH screening and for MHT screening.

Results: Among participants who met office BP criteria for WCH screening, 15.5% in CARDIA and 3.6% in JHS had 3 or more ideal lifestyle factors. Among participants who met office BP criteria for MHT screening, 22.6% in CARDIA and 4.7% in JHS had 3 or more ideal lifestyle factors. Ideal BMI, diet, and physical activity was present in less than half of participants in each sample who met office BP criteria for WCH or MHT screening.

Conclusions: Few participants who met office BP criteria for the screening of WCH or MHT had ideal lifestyle factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpab110DOI Listing
July 2021

Inequities in Hypertension Control in the United States Exposed and Exacerbated by COVID-19 and the Role of Home Blood Pressure and Virtual Health Care During and After the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 06 19;10(11):e020997. Epub 2021 May 19.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine University of Utah School of Medicine Salt Lake City UT.

The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health crisis, having killed more than 514 000 US adults as of March 2, 2021. COVID-19 mitigation strategies have unintended consequences on managing chronic conditions such as hypertension, a leading cause of cardiovascular disease and health disparities in the United States. During the first wave of the pandemic in the United States, the combination of observed racial/ethnic inequities in COVID-19 deaths and social unrest reinvigorated a national conversation about systemic racism in health care and society. The 4th Annual University of Utah Translational Hypertension Symposium gathered frontline clinicians, researchers, and leaders from diverse backgrounds to discuss the intersection of these 2 critical social and public health phenomena and to highlight preexisting disparities in hypertension treatment and control exacerbated by COVID-19. The discussion underscored environmental and socioeconomic factors that are deeply embedded in US health care and research that impact inequities in hypertension. Structural racism plays a central role at both the health system and individual levels. At the same time, virtual healthcare platforms are being accelerated into widespread use by COVID-19, which may widen the divide in healthcare access across levels of wealth, geography, and education. Blood pressure control rates are declining, especially among communities of color and those without health insurance or access to health care. Hypertension awareness, therapeutic lifestyle changes, and evidence-based pharmacotherapy are essential. There is a need to improve the implementation of community-based interventions and blood pressure self-monitoring, which can help build patient trust and increase healthcare engagement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.020997DOI Listing
June 2021

Platelet bound complement split product (PC4d) is a marker of platelet activation and arterial vascular events in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Clin Immunol 2021 07 11;228:108755. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, United States of America.

Platelet-bound complement activation products (PC4d) are associated with thrombosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). This study investigated the effect of PC4d on platelet function, as a mechanistic link to arterial thrombosis. In a cohort of 150 SLE patients, 13 events had occurred within five years of enrollment. Patients with arterial events had higher PC4d levels (13.6 [4.4-24.0] vs. 4.0 [2.5-8.3] net MFI), with PC4d 10 being the optimal cutoff for event detection. The association of arterial events with PC4d remained significant after adjusting for antiphospholipid status, smoking, and prednisone use (p = 0.045). PC4d levels correlated with lower platelet counts (r = -0.26, p = 0.002), larger platelet volumes (r = 0.22, p = 0.009) and increased platelet aggregation: the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) concentration to achieve 50% maximal aggregation (EC) was lower in patients with PC4d 10 compared with PC4d < 10 (1.6 vs. 3.7, p = 0.038, respectively). These results suggest that PC4d may be a mechanistic marker for vascular disease in SLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2021.108755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8252918PMC
July 2021

Key dimensions of post-traumatic stress disorder and endothelial dysfunction: a protocol for a mechanism-focused cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 05 5;11(5):e043060. Epub 2021 May 5.

Psychology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA

Introduction: Both trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death in the USA. Endothelial dysfunction, a modifiable, early marker of CVD risk, may represent a physiological mechanism underlying this association. This mechanism-focused cohort study aims to investigate the relationship between PTSD (both in terms of diagnosis and underlying symptom dimensions) and endothelial dysfunction in a diverse, community-based sample of adult men and women.

Methods And Analysis: Using a cohort design, 160 trauma-exposed participants without a history of CVD are designated to the PTSD group (n=80) or trauma-exposed matched control group (n=80) after a baseline diagnostic interview assessment. Participants in the PTSD group have a current (past month) diagnosis of PTSD, whereas those in the control group have a history of trauma but no current or past psychiatric diagnoses. Endothelial dysfunction is assessed via flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery and circulating levels of endothelial cell-derived microparticles. Two higher order symptom dimensions of PTSD-fear and dysphoria-are measured objectively with a fear conditioning paradigm and attention allocation task, respectively. Autonomic imbalance, inflammation, and oxidative stress are additionally assessed and will be examined as potential pathway variables linking PTSD and its dimensions with endothelial dysfunction. Participants are invited to return for a 2-year follow-up visit to reassess PTSD and its dimensions and endothelial dysfunction in order to investigate longitudinal associations.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study is conducted in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration and University of California, Los Angeles Institutional Review Board. The results of this study will be disseminated via articles in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at academic conferences and to community partners.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03778307; pre-results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103395PMC
May 2021

Associations Between Habitual Sedentary Behavior and Endothelial Cell Health.

Transl J Am Coll Sports Med 2020 ;5(12)

Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, 622 W. 168 Street, New York, NY, 10032, United States.

Endothelial dysfunction is a mechanism that may explain the link between prolonged sedentary time and cardiovascular disease. However, the relation between habitual sedentary behavior (SED) and endothelial function has yet to be explored.

Purpose-: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of accelerometer-measured SED with markers of endothelial cell health.

Methods-: Healthy adult participants (n=83; 43.4% male; 25.5 ± 5.8 years old) were examined. SED was measured for 7-days by accelerometer. Endothelial function measures included endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV); endothelial microparticles (EMPs) [CD62E+ and CD31+/CD42- EMPs]; and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) [CD34+/CD133+/KDR+ and CD34+/KDR+EPCs]. Participants were classified as having low or high SED based on a median split.

Results-: Participants in the low and high SED group spent a mean ± SD of 8.6 ± 1.1 and 11.1 ± 1.0 h/day in SED, respectively. No significant differences between the low and high SED groups were detected in mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] EDV (2.51 [2.21-2.81] vs. 2.36 [2.07-2.64], =0.50), EMPs (CD62E+: 6.70 [6.55-6.84] vs. 6.56 [6.42-6.69], =0.20; CD31+/CD42‒: 6.26 [6.10-6.42] vs. 6.18 [6.03-6.33], =0.50), or EPCs (CD34+/KDR+: 11.91 [9.23-14.48]×10 vs. 14.87 [12.41-17.32]×10, =0.13); CD34+/CD133+/KDR+: 1.84 [1.28-2.39]×10 vs. 2.17 [1.64-2.70]×10, =0.43).

Conclusions-: Among healthy adults, habitual SED was not associated with markers of endothelial cell health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/tjx.0000000000000138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087243PMC
January 2020

USPSTF Recommendation Statement on Hypertension Screening in Adults-Where Do We Go From Here?

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e214203. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

The Columbia Hypertension Center and Lab, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.4203DOI Listing
April 2021

Maintaining Normal Blood Pressure Across the Life Course: The JHS.

Hypertension 2021 May 22;77(5):1490-1499. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

From the Department of Epidemiology (S.T.H., S.S., O.P.A., P.M.), University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.16278DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of Serum Aldosterone and Plasma Renin Activity With Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

Circulation 2021 Jun 19;143(24):2355-2366. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (J.B.E.-T., R.R.K., G.S.W., S.H.C.).

Background: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is an important driver of blood pressure (BP), but the association of the RAAS with ambulatory BP (ABP) and ABP monitoring phenotypes among African Americans has not been assessed.

Methods: ABP and ABP monitoring phenotypes were assessed in 912 Jackson Heart Study participants with aldosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA). Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the association of aldosterone and PRA with clinic, awake, and asleep systolic BP and diastolic BP (DBP) and ABP monitoring phenotypes, adjusting for important confounders.

Results: The mean age of participants was 59±11 years and 69% were female. In fully adjusted models, lower log-PRA was associated with higher clinic, awake, and asleep systolic BP and DBP (all <0.05). A higher log-aldosterone was associated with higher clinic, awake, and asleep DBP (all <0.05). A 1-unit higher log-PRA was associated with lower odds of daytime hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 0.59 [95% CI, 0.49-0.71]), nocturnal hypertension (OR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.58-0.79]), daytime and nocturnal hypertension (OR, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.48-0.71]), sustained hypertension (OR, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.39-0.70]), and masked hypertension (OR 0.75 [95% CI, 0.62-0.90]). A 1-unit higher log-aldosterone was associated with higher odds of nocturnal hypertension (OR, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.05-1.81]). Neither PRA nor aldosterone was associated with percent dipping, nondipping BP pattern, or white-coat hypertension. Patterns for aldosterone:renin ratio were similar to patterns for PRA.

Conclusions: Suppressed renin activity and higher aldosterone:renin ratios were associated with higher systolic BP and DBP in the office and during the awake and asleep periods as evidenced by ABP monitoring. Higher aldosterone levels were associated with higher DBP, but not systolic BP, in the clinic and during the awake and asleep periods. Further clinical investigation of novel and approved medications that target low renin physiology such as epithelial sodium channel inhibitors and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists may be paramount in improving hypertension control in African Americans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.050896DOI Listing
June 2021

Long-Term Air Pollution and Blood Pressure in an African American Cohort: the Jackson Heart Study.

Am J Prev Med 2021 03 19;60(3):397-405. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of West Florida, Pensacola, Florida.

Introduction: African Americans are disproportionately affected by high blood pressure, which may be associated with exposure to air pollutants, such as fine particulate matter and ozone.

Methods: Among African American Jackson Heart Study participants, this study examined associations between 1-year and 3-year mean fine particulate matter and ozone concentrations with prevalent and incident hypertension at Visits 1 (2000-2004, n=5,191) and 2 (2005-2008, n=4,105) using log binomial regression. Investigators examined associations with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure using linear regression and hierarchical linear models, adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. Analyses were conducted in 2017-2019.

Results: No associations were observed between fine particulate matter or ozone concentration and prevalent or incident hypertension. In linear models, an IQR increase in 1-year ozone concentration was associated with 0.67 mmHg higher systolic blood pressure (95% CI=0.27, 1.06), 0.42 mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure (95% CI=0.20, 0.63), and 0.50 mmHg higher mean arterial pressure (95% CI=0.26, 0.74). In hierarchical models, fine particulate matter was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (-0.72, 95% CI= -1.31, -0.13), diastolic blood pressure (-0.69, 95% CI= -1.02, -0.36), and mean arterial pressure (-0.71, 95% CI= -1.08, -0.33). Attenuated associations were observed with 1-year concentrations and at Visit 1.

Conclusions: Positive associations were observed between ozone and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure, and inverse associations between fine particulate matter and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure in an African American population with high (56%) prevalence of hypertension. Effect sizes were small and may not be clinically relevant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2020.10.023DOI Listing
March 2021

Spatially Weighted Coronary Artery Calcium Score and Coronary Heart Disease Events in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 01 19;14(1):e011981. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Medicine, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons (S.S., D.S., G.B.), Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY.

Background: A limitation of the Agatston coronary artery calcium (CAC) score is that it does not use all of the calcium density information in the computed tomography scan such that many individuals have a score of zero. We examined the predictive validity for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events of the spatially weighted coronary calcium score (SWCS), an alternative scoring method for CAC that assigns scores to individuals with Agatston CAC=0.

Methods: The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is a longitudinal study that conducted a baseline exam from 2000 to 2002 in 6814 participants including computed tomography scanning for CAC. Subsequent exams and systematic follow-up of the cohort for outcomes were performed. Statistical models were adjusted using the MESA risk score based on age, sex, race/ethnicity, systolic blood pressure, use of hypertension medications, diabetes, total and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, use of lipid-lowering medications, smoking status, and family history of heart attack.

Results: In the 3286 participants with Agatston CAC=0 at baseline and for whom SWCS was computed, 98 incident CHD events defined as definite or probably myocardial infarction or definite CHD death occurred during a median follow-up of 15.1 years. In this group, SWCS predicted incident CHD events after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio=1.30 per SD of natural logarithm [SWCS] [95% CI, 1.04-1.60]; =0.005); and progression from Agatston CAC=0 at baseline to CAC>0 at subsequent exams (multivariable-adjusted incidence rate difference per SD of natural logarithm [SWCS] per 100 person-years 1.68 [95% CI, 1.03-2.33]; <0.0001).

Conclusions: SWCS predicts incident CHD events in individuals with Agatston CAC score=0 as well as conversion to Agatston CAC>0 at repeat computed tomography scanning at later exams. SWCS has predictive validity as a subclinical phenotype and marker of CHD risk in individuals with Agatston CAC=0.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.120.011981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987729PMC
January 2021

Reliability of Office, Home, and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Measurements and Correlation With Left Ventricular Mass.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 12;76(25):2911-2922

Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Determining the reliability and predictive validity of office blood pressure (OBP), ambulatory BP (ABP), and home BP (HBP) can inform which is best for diagnosing hypertension and estimating risk of cardiovascular disease.

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the reliability of OBP, HBP, and ABP and evaluate their associations with left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in untreated persons.

Methods: The Improving the Detection of Hypertension (IDH) study, a community-based observational study, enrolled 408 participants who had OBP assessed at 3 visits, and completed 3 weeks of HBP, 2 24-h ABP recordings, and a 2-dimensional echocardiogram. Mean age was 41.2 ± 13.1 years, 59.5% were women, 25.5% African American, and 64.0% Hispanic.

Results: The reliability of 1 week of HBP, 3 office visits with mercury sphygmomanometry, and 24-h ABP were 0.938, 0.894, and 0.846 for systolic and 0.918, 0.847, and 0.843 for diastolic BP, respectively. The correlations among OBP, HBP, and ABP, corrected for regression dilution bias, were 0.74 to 0.89. After multivariable adjustment including OBP and 24-h ABP, 10 mm Hg higher systolic and diastolic HBP were associated with 5.07 (standard error [SE]: 1.48) and 3.92 (SE: 2.14) g/m higher LVMI, respectively. After adjustment for HBP, neither systolic or diastolic OBP nor ABP was associated with LVMI.

Conclusions: OBP, HBP, and ABP assess somewhat distinct parameters. Compared with OBP (3 visits) or 24-h ABP, systolic and diastolic HBP (1 week) were more reliable and more strongly associated with LVMI. These data suggest that 1 week of HBP monitoring may be the best approach for diagnosing hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.10.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749264PMC
December 2020

Correction to: Early Cardiovascular Risk in E-Cigarette Users: the Potential Role of Metals.

Curr Environ Health Rep 2020 Dec 16;7(4):362. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, 722 W 168th Street, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40572-020-00302-4DOI Listing
December 2020

Early Cardiovascular Risk in E-cigarette Users: the Potential Role of Metals.

Curr Environ Health Rep 2020 12 26;7(4):353-361. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, 722 W 168th Street, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are a source of metals. Epidemiologic and experimental evidence support that metals are toxic to the cardiovascular system. Little is known, however, about the role that e-cig metals may play as toxicants for the possible cardiovascular effects of e-cig use. The goal of this narrative review is to summarize the evidence on e-cig use and metal exposure and on e-cig use and cardiovascular toxicity and discuss the research needs.

Recent Findings: In vitro studies show cytotoxicity and increased oxidative stress in myocardial cells and vascular endothelial cells exposed to e-liquids and e-cig aerosols, with effects partially reversed with antioxidant treatment. There is some evidence that the heating coil plays a role in cell toxicity. Mice exposed to e-cigs for several weeks showed higher levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, platelet activation, and thrombogenesis. Cross-over clinical experiments show e-cig use alters nitric oxide-mediated flow-mediated dilation, endothelial progenitor cells, and arterial stiffness. Cross-sectional evidence from large nationally representative samples in the USA support that e-cig use is associated with self-reported myocardial infarction. Smaller studies found associations of e-cig use with higher oxidized low-density protein and heart variability compared to healthy controls. Numerous studies have measured elevated levels of toxic metals in e-cig aerosols including lead, nickel, chromium, and manganese. Arsenic has been measured in some e-liquids. Several of these metals are well known to be cardiotoxic. Numerous studies show that e-cigs are a source of cardiotoxic metals. Experimental studies (in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies) show acute toxicity of e-cigs to the vascular system. Studies of long-term toxicity in animals and humans are missing. Longitudinal studies with repeated measures of metal exposure and subclinical cardiovascular outcomes (e.g., coronary artery calcification) could contribute to determine the long-term cardiovascular effects of e-cigs and the potential role of metals in those effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40572-020-00297-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959158PMC
December 2020

Electronic Cigarette Use and Blood Pressure Endpoints: a Systematic Review.

Curr Hypertens Rep 2020 11 23;23(1). Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, 722 West 168th Street, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Purpose Of Review: E-cigarettes (e-cigs) release toxic chemicals known to increase blood pressure (BP) levels. The effects of e-cigs on BP, however, remain unknown. Studying BP may help characterize potential cardiovascular risks of short- and long-term e-cig use. We summarized published studies on the association of e-cig use with BP endpoints.

Recent Findings: Thirteen e-cig trials (12 cross-over designs) and 1 observational study evaluated systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP). All trials included at least one e-cig arm with nicotine, 6 a no-nicotine e-cig arm, and 3 a placebo arm. SBP/DBP increased in most nicotine e-cig arms, in some non-nicotine e-cig arms, and in none of the placebo arms. The observational study followed e-cig users and nonsmokers for 3.5 years with inconsistent findings. The use of e-cigs with and without nicotine may result in short-term elevations of both SBP and DBP. Prospective studies that investigate the long-term cardiovascular impact of e-cig use are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11906-020-01119-0DOI Listing
November 2020

Twenty-Five-Year Changes in Office and Ambulatory Blood Pressure: Results From the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

Am J Hypertens 2021 05;34(5):494-503

Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Background: Blood pressure (BP) measured in the office setting increases from early through later adulthood. However, it is unknown to what extent out-of-office BP derived via ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) increases over time, and which participant characteristics and risk factors might contribute to these increases.

Methods: We assessed 25-year change in office- and ABPM-derived BP across sex, race, diabetes mellitus (DM), and body mass index (BMI) subgroups in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study using multivariable-adjusted linear mixed effects models.

Results: We included 288 participants who underwent ABPM at the Year 5 Exam (mean [SD] age, 25.1 [3.7]; 45.8% men) and 455 participants who underwent ABPM at the Year 30 Exam (mean [SD] age, 49.5 [3.7]; 42.0% men). Office, daytime, and nighttime systolic BP (SBP) increased 12.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.6-17.9), 14.7 (95% CI, 9.7-19.8), and 16.6 (95% CI, 11.4-21.8) mm Hg, respectively, over 25 years. Office SBP increased 6.5 (95% CI, 2.3-10.6) mm Hg more among black compared with white participants. Daytime SBP increased 6.3 (95% CI, 0.2-12.4) mm Hg more among participants with a BMI ≥25 vs. <25 kg/m2. Nighttime SBP increased 4.7 (95% CI, 0.5-8.9) mm Hg more among black compared with white participants, and 17.3 (95% CI, 7.2-27.4) mm Hg more among participants with vs. without DM.

Conclusions: Office- and ABPM-derived BP increased more from early through middle adulthood among black adults and participants with DM and BMI ≥25 kg/m2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpaa189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140654PMC
May 2021

Randomization to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Endothelial Function in COPD: The COD-Fish Randomized Controlled Trial.

Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis 2021 Jan;8(1)

Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York, United States.

Rationale: Studies suggest a pathogenic role of endothelial dysfunction in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation improves endothelial function in other diseases but has not been examined in COPD.

Objective: We hypothesized that n-3 PUFA supplementation would improve systemic endothelial function in COPD. We performed a pilot randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 superiority trial (NCT00835289).

Methods: Adults with moderate and severe stable COPD (79% with emphysema on computed tomography [CT]) were randomized to high-dose fish oil capsules or placebo daily for 6 months. The primary endpoint was percentage change in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) from baseline to 6 months. Secondary endpoints included peripheral arterial tonometry, endothelial microparticles (EMPs), 6-minute walk distance, respiratory symptoms, and pulmonary function.

Results: Thirty-three of 40 randomized participants completed all measurements. Change in FMD after 6 months did not differ between the fish oil and placebo arms (-1.1%, 95% CI -5.0-2.9, =0.59). CD31 EMPs increased in the fish oil arm (0.9%, 95% CI 0.1-1.7, =0.04). More participants in the fish oil arm reported at least a 4-point improvement in the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) compared to placebo (8 versus 1; =0.01). There were no significant changes in other secondary endpoints. There were 4 serious adverse events determined to be unrelated to the study (3 in the fish oil arm and 1 in the placebo arm).

Conclusion: Randomization to n-3 PUFAs for 6 months did not change systemic endothelial function in COPD. Changes in EMPs and SGRQ suggest n-3 PUFAs might have biologic and clinical effects that warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15326/jcopdf.8.1.2020.0132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047614PMC
January 2021

Occupational standing and change in the Ankle-Brachial Index: the Jackson Heart Study.

Occup Environ Med 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health, Columbia University Medical Center, New York City, New York, USA

Background: A growing interest in reducing occupational sitting has resulted in public health efforts to encourage intermittent standing in workplaces. However, concerns have been raised that standing for prolonged periods may expose individuals to new health hazards, including lower limb atherosclerosis. These concerns have yet to be corroborated or refuted. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between occupational standing and adverse changes in the Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI).

Methods: We studied 2121 participants from the Jackson Heart Study, a single-site community-based study of African-Americans residing in Jackson, MS. Occupational standing ('never/seldom', 'sometimes', 'often/always') was self-reported at baseline (2000-2004). ABI was measured at baseline and again at follow-up (2009-2013).

Results: Over a median follow-up of 8 years, 247 participants (11.6%) exhibited a significant decline in ABI (eg, ABI decline >0.15). In multivariable-adjusted models, higher occupational standing was not significantly associated with ABI decline (occupational standing sometimes vs never/seldom: OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.67, 1.66; occupational standing often/always vs never/seldom: OR 1.22; 95% CI 0.77, 1.94). Similarly, higher occupational standing was not associated with low ABI at follow-up reflective of peripheral artery disease (ABI <0.90) or high ABI at follow-up reflective of incompressible vessels (ABI >1.40).

Conclusions: In this community-based study of African-Americans, we found no evidence that occupational standing is deleteriously associated with adverse changes in ABI over a median follow-up of 8.0 years. These findings do not provide evidence implicating occupational standing as a risk factor for lower limb atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2020-106905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8089112PMC
November 2020

Estimated Prevalence of Masked Asleep Hypertension in US Adults.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 May;6(5):568-573

Division of General Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Importance: High blood pressure (BP) during sleep (asleep blood pressure) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but a national prevalence estimate of masked asleep hypertension (high BP while sleeping but without high BP measured in the clinic [clinic BP]) for the United States is lacking.

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of masked asleep hypertension among US adults by using BP thresholds from the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7) and the 2017 American College of Cardiology-American Heart Association (ACC-AHA) BP guidelines.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort analysis pooled data from 3000 participants in 4 US population-based studies that conducted 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and 17 969 participants in the 2011-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) without ABPM. Masked asleep hypertension status in NHANES was imputed using a 2-stage multiple imputation process. Data were collected from 2000 to 2016 and analyzed from March 4, 2019, to June 29, 2020.

Main Outcomes And Measures: High clinic BP was defined as clinic systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) of at least 140/90 mm Hg using JNC7 and at least 130/80 mm Hg using 2017 ACC-AHA guidelines. High asleep BP was defined as mean asleep SBP/DBP of at least 120/70 mm Hg for JNC7 and at least 110/65 mm Hg for the 2017 ACC-AHA guidelines. Masked asleep hypertension was defined as high asleep BP without high clinic BP.

Results: For the 3000 pooled cohort participants, the mean (SD) age was 52.0 (12.0) years, and 62.6% were women. For the 17 969 NHANES participants, the mean (SD) age was 46.7 (17.5) years, and 51.8% (weighted) were women. The estimated prevalence of masked asleep hypertension among US adults was 18.8% (95% CI, 16.7%-20.8%; 44.4 million US adults) using the JNC7 guideline and 22.7% (95% CI, 20.6%-24.8%; 53.7 million US adults) using the 2017 ACC-AHA guideline criteria. The prevalence of masked asleep hypertension was higher among older adults (aged ≥65 years, 24.4% [95% CI, 20.7%-28.0%]), men (27.0% [95% CI, 24.1%-29.9%]), non-Hispanic Black individuals (28.7% [95% CI, 25.4%-32.0%]), those who were taking antihypertensives (24.4% [95% CI, 21.1%-27.8%]), those who had masked daytime hypertension (44.7% [95% CI, 40.1%-49.3%]), and those with diabetes (27.6% [95% CI, 23.5%-31.8%]), obesity (24.3% [95% CI, 21.8%-26.9%]), or chronic kidney disease (21.5% [95% CI, 17.3%-25.6%]) using the 2017 ACC-AHA guideline. An estimated 11.9% of US adults (28.2 million) had isolated masked asleep hypertension (masked asleep hypertension but without high awake BP) using JNC7 guideline criteria, as did an estimated 13.3% (31.5 million) using 2017 ACC-AHA guideline criteria.

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that the prevalence of masked asleep hypertension is high among US adults. Data are needed on the cardiovascular risk reduction benefits of treating asleep hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.5212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7593881PMC
May 2021

A Tale of 2 Blood Pressures.

JAMA Intern Med 2020 12;180(12):1663-1664

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.5007DOI Listing
December 2020

Underutilization of Treatment for Black Adults With Apparent Treatment-Resistant Hypertension: JHS and the REGARDS Study.

Hypertension 2020 11 14;76(5):1600-1607. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

From the Department of Population Health, NYU School of Medicine (A.T.L., M.B., G.O.).

Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure levels above goal while taking ≥3 classes of antihypertensive medication or ≥4 classes regardless of blood pressure level, is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. The 2018 American Heart Association Scientific Statement on Resistant Hypertension recommends healthy lifestyle habits and thiazide-like diuretics and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for adults with resistant hypertension. The term apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is used when pseudoresistance cannot be excluded. We estimated the use of healthy lifestyle factors and recommended antihypertensive medication classes among US Black adults with aTRH. Data were pooled for Black participants in the JHS (Jackson Heart Study) in 2009 to 2013 (n=2496) and the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) in 2013 to 2016 (n=3786). Outcomes included lifestyle factors (not smoking, not consuming alcohol, ≥75 minutes of vigorous-intensity or ≥150 minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity per week, and body mass index <25 kg/m) and recommended antihypertensive medications (thiazide-like diuretics and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists). Overall, 28.3% of participants who reported taking antihypertensive medication had aTRH. Among participants with aTRH, 14.5% and 1.2% had ideal levels of 3 and 4 of the lifestyle factors, respectively. Also, 5.9% of participants with aTRH reported taking a thiazide-like diuretic, and 9.8% reported taking a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. In conclusion, evidence-based lifestyle factors and recommended pharmacological treatment are underutilized in Black adults with aTRH. Increased use of lifestyle recommendations and antihypertensive medication classes specifically recommended for aTRH may improve blood pressure control and reduce cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality among US Black adults. Graphic Abstract A graphic abstract is available for this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.14836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685176PMC
November 2020

Short-Term Reproducibility of Masked Hypertension Among Adults Without Office Hypertension.

Hypertension 2020 10 9;76(4):1169-1175. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

From the Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY (L.P.C., J.E.S., D.N.P., D.E.A., J.P.C., S.J., D.S., N.A.B.).

The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association blood pressure (BP) Hypertension Clinical Practice Guidelines recommends ambulatory BP monitoring to detect masked hypertension. Data on the short-term reproducibility of masked hypertension are scarce. The IDH study (Improving the Detection of Hypertension) enrolled 408 adults not taking antihypertensive medication from 2011 to 2013. Office BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring were performed on 2 occasions, a median of 29 days apart. After excluding participants with office hypertension (mean systolic BP ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥80 mm Hg), the analytical sample included 254 participants. Using the κ statistic, we evaluated the reproducibility of masked awake hypertension (awake systolic/diastolic BP ≥130/80 mm Hg) defined by the 2017 BP guideline thresholds, as well as masked 24-hour (24-hour systolic/diastolic BP ≥125/75 mm Hg), masked asleep (asleep systolic/diastolic BP ≥110/65 mm Hg), and any masked hypertension (high awake, 24-hour, and asleep BP). The mean (SD) age of participants was 38.0 (12.3) years and 65.7% were female. Based on the first and second ambulatory BP recordings, 24.0% and 26.4% of participants, respectively, had masked awake hypertension. The κ statistic (95% CI) was 0.50 (0.38-0.62) for masked awake, 0.57 (0.46-0.69) for masked 24-hour, 0.57 (0.47-0.68) for masked asleep, and 0.58 (0.47-0.68) for any masked hypertension. Clinicians should consider the moderate short-term reproducibility of masked hypertension when interpreting the results from a single ambulatory BP recording.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7490832PMC
October 2020

Effects of Intensive Versus Standard Office-Based Hypertension Treatment Strategy on White-Coat Effect and Masked Uncontrolled Hypertension: From the SPRINT ABPM Ancillary Study.

Hypertension 2020 10 24;76(4):1090-1096. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

From the Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (L.G., P.E.D.).

Guidelines recommend using out-of-office blood pressure (BP) measurements to confirm the diagnoses of hypertension and in the titration of antihypertensive medication. The prevalence of out-of-office BP phenotypes for an office systolic/diastolic BP goal <140/90 mm Hg has been reported. However, the prevalence of these phenotypes when targeting an office systolic/diastolic BP goal <120/80 is unknown. The SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) Ambulatory BP Ancillary study evaluated out-of-office BP using ambulatory BP monitoring in 897 participants 27 months after randomization to intensive versus standard BP targets (office systolic BP <120 versus <140 mm Hg). We used office and daytime BP to assess the proportion of participants with white-coat effect (standard target: office BP ≥140/90 mm Hg and daytime BP <135/85 mm Hg versus intensive target: office BP ≥120/80 mm Hg and daytime BP <120/80 mm Hg) and masked uncontrolled hypertension (standard target: office BP <140/90 mm Hg and daytime BP ≥135/85 mm Hg versus intensive target: office BP <120/80 mm Hg and daytime BP ≥120/80 mm Hg) in each treatment arm. The prevalence of white-coat effect and masked uncontrolled hypertension was 9% and 34%, in both treatment groups. Among participants with uncontrolled office BP, white-coat effect was present in 20% and 23% in the intensive and standard groups, respectively. Among participants with controlled office BP, masked uncontrolled hypertension was present in 62% and 56% in the intensive and standard groups, respectively. In conclusion, a more intensive BP target resulted in a similar proportion of patients with white-coat effect and masked uncontrolled hypertension compared with a standard target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484232PMC
October 2020

Indications for and Findings on Transthoracic Echocardiography in COVID-19.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2020 10 17;33(10):1278-1284. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Background: Despite growing evidence of cardiovascular complications associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there are few data regarding the performance of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and the spectrum of echocardiographic findings in this disease.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed among adult patients admitted to a quaternary care center in New York City between March 1 and April 3, 2020. Patients were included if they underwent TTE during the hospitalization after a known positive diagnosis for COVID-19. Demographic and clinical data were obtained using chart abstraction from the electronic medical record.

Results: Of 749 patients, 72 (9.6%) underwent TTE following positive results on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 polymerase chain reaction testing. The most common clinical indications for TTE were concern for a major acute cardiovascular event (45.8%) and hemodynamic instability (29.2%). Although most patients had preserved biventricular function, 34.7% were found to have left ventricular ejection fractions ≤ 50%, and 13.9% had at least moderately reduced right ventricular function. Four patients had wall motion abnormalities suggestive of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Using Spearman rank correlation, there was an inverse relationship between high-sensitivity troponin T and left ventricular ejection fraction (ρ = -0.34, P = .006). Among 20 patients with prior echocardiograms, only two (10%) had new reductions in LVEF of >10%. Clinical management was changed in eight individuals (24.2%) in whom TTE was ordered for concern for acute major cardiovascular events and three (14.3%) in whom TTE was ordered for hemodynamic evaluation.

Conclusions: This study describes the clinical indications for use and diagnostic performance of TTE, as well as findings seen on TTE, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. In appropriately selected patients, TTE can be an invaluable tool for guiding COVID-19 clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2020.06.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298489PMC
October 2020

Design and study protocol for a cluster randomized trial of a multi-faceted implementation strategy to increase the uptake of the USPSTF hypertension screening recommendations: the EMBRACE study.

Implement Sci 2020 08 8;15(1):63. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, 622 W. 168th Street, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Background: The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends out-of-office blood pressure (BP) testing to exclude white coat hypertension prior to hypertension diagnosis. Despite improved availability and coverage of home and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (HBPM, ABPM), both are infrequently used to confirm diagnoses. We used the Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) framework, a multi-step process for mapping barriers to theory-informed behavior change techniques, to develop a multi-component implementation strategy for increasing out-of-office BP testing for hypertension diagnosis. Informed by geographically diverse provider focus groups (n = 63) exploring barriers to out-of-office testing and key informant interviews (n = 12), a multi-disciplinary team (medicine, psychology, nursing) used rigorous mixed methods to develop, refine, locally adapt, and finalize intervention components. The purpose of this report is to describe the protocol of the Effects of a Multi-faceted intervention on Blood pRessure Actions in the primary Care Environment (EMBRACE) trial, a cluster randomized control trial evaluating whether a theory-informed multi-component strategy increased out-of-office testing for hypertension diagnosis.

Methods/design: The EMBRACE Trial patient sample will include all adults ≥ 18 years of age with a newly elevated office BP (≥ 140/90 mmHg) at a scheduled visit with a primary care provider from a study clinic. All providers with scheduled visits with adult primary care patients at enrolled ACN primary care clinics were included. We determined that the most feasible, effective implementation strategy would include delivering education about out-of-office testing, demonstration/instruction on how to perform out-of-office HBPM and ABPM testing, feedback on completion rates of out-of-office testing, environmental prompts/cues via computerized clinical decision support (CDS) tool, and a culturally tailored, locally accessible ABPM testing service. We are currently comparing the effect of this locally adapted multi-component strategy with usual care on the change in the proportion of eligible patients who complete out-of-office BP testing in a 1:1 cluster randomized trial across 8 socioeconomically diverse clinics.

Conclusions: The EMBRACE trial is the first trial to test an implementation strategy for improving out-of-office testing for hypertension diagnosis. It will elucidate the degree to which targeting provider behavior via education, reminders, and decision support in addition to providing an ABPM testing service will improve referral to and completion of ABPM and HBPMs.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov , NCT03480217 , Registered on 29 March 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13012-020-01017-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7414682PMC
August 2020

Comparison of 3 Devices for 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in a Nonclinical Environment Through a Randomized Trial.

Am J Hypertens 2020 11;33(11):1021-1029

Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends the use of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) as part of screening and diagnosis of hypertension. The optimal ABPM device for population-based surveys is unknown.

Methods: We compared the proportion of valid blood pressure (BP) readings, mean awake and asleep BP readings, differences between awake ABPM readings and initial standardized BP readings, and sleep experience among three ABPM devices. We randomized a convenience sample of 365 adults to 1 of 3 ABPM devices: Welch Allyn Mobil-O-Graph (WA), Sun Tech Classic Oscar2 (STO) and Spacelabs 90227 (SL). Participants completed sleep quality questionnaires on the nights before and during ABPM testing.

Results: The proportions of valid BP readings were not different among the 3 devices (P > 0.45). Mean awake and asleep systolic BP were significantly higher for STO device (WA vs. STO vs. SL: 126.65, 138.09, 127.44 mm Hg; 114.34, 120.34, 113.13 mm Hg; P < 0.0001 for both). The difference between the initial average standardized mercury systolic BP readings and the ABPM mean awake systolic BP was larger for STO device (WA vs. STO. vs. SL: -5.26, -16.24, -5.36 mm Hg; P < 0.0001); diastolic BP mean differences were ~ -6 mm Hg for all 3 devices (P = 0.6). Approximately 55% of participants reported that the devices interfered with sleep; however, there were no sleep differences across the devices (P > 0.4 for all).

Conclusion: Most of the participants met the threshold of 70% valid readings over 24 hours. Sleep disturbance was common but did not interfere with completion of measurement in most of the participants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpaa117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641984PMC
November 2020
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