Publications by authors named "D Ross Sibson"

38 Publications

Gene expression profiling in bladder cancer identifies potential therapeutic targets.

Int J Oncol 2017 Apr 2;50(4):1147-1159. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

Despite advances in management, bladder cancer remains a major cause of cancer related complications. Characterisation of gene expression patterns in bladder cancer allows the identification of pathways involved in its pathogenesis, and may stimulate the development of novel therapies targeting these pathways. Between 2004 and 2005, cystoscopic bladder biopsies were obtained from 19 patients and 11 controls. These were subjected to whole transcript-based microarray analysis. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was used to identify samples with similar expression profiles. Hypergeometric analysis was used to identify canonical pathways and curated networks having statistically significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes. Osteopontin (OPN) expression was validated by immunohistochemistry. Hierarchical clustering defined signatures, which differentiated between cancer and healthy tissue, muscle-invasive or non-muscle invasive cancer and healthy tissue, grade 1 and grade 3. Pathways associated with cell cycle and proliferation were markedly upregulated in muscle-invasive and grade 3 cancers. Genes associated with the classical complement pathway were downregulated in non-muscle invasive cancer. Osteopontin was markedly overexpressed in invasive cancer compared to healthy tissue. The present study contributes to a growing body of work on gene expression signatures in bladder cancer. The data support an important role for osteopontin in bladder cancer, and identify several pathways worthy of further investigation.
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April 2017

SERPINE1 and SMA expression at the invasive front predict extracapsular spread and survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Br J Cancer 2014 Nov 30;111(11):2114-21. Epub 2014 Sep 30.

Department of Molecular & Clinical Cancer Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Extracapsular spread (ECS) in cervical lymph nodes is the single-most prognostic clinical variable in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but diagnosis is possible only after histopathological examination. A promising biomarker in the primary tumour, alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA) has been shown to be highly prognostic, however, validated biomarkers to predict ECS prior to primary treatment are not yet available.

Methods: In 102 OSCC cases, conventional imaging was compared with pTNM staging. SERPINE1, identified from expression microarray of primary tumours as a potential biomarker for ECS, was validated through mRNA expression, and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on a tissue microarray from the same cohort. Similarly, expression of SMA was also compared with its association with ECS and survival. Expression was analysed separately in the tumour centre and advancing front; and prognostic capability determined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.

Results: Immunohistochemistry indicated that both SERPINE1 and SMA expression at the tumour-advancing front were significantly associated with ECS (P<0.001). ECS was associated with expression of either or both proteins in all cases. SMA+/SERPINE1+ expression in combination was highly significantly associated with poor survival (P<0.001). MRI showed poor sensitivity for detection of nodal metastasis (56%) and ECS (7%). Both separately, and in combination, SERPINE1 and SMA were superior to MRI for the detection of ECS (sensitivity: SERPINE1: 95%; SMA: 82%; combination: 81%).

Conclusion: A combination of SMA and SERPINE1 IHC offer potential as prognostic biomarkers in OSCC. Our findings suggest that biomarkers at the invasive front are likely to be necessary in prediction of ECS or in therapeutic stratification.
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November 2014

CYP2B6*6 is an independent determinant of inferior response to fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Blood 2013 Dec 15;122(26):4253-8. Epub 2013 Oct 15.

Directorate of Blood Sciences, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust, Liverpool, UK;

Fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide (FC) is the chemotherapy backbone of modern chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treatment. CYP2B6 is a polymorphic cytochrome P450 isoform that converts cyclophosphamide to its active form. This study investigated the possible impact of genetic variation in CYP2B6 on response to FC chemotherapy in CLL. Available DNA samples from the LRF CLL4 trial, which compared chlorambucil, fludarabine, and FC, were screened by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for CYP2B6 SNPs c.516G>T and c.785A>G, which define the most common variant allele (*6). Among the 455 samples successfully genotyped, 265 (58.2%), 134 (29.5%), and 29 (6.4%) were classified as *1/*1, *1/*6, and *6/*6, respectively. Patients expressing at least one *6 allele were significantly less likely to achieve a complete response (CR) after FC (odds ratio 0.27; P = .004) but not chlorambucil or fludarabine. Analysis of individual response indicators confirmed that this inferior response resulted from impaired cytoreduction rather than delayed hemopoietic recovery. Multivariate analysis controlling for age, gender, stage, IGHV mutational status, 11q deletion, and TP53 deletion/mutation identified CYP2B6*6 and TP53 mutation/deletion as the only independent determinants of CR attainment after FC. Our study provides the first demonstration that host pharmacogenetics can influence therapeutic response in CLL. This trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Control Trial, number NCT 58585610 at
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December 2013

Combined p53 and MDM2 biomarker analysis shows a unique pattern of expression associated with poor prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma undergoing radical nephrectomy.

BJU Int 2012 Apr 14;109(8):1250-7. Epub 2011 Jul 14.

p53/MDM2 Research Group, Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK.

Objective: To resolve much debated issues surrounding p53 function, expression and mutation in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we performed the first study to simultaneously determine p53/MDM2 expression, TP53 mutational status (in p53-positive patients) and outcome in RCC.

Patients And Methods: In total, 90 specimens obtained from patients with RCC, who were treated by radical nephrectomy, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for p53 and MDM2 on a tissue microarray, and p53 was functionally and genetically analyzed in p53 positive samples. Outcome analysis was by the Kaplan-Meier method and univariate analysis was used to identify variables for subsequent multivariate analysis of correlations between clinical parameters and biomarker expression.

Results: Up-regulation of p53 in RCC is strongly linked with MDM2 up-regulation (P < 0.001). Increased coexpression of p53 and MDM2 identifies those patients with a significantly reduced disease-specific survival by univariate (P= 0.036) and Cox multiple regression analysis (P= 0.027; relative risk, 3.20). Functional (i.e. functional analysis of separated alleles in yeast) and genetic analysis of tumours with increased p53 expression shows that most patients (86%) retain wild-type p53.

Conclusions: Coexpression of p53/MDM2 identifies a subset of patients with poor prognosis, despite all of them having organ-confined disease. Up-regulated p53 is typically wild-type and thus provides a mechanistic explanation for the association between p53 and MDM2 expression: up-regulated wild-type p53 likely promotes the observed MDM2 coexpression. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the p53 pathway is altered in a tissue/disease-specific manner and that therapeutic strategies targeting this pathway should be investigated to determine whether the tumour suppressive function of p53 can be rescued in RCC.
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April 2012

Gene expression in oligodendroglial tumors.

Cell Oncol (Dordr) 2011 Aug 31;34(4):355-67. Epub 2011 May 31.

School of Cancer Studies, University of Liverpool, UK.

Background: Oligodendroglial tumors with 1p/19q loss are more likely to be chemosensitive and have longer survival than those with intact 1p/19q, but not all respond to chemotherapy, warranting investigation of the biological basis of chemosensitivity.

Methods: Gene expression profiling was performed using amplified antisense RNA from 28 oligodendroglial tumors treated with chemotherapy [26 serial stereotactic biopsy, 2 resection]. Expression of differentially expressed genes was validated by real-time PCR.

Results: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed clustering of multiple samples from the same case in 14/17 cases and identified subgroups associated with tumor grade and 1p/19q status. 176 genes were differentially expressed, 164 being associated with 1p/19q loss (86% not on 1p or 19q). 94 genes differed between responders and non-responders to chemotherapy; 12 were not associated with 1p/19q loss. Significant differential expression was confirmed in 11/13 selected genes. Novel genes associated with response to therapy included SSBP2, GFRA1, FAP and RASD1. IQGAP1, INA, TGIF1, NR2F2 and MYCBP were differentially expressed in oligodendroglial tumors with 1p/19q loss.

Conclusion: Gene expression profiling using serial stereotactic biopsies indicated greater homogeneity within tumors than between tumors. Genes associated with 1p/19q status or response were identified warranting further elucidation of their role in oligodendroglial tumors.
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August 2011