Publications by authors named "D Piloni"

34 Publications

Inhaled corticosteroids and risk of osteoporosis in late-middle age subjects: a multicenter European cohort study.

Minerva Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Inhaled corticosteroids have been widely used for the regular treatment of asthma and COPD over the past few decades. To date, studies investigating the effects of ICS on bone in populations including asthma and COPD patients, show conflicting results. The skeletal effects of ICS remain poorly understood. We assessed the association between ICS exposure and self-reported osteoporosis diagnosis in a European cohort study.

Methods: The analysis was carried out by using clinical and questionnaire data available for subjects participating in the ECRHS III (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) with age >55 years.

Results: Among the 3004 enrolled subjects, 245 were ICS users with an exposure ≥12 months. Osteoporosis was reported by 16 subjects in the ICS group (6.5%) and by 167 in the not exposed group (6.1%). The adjusted risk of osteoporosis in ICS users (≥12 months) was not greater in exposed subjects when compared with the unexposed ones (OR=1.02, 95CI%: 0.51, 2.03). The same result was observed even when considering in the analysis a longer exposure to the ICS use (≥ 36.5 months, the median ICS exposure for all subjects). History of COPD, use of oral corticosteroids, Body Mass Index, smoking and physical activity did not show any evidence of an association with osteoporosis.

Conclusions: Our study did not show any significant association between long- term ICS use and self-reported diagnosis of osteoporosis in subjects aged >55 years. To explore the real effect of ICS on bone status, further studies are needed, especially in the long-term ICS exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.21.07431-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Assessment of Genetical, Pre, Peri and Post Natal Risk Factors of Deciduous Molar Hypomineralization (DMH), Hypomineralized Second Primary Molar (HSPM) and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH): A Narrative Review.

Children (Basel) 2021 May 21;8(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Unit of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Objectives: Analyze defects in the state of maturation of the enamel result in an adequate volume of enamel, but in an insufficient mineralization, which can affect both deciduous teeth and permanent teeth. Among the most common defects, we recognize Deciduous Molar Hypominerlization (DMH), Hypomineralized Second Primary Molar (HSPM), and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH). These, in fact, affect the first deciduous molars, the second deciduous molars and molars, and permanent incisors, respectively, but their etiology remains unclear. The objective of the paper is to review studies that focus on investigating possible associations between genetic factors or prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal causes and these enamel defects.

Materials And Methods: A comprehensive and bibliometric search for publications until January 2021 was conducted. The research question was formulated following the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome strategy. Case-control, cross-sectional, cohort studies, and clinical trials investigating genetic and environmental etiological factors of enamel defects were included.

Results: Twenty-five articles are included. For genetic factors, there is a statistical relevance for SNPs expressed in the secretion or maturation stage of amelogenesis (16% of studies and 80% of studies that investigated these factors). For prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal causes, there is a statistical relevance for postnatal factors, such as the breastfeeding period (2%), asthma (16%), high fever episodes (20%), infections/illnesses (20%), chickenpox (12%), antibiotic intake (8%), diarrhea (4%), and pneumonia (4%).

Conclusions: The results are in agreement with the multifactorial idea of the dental enamel defects etiology, but to prove this, further studies enrolling larger, well-diagnosed, and different ethnic populations are necessary to expand the investigation of the genetic and environmental factors that might influence the occurrence of DMH, HPSM, and MIH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children8060432DOI Listing
May 2021

COVID-19 epidemic in a Respiratory Diseases Unit: predictor ranking and mining.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Apr;13(4):2569-2574

Department of Medical Sciences and Infective Diseases, Unit of Respiratory Diseases, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation and University of Pavia Medical School, Pavia, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-2934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107544PMC
April 2021

Partition analysis of data of two waves of COVID-19 pandemic: is the landscape really evolving? A single institution experience.

Minerva Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Unit of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences and Infective Diseases, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation and University of Pavia Medical School, Pavia, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.21.07547-9DOI Listing
May 2021

COVID-19 infection in severe Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency: Looking for a rationale.

Respir Med 2021 07 30;183:106440. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Centre for Diagnosis of Inherited Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Genetics, Institute for Respiratory Disease, Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are heterogeneous: 46.4% of patients admitted into hospital reported to have at least one comorbidity. Comorbidities such as COPD, diabetes, hypertension and malignancy predispose patients with Covid-19 to adverse clinical outcomes. Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a genetic disorder caused by pathological mutation(s) in the SERPINA1 gene resulting in an imbalance in proteinase activity which may lead to premature emphysema and COPD. Our aim was to investigate whether people with severe AAT deficiency (AATD) have an increased risk of (severe) COVID-19 infection. We collected data on COVID-19 symptoms, laboratory-confirmed infection, hospitalization and treatment by means of a telephone survey, directly administered to Italian severe AATD subjects in May 2020. We then compared our findings with data collected by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità on the total population in Italy during the same period. We found an higher frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection in our cohort (3.8%) compared to national data regarding infection, thus giving severe AATD a relative risk of 8. 8 (95%CI 5.1-20,0; p<0.0001) for symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, the relative risk (RR) was higher in AATD patients with pre-existing lung diseases (RR 13.9; 95%CI 8.0-33.6; p<0.001), but with a similar death rate (1 in 8, 12.5%) compared to the general population (13.9%; RR 0.9). These preliminary findings highlight the importance of close surveillance in the spread of COVID-19 in patients with severe AATD and underlines the need for further studies into the role of the antiprotease shield in preventing SARS-Cov-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2021.106440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086383PMC
July 2021