Publications by authors named "D James Cooper"

5,698 Publications

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Outcomes of extracorporeal life support for respiratory failure in children with primary immunodeficiencies.

Perfusion 2021 Jul 19:2676591211033946. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

The Heart Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Objective: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) may serve as a life-saving rescue therapy in critically ill children with respiratory failure. While survival rates of ECMO in children with secondary immunodeficiency is considered relatively poor, survival rates in children with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) has yet to be thoroughly investigated.

Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from children (29 days-18 years old). PID patients were identified by using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes.

Setting: Data were retrieved from Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry (1989-2018).

Interventions: ECMO for a pulmonary support indication. The survival-to-discharge rate was calculated and factors influencing outcomes were compared between survivors and non-survivors.

Measurements And Main Results: A total of 73 eligible ECMO runs were included. The survival-to-discharge rate in pediatric PID patients was 45.2%. No differences were noted in survival based on type of immunodeficiency (p = 0.42) or decade of support (p = 0.98). There was no difference in the rate of pre-ECMO infection in survivors versus non-survivors (p = 0.69). The survival-to-discharge rate in patients with a culture positive infection during the ECMO run was 45.0% versus 45.3% in those with no infection (p = 0.98). In multivariate analysis, only cardiac complications (OR 5.09, 95% CI: 1.15-22.53), pulmonary complications (OR: 13.00, 95% CI: 1.20-141.25), and neurologic complications (OR: 9.86, 95% CI: 1.64-59.21) were independently associated with increased mortality.

Conclusion: Children with a PID who require extracorporeal life support due to respiratory failure have a reasonable chance of survival and should be considered candidates for ECMO. The presence of a pre-ECMO infection should not be considered an ECMO contraindication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02676591211033946DOI Listing
July 2021

Adaptive change in simulation education: Comparison of effectiveness of a communication skill curriculum on death notification using in-person methods versus a digital communication platform.

AEM Educ Train 2021 Jul 1;5(3):e10610. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Osteopathic Medical Specialties Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine East Lansing Michigan USA.

Background: Mandates to social distance and "shelter in place" during the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the exploration of new academic content delivery methods. Digital communication platforms (DCP; e.g., Zoom) were widely used to facilitate content delivery, yet little is known about DCP's capacity or effectiveness, especially for simulation.

Objective: The objective was to compare the experience, outcomes, and resources required to implement a simulation-based communication skill curriculum on death notification to a cohort of learners using in-person versus DCP delivery of the same content.

Methods: We used the GRIEV_ING mnemonic to train students in death notification techniques either in person or utilizing a DCP. For all learners, three measures were collected: knowledge, confidence, and performance. Individual learners completed knowledge and confidence assessments pre- and postintervention. All performance assessments were completed by standardized patients (SPs) in real time. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to identify differences in individual and between-group performances.

Results: Thirty-four learners participated (N = 34), 22 in person and 12 via DCP. There was a statistically significant improvement in both groups for all three measures: knowledge, confidence, and performance. Between-group comparisons revealed a difference in pretest confidence but no differences between groups in knowledge or performance. More preparation and prior planning were required to set up the DCP environment than the in-person event.

Conclusions: The in-person and DCP delivery of death notification training were comparable in their ability to improve individual knowledge, confidence, and performance. Additional preparation time, training, and practice with DCPs may be required for SPs, faculty, and learners less familiar with this technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aet2.10610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253723PMC
July 2021

Association Between Graft Choice and 6-Year Outcomes of Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the MARS Cohort.

Am J Sports Med 2021 Jul 14:3635465211027170. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Although graft choice may be limited in the revision setting based on previously used grafts, most surgeons believe that graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is an important factor related to outcome.

Hypothesis: In the ACL revision setting, there would be no difference between autograft and allograft in rerupture rate and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) at 6-year follow-up.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: Patients who had revision surgery were identified and prospectively enrolled in this cohort study by 83 surgeons over 52 sites. Data collected included baseline characteristics, surgical technique and pathology, and a series of validated PRO measures. Patients were followed up at 6 years and asked to complete the identical set of PRO instruments. Incidence of additional surgery and reoperation because of graft failure were also recorded. Multivariable regression models were used to determine the predictors (risk factors) of PROs, graft rerupture, and reoperation at 6 years after revision surgery.

Results: A total of 1234 patients including 716 (58%) men were enrolled. A total of 325 (26%) underwent revision using a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) autograft; 251 (20%), soft tissue autograft; 289 (23%), BTB allograft; 302 (25%), soft tissue allograft; and 67 (5%), other graft. Questionnaires and telephone follow-up for subsequent surgery information were obtained for 809 (66%) patients, while telephone follow-up was only obtained for an additional 128 patients for the total follow-up on 949 (77%) patients. Graft choice was a significant predictor of 6-year Marx Activity Rating Scale scores ( = .024). Specifically, patients who received a BTB autograft for revision reconstruction had higher activity levels than did patients who received a BTB allograft (odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% CI, 1.25-2.94). Graft rerupture was reported in 5.8% (55/949) of patients by their 6-year follow-up: 3.5% (16/455) of patients with autografts and 8.4% (37/441) of patients with allografts. Use of a BTB autograft for revision resulted in patients being 4.2 times less likely to sustain a subsequent graft rupture than if a BTB allograft were utilized ( = .011; 95% CI, 1.56-11.27). No significant differences were found in graft rerupture rates between BTB autograft and soft tissue autografts ( = .87) or between BTB autografts and soft tissue allografts ( = .36). Use of an autograft was found to be a significant predictor of having fewer reoperations within 6 years compared with using an allograft ( = .010; OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36-0.87).

Conclusion: BTB and soft tissue autografts had a decreased risk in graft rerupture compared with BTB allografts. BTB autografts were associated with higher activity level than were BTB allografts at 6 years after revision reconstruction. Surgeons and patients should consider this information when choosing a graft for revision ACL reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211027170DOI Listing
July 2021

Development of the systematic observation of COVID-19 mitigation (SOCOM): Assessing face covering and distancing in schools.

J Clin Transl Sci 2021 30;5(1):e124. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Pediatric Exercise and Genomics Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of California Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, some K-12 schools resumed in-person classes with varying degrees of mitigation plans in the fall 2020. Physical distancing and face coverings can minimize SARS-CoV-2 spread, the virus that causes COVID-19. However, no research has focused on adherence to mitigation strategies during school days. Thus, we sought to develop a systematic observation protocol to capture COVID-19 mitigation strategy adherence in school environments: The Systematic Observation of COVID-19 Mitigation (SOCOM).

Methods: We extended previously validated and internationally used tools to develop the SOCOM training and implementation protocols to assess physical-distancing and face-covering behaviors. SOCOM was tested in diverse indoor and outdoor settings (classrooms, lunchrooms, physical education [PE], and recess) among diverse schools (elementary, secondary, and special needs).

Results: For the unique metrics of physical-distancing and face-covering behaviors, areas with less activity and a maximum of 10-15 students were more favorable for accurately capturing data. Overall proportion of agreement was high for physical distancing (90.9%), face covering (88.6%), activity type (89.2%), and physical activity level (87.9%). Agreement was lowest during active recess, PE, and observation areas with ≥20 students.

Conclusions: Millions of children throughout the USA are likely to return to school in the months ahead. SOCOM is a relatively inexpensive research tool that can be implemented by schools to determine mitigation strategy adherence and to assess protocols that allow students return to school safely and slow the spread of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cts.2021.786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267337PMC
April 2021

Belantamab Mafodotin (GSK2857916) Drives Immunogenic Cell Death and Immune-Mediated Anti-Tumor Responses In Vivo.

Mol Cancer Ther 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Oncology R&D, GlaxoSmithKline (United States).

B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is an attractive therapeutic target highly expressed on differentiated plasma cells in multiple myeloma (MM) and other B-cell malignancies. GSK2857916 (belantamab mafodotin, BLENREP) is a BCMA-targeting antibody-drug-conjugate approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory MM. We report that GSK2857916 induces immunogenic cell death in BCMA-expressing cancer cells and promotes dendritic cell activation in vitro and in vivo. GSK2857916 treatment enhances intra-tumor immune cell infiltration and activation, delays tumor growth and promotes durable complete regressions in immune-competent mice bearing EL4 lymphoma tumors expressing human BCMA (EL4-hBCMA). Responding mice are immune to re-challenge with EL4 parental and EL4-hBCMA cells, suggesting engagement of an adaptive immune response, immunologic memory, and tumor antigen spreading, which are abrogated upon depletion of endogenous CD8+ T-cells. Combinations with OX40/OX86, an immune agonist antibody, significantly enhance anti-tumor activity and increase durable complete responses, providing a strong rationale for clinical evaluation of GSK2857916 combinations with immunotherapies targeting adaptive immune responses, including T-cell-directed checkpoint modulators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-21-0035DOI Listing
July 2021