Publications by authors named "D C Reicosky"

6 Publications

Impacts of woodchip biochar additions on greenhouse gas production and sorption/degradation of two herbicides in a Minnesota soil.

Chemosphere 2009 Oct 31;77(4):574-81. Epub 2009 Jul 31.

USDA-ARS, Soil and Water Research Management Unit, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, 439 Borlaug Hall, St. Paul, MN 55108, United States.

A potential abatement to increasing levels of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the atmosphere is the use of pyrolysis to convert vegetative biomass into a more stable form of carbon (biochar) that could then be applied to the soil. However, the impacts of pyrolysis biochar on the soil system need to be assessed before initiating large scale biochar applications to agricultural fields. We compared CO(2) respiration, nitrous oxide (N(2)O) production, methane (CH(4)) oxidation and herbicide retention and transformation through laboratory incubations at field capacity in a Minnesota soil (Waukegan silt loam) with and without added biochar. CO(2) originating from the biochar needs to be subtracted from the soil-biochar combination in order to elucidate the impact of biochar on soil respiration. After this correction, biochar amendments reduced CO(2) production for all amendment levels tested (2, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60% w/w; corresponding to 24-720 tha(-1) field application rates). In addition, biochar additions suppressed N(2)O production at all levels. However, these reductions were only significant at biochar amendment levels >20% w/w. Biochar additions also significantly suppressed ambient CH(4) oxidation at all levels compared to unamended soil. The addition of biochar (5% w/w) to soil increased the sorption of atrazine and acetochlor compared to non-amended soils, resulting in decreased dissipation rates of these herbicides. The recalcitrance of the biochar suggests that it could be a viable carbon sequestration strategy, and might provide substantial net greenhouse gas benefits if the reductions in N(2)O production are lasting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.06.053DOI Listing
October 2009

Agricultural opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

Environ Pollut 2007 Nov 16;150(1):107-24. Epub 2007 Aug 16.

USDA-Agricultural Research Service, 803 Iowa Avenue, Morris, MN 56267, USA.

Agriculture is a source for three primary greenhouse gases (GHGs): CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O. It can also be a sink for CO(2) through C sequestration into biomass products and soil organic matter. We summarized the literature on GHG emissions and C sequestration, providing a perspective on how agriculture can reduce its GHG burden and how it can help to mitigate GHG emissions through conservation measures. Impacts of agricultural practices and systems on GHG emission are reviewed and potential trade-offs among potential mitigation options are discussed. Conservation practices that help prevent soil erosion, may also sequester soil C and enhance CH(4) consumption. Managing N to match crop needs can reduce N(2)O emission and avoid adverse impacts on water quality. Manipulating animal diet and manure management can reduce CH(4) and N(2)O emission from animal agriculture. All segments of agriculture have management options that can reduce agriculture's environmental footprint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.030DOI Listing
November 2007

Importance of information on tillage practices in the modelling of environmental processes and in the use of environmental indicators.

J Environ Manage 2007 Feb 22;82(3):377-87. Epub 2006 Nov 22.

Soil Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Tillage has been and will always be integral to crop production. Tillage can result in the degradation of soil, water, and air quality. Of all farm management practices, tillage may have the greatest impact on the environment. A wide variety of tillage equipment, practices and systems are available to farmers, providing opportunities to enhance environmental performance. These opportunities have made tillage a popular focus of environmental policies and programs such as environmental indicators for agriculture. This paper provides a very brief examination of the role of tillage in crop production, its effect on biophysical processes and, therefore, its impact on the environment. Models of biophysical processes are briefly examined to demonstrate the importance of tillage relative to other farm management practices and to demonstrate the detail of tillage data that these models can demand. The focus of this paper is an examination of the use of information on tillage in Canada's agri-environmental indicators initiative, National Agri-environmental Health Analysis and Reporting Program (NAHARP). Information on tillage is required for several of the indicators in NAHARP. The type of data used, its source, and its quality are discussed. Recommendations regarding the collection of tillage data and use of tillage information are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.04.019DOI Listing
February 2007

Regression models for calculating gas fluxes measured with a closed chamber.

Agron J 1997 Mar-Apr;89(2):279-84

USDA-ARS, North Central Soil Conservation Res. Lab., Morris, MN 56267, USA.

Portable closed chambers provide a valuable tool for measuring crop photosynthesis and evapotranspiration. Typically, the rates of change of CO2 and water vapor concentration are assumed to be constant in the short time required to make the closed-chamber measurement, and a linear regression model is used to estimate the CO2 and H2O fluxes. However, due to the physical and physiological effects the measurement system has on the measured process, assuming a constant rate and using a linear model may underestimate the flux. Our objective was to provide a model that estimates the CO2 and H20 exchange rates at the time of chamber closure. We compared the linear regression model with a quadratic regression model using field measurements from two studies. Generally, 60 to 100% of all chamber measurement data sets were significantly nonlinear, causing the quadratic model to yield fluxes 10 to 40% greater than those calculated with the linear regression model. The frequency and degree of nonlinearity were related to the measured rate and chamber volume. Closed-chamber data should be tested for nonlinearity and an appropriate model used to calculate flux. The quadratic model provides users of well-mixed closed chambers an alternative to a simple linear model for data sets with significant nonlinearity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj1997.00021962008900020021xDOI Listing
September 1998

Effect of Water Deficits on Seed Development in Soybean : II. Conservation of Seed Growth Rate.

Plant Physiol 1989 Nov;91(3):980-5

U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service-MWA, North Central Soil Conservation Research Laboratory, Morris, Minnesota 56267.

Water deficits during seed filling decrease seed size in soybean (Glycine max L.). This may result from a reduction in the supply of assimilates from the maternal plant and/or an inhibition of seed metabolism. To determine whether maternal or zygotic factors limited seed growth, we examined the effects of a plant water deficit on the supply of sucrose to and its utilization by developing embryos. Plants were grown in the greenhouse, and water deficits were imposed by withholding water for a period of 6 days during linear seed fill. When water was withheld, leaf water potential decreased rapidly, inhibiting canopy photosynthesis completely within 3 days. However, seed dry weight (nodes 7-11) continued to increase at or near the control rate. The level of total extractable carbohydrates in leaf, stem, and pericarp tissue decreased by 70, 50, and 45%, respectively, indicating that reserves were mobilized to support seed growth. Cotyledon sucrose content decreased from about 60 milligrams per gram dry weight to 30 milligrams per gram dry weight. Similarly, the concentration of sucrose in the interfacial apoplast of the cotyledons decreased from approximately 100 millimolar to 50 millimolar. However, the rate of sucrose accumulation by excised embryos, measured in a short-term in vitro assay, increased in response to the water deficit. These results indicate that both source and sink activity in soybean are altered by water deficits to maintain the flux of assimilates to the developing embryos. This may explain why seed growth is maintained, albeit for a shorter duration, when soybean is exposed to water deficits during the seed filling period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.91.3.980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1062105PMC
November 1989
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