Publications by authors named "Cyrus Azimi"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, and micronuclei in lymphocytes of oncology department personnel handling anti-neoplastic drugs.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2017 Apr 27;40(2):235-240. Epub 2016 Jul 27.

e Molecular Immunology Research Center; and Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Objective: Concern exists regarding the possible hazards to the personnel handling anti-neoplastic drugs. The purpose of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity induced by anti-neoplastic agents in oncology department personnel.

Materials And Methods: To do this, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes was assessed at G phase of the cell cycle using metaphase analysis, cytokinesis block-micronucleus (MN) assay and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay. These cytogenetic end points were measured among 71 nurses in oncology department and 10 drugstore personnel handling and preparing anti-neoplastic drugs. The results were compared to those of 74 matched nurses for age and sex not exposed to any anti-neoplastic agents.

Results: There was no significant difference between the age of study subjects and control group (p > 0.05). The results showed that the mean frequency of cytogenetic damages in terms of CAs [chromatid breaks (p = 0.01), chromosome breaks (p = 0.005), total CAs (p = 0.001)], MN formation (p = 0.001), and SCE (p = 0.004) in lymphocytes of personnel handling anti-neoplastic drugs were significantly higher than those in control unexposed group.

Conclusion: Results of the present study demonstrate the cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of oncology department personnel. Suitable training and proper knowledge when handling anti-neoplastic drugs are emphasized to avoid potential health hazards caused by cytostatic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2016.1209678DOI Listing
April 2017

Association Between Amplification and Expression of C-MYC Gene and Clinicopathological Characteristics of Stomach Cancer.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016 Feb 1;18(2):e21221. Epub 2016 Jan 1.

Department of Medical Genetics, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: The incidence rate of gastric cancer in western countries has shown a remarkable decline in the recent years while it is still the most common cancer among males in Iran. The proto-oncogene MYC, located at 8q24.1, regulates almost 15% of human genes and is activated in 20% of all tumors. The amplification of MYC and overexpression of its protein product are observed in 15 - 30% of gastric neoplasias.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to find the preferences of Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization (CISH) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) in diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer.

Patients And Methods: We studied 102 samples of gastric cancer in Iran and all the patients had undergone primary surgical resection at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The CISH and IHC techniques were applied for all our samples. All of the samples had adenocarcinoma gastric cancer and were selected randomly. Also, the type of study was cross sectional. The sample size was 100 patients.

Results: Our data revealed that both diffuse and intestinal types of gastric cancer occurred significantly more in males than females. Our results showed that there was an indication of some correlation between grades and CISH, although the difference was not significant. Our data also showed that CISH positive patients (43%) were more frequent compared to IHC positive patients (14.7%). There was a correlation between CISH and IHC. These results revealed that there was a significant difference between grades and IHC. There was also no statistical difference between CISH amplification in diffuse and intestinal types.

Conclusions: From the results, it could be concluded that for administration of the treatment of stomach cancer, and progress and prognosis of tumor, which is important for patients and clinicians, the CISH is a better and more feasible test than IHC, in regards to sensitivity and specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.21221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4863201PMC
February 2016

Relationship of Amplification and Expression of the C-MYC Gene with Survival among Gastric Cancer Patients.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(16):7061-9

Department of Medical Genetics, Iran National Tumor Bank, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran E-mail :

Background: During the past decades, the incidence and mortality rate of stomach cancer has demonstrated a great decrease in the world, but it is still one of the most common and fatal cancers especially among men worldwide, including Iran. The MYC proto-oncogene, which is located at 8q24.1, regulates 15% of genes and is activated in 20% of all human tumors. MYC amplification and overexpression of its protein product has been reported in 15-30% of gastric neoplasias. The aim of this investigation was to find the relative efficacy of CISH (chromogenic in situ hybridization) or IHC (immunohistochemistry) in diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer, as well as the relationship of amplification and expression of C-MYC gene with patient survival.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 102 samples of gastric cancer were collected from patients who had undergone primary surgical resection at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, from July 2009 to March 2014. All samples were randomly selected from those who were diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinomas. CISH and IHC methods were performed on all of them.

Results: Patients were classified into two groups. The first consisted of stage I and II cases, and the second of stage III and IV. Survival tests for both groups was carried out with referrnce to CISH test reults. Group II (stage III and IV) with CISH+ featured lower survival than those with CISH- (p=0.233), but group I (stage I and II) patients demonstrated no significant variation with CISH+ or CISH- (p=0.630). Kaplan-Meier for both groups was carried out with IHC test findings and showed similar results. This data revealed that both diffuse and intestinal types of gastric cancer occurred significantly more in men than women. Our data also showed that CISH+ patients (43%) were more frequent in comparison with IHC+ patients (14.7%).

Conclusions: For planning treatment of gastric cancer patients, by focusing on expanding tumors, which is the greatest concern of the surgeons and patients, CISH is a better and more feasible test than IHC, in regard to sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, CISH can be used as a feasible test for tumor growth and prognosis in stage III and IV lesions. This study also indicated that C-MYC amplification in gastric cancer is correlated with survival in advanced stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.16.7061DOI Listing
August 2016

Study of C-MYC amplification and expression in Iranian gastric cancer samples using CISH and IHC methods.

Adv Biomed Res 2015 29;4:116. Epub 2015 May 29.

Department of Medical Genetics, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most frequent malignancy and the second cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. It has been suggested that in gastric carcinogenesis, the C-MYC gene has an important function. The objective of this study is to establish the preference of Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer.

Materials And Methods: Samples comprised of 50 randomly selected patients of whom 40 were male and 10 female. To evaluate the MYC copy number and its protein expression, CISH and IHC analyses were performed for 50 gastric adenocarcinomas, in Iran.

Results: The location of the tumor in 64% of the patients was the fundus, and in 72% of patients, the tumors were of a diffuse type; 22 samples showed no amplification, and 28 samples were with amplification. MYC immunoreactivity was observed in 13 samples. Twelve samples showed both MYC amplification and MYC immunoreactivity. In addition, among the 28 CISH+ samples, 12 samples had positive signals for IHC and 16 samples had negative signals for IHC. A majority of the IHC-negative patients had no amplification, but only one patient with IHC positive had no amplification.

Conclusion: Our conclusion was that for the management and treatment of gastric cancer, and for special attention of clinicians, for prognosis and tumor progression, the CISH was a better and more feasible test than IHC, in regard to the sensitivity and specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.157841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4513308PMC
August 2015

A retrospective chromosome studies among Iranian infertile women: Report of 21 years.

Iran J Reprod Med 2013 Apr;11(4):315-24

Genetics Group, Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The infertility is an important health problem, affecting about 15% of couples. The important role of genetic factors in pathogenesis of infertility is now increasingly recognized. The value of karyotyping women in the routine work-out of couples referred for sterility has long been recommended.

Objective: The aim of this study was to define the frequency of all chromosomal aberrations among women which referred to our department due to infertility during the 21-year period.

Materials And Methods: In this 21-year retrospective study, for the first time, we investigated 896 women which referred to our department due to infertility during 1986 to 2006. For chromosome analysis, heparinized peripheral blood samples were cultured, harvested and banded according to standard methods.

Results: Out of 896 patients, 710 patients (79.24%) had a normal karyotype, and 186 patients (20.76%) showed abnormal karyotype. Among the abnormal ones 48 patients (25.81%) showed Turner's syndrome (45,X), and 45 patients (24.19%) were sex reversal with 46,XY karyotype. The rest of 93 patients (50%) revealed a wide range of chromosome abnormalities.

Conclusion: Our results emphasized the importance of the standard cytogenetic methods in assessing the genetic characteristics of infertile females, which allows detecting a variety of somatic chromosome abnormalities, because some of these may interfere with the success of reproduction.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3941426PMC
April 2013

Association of Smoking Habits of Mother during Pregnancy with Pregnancy Outcome.

Iran J Public Health 2013 1;42(7):748-57. Epub 2013 Jul 1.

International Development Research Center (IDRC), Ottawa, Canada.

Background: The objectives of this work were to study the association of maternal smoking habits with stillbirths, abortions, neonatal deaths, birth weights, placental weights and the outcomes on the 28(th) day of life.

Methods: A questionnaire was developed and completed with the hospitals' recorded data collected over a period of 5 years from 47,000 babies born in several hospitals in Ontario, Canada. The mothers were classified into four categories: non-smokers, light smokers (less than 10 cigarettes per day), moderate smokers (between 10 and 19 cigarettes per day) and heavy smokers (20 or more cigarettes per day). The population surveyed was of mixed ethnicity from both rural and urban areas. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS statistical package.

Results: Even the light smoking habit has an effect on the birth weight and the placental weight but for other characteristics, stillbirth, abortion, and the outcomes on the 28(th) day of life, no significant difference observed between light smokers and non-smokers.

Conclusion: While quit smoking must be the ultimate goal for any smoker, the present study concludes that moderate and heavy smokers, if they will not be able to quit, they should reduce their number of cigarettes per day to at least the level of light smokers to achieve the same results for non-smokers. All characteristics show significant difference between non-smokers and moderate and heavy smokers.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3881620PMC
January 2014

Neoplasia from genetic point of view.

Acta Med Iran 2013 ;51(10):663-74

Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cancer is a genetic-epigenetic based disease which contains a complex of alterations that cause irreversible transformation of cells with a new anarchic behavior. Tumor suppressor inactivation and/or oncogene activation will lead to tumorigenesis. Based on the genetic alteration in germ or somatic cells, the affected person will have a different fate of cancer incidence or inheritable cancer susceptibility syndrome. Knowing the mechanism of molecular and cytogenetic alterations in cancer will give an advantage in finding more practical approaches to cancer management. In this review, the cancer genetics is discussed from different aspects.
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July 2014

Estrogen receptor genes variations and breast cancer risk in Iran.

Int J Clin Exp Med 2012 25;5(4):332-41. Epub 2012 Aug 25.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences Iran.

Evidence suggests that alterations in estrogen signaling pathways, including estrogen receptor α (ER-α) and estrogen receptor β (ER-β) occur during breast cancer development. ER-α and ER-β genes polymorphisms have been found to be associated with breast cancer and clinical features of the disease in the western countries. In the current study, we evaluated the hypothesis that certain sequence variants of the ER-α and ER-β genes are associated with an additively increased risk for breast cancer in Iranian women breast cancer patients. The genes were scanned in 150 Iranian patients with newly diagnosed invasive breast tumors and in healthy control individuals by PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in codon10 (TCT→TCC), codon 352 (CCG→CCC) and codon 594 (ACG→ACA) in ER-α gene and one SNP codon 392 (CTC→CTG) in ER-β were revealed have additive effects in developing breast cancer and LN metastases. Also, SNP in codon 392 of estrogen receptor-β gene is more effective (threefold) than those SNPs in codons 10, 325, 594 of estrogen receptor-α gene in developing LN metastases in breast cancer patients. SNPs in estrogen receptor α and β have additive effects in increasing risk for developing breast cancer with LN metastases among Iranian women breast cancer patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3443893PMC
January 2013

Mutation screening in the mitochondrial D-loop region of tumoral and non-tumoral breast cancer in Iranian patients.

Acta Med Iran 2012 ;50(7):447-53

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in mitochondrial coding and non coding regions seem to be important in carcinogenesis. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate coding region (mt-tRNA(Phe) and tRNA(Pro)) and non-coding sequence, mitochondrial displacement loop (mtDNA D-loop), in the cancerous and non-cancerous lesions of Iranian patients with breast cancer (BC). Genomic DNA was extracted from 50 breast tumors and surrounding normal tissue pairs as well as from 50 unrelated normal breast tissues from Iranian Kurdish population. Subsequently, PCR amplification was performed using specific primers, and then PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing. 41 genetic variants were identified in mtDNA D-loop among tumoral and non-tumoral tissues but not in tRNA(Phe) and tRNA(Pro) sequences. Our findings indicated that C182T, 194insT, 285insA and 16342delT were just found in BC tumors whereas 302insC, C309T and C16069T found in both tumors and surrounding normal tissues. Although our findings showed that the observed genetic variations were not restricted to breast cancer tissues, some genetic changes were found only in BC tumors. Our results, in agreement with the evidence from earlier studies, confirm that the mtDNA genetic alterations might be implicated in tumor initiation, progression and development.
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January 2013

2q34-qter duplication and 4q34.2-qter deletion in a patient with developmental delay.

Eur J Med Genet 2012 Mar 4;55(3):203-10. Epub 2012 Feb 4.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The 2q3 duplication and 4q3 deletion syndromes are two conditions with variable phenotypes including Pierre-Robin sequence (PRS), limb anomalies, congenital heart defects (CHD), developmental delays and intellectual disabilities. We describe a patient born to a mother with a balanced t(2; 4) translocation who combines both a 2q34-qter duplication and a 4q34.2-qter deletion through inheritance of the derivative chromosome 4 (der(4)). He showed developmental delay, growth retardation, hearing problems, minor facial and non-facial anomalies, such as bilateral fifth finger shortness and clinodactyly, but no PRS or CHD. The comparison of his features with those of 46 and 65 published cases of 2q3 duplication and 4q3 deletion, respectively, allows us to further restrict the size of the proposed critical intervals for PRS and CHD on chromosome 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2012.01.012DOI Listing
March 2012

Alpha- and beta-synucleins mRNA expression in lymphocytes of schizophrenia patients.

Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2010 Oct 20;14(5):725-9. Epub 2010 Sep 20.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Alpha-synuclein is largely, but not entirely, expressed in the central nervous system. A high concentration of alpha-synuclein in presynaptic terminals can mimic the normal function of endogenous alpha-synuclein in regulating synaptic vesicle mobilization at nerve terminals. Beta-synuclein protein is seen primarily in brain tissue and it is suggested that beta-synuclein acts as an inhibitor of alpha-synuclein aggregation, which occurs in neurodegenerative diseases. With respect to the role of synucleins in neurologic diseases such as Parkinson's disease, we decided to study the changes of alpha- and beta-synucleins in schizophrenia patients in relation to a control group. For this purpose, total RNA was extracted from the lymphocytes of patients and controls and then cDNA was synthesized and used for real-time polymerase chain reaction. Calculation of the relative expression of alpha- and beta-synucleins showed downregulation in patients in comparison to the control group. Independent two-tailed t-test showed that beta-synuclein mRNA expression in the control group was significantly higher than that in the patient group (p < 0.01), but downregulation of alpha-synuclein gene was not significant. Therefore, a significant downregulation of beta-synuclein mRNA expression appears to be a suitable biomarker for the diagnosis of schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/gtmb.2010.0050DOI Listing
October 2010

TGF-Beta codon 25 polymorphism and the risk of graft-versus-host disease after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2010 Mar;9(1):1-6

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Some of the genotypes of cytokines are associated with acute graft versus host disease after bone marrow transplantation. The purpose of the present investigation was to find out the possible association between transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) codon 25 polymorphism (rs:1800471) and acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) after bone marrow transplantation from the sibling with the similar HLA among the Iranian population. In this retrospective case-control investigation, 172 subjects including 86 Iranian patients and their siblings with the similar HLA as donor/recipient pairs were recruited. All of the patients were diagnosed with one group of blood disorder consisting of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)=40, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)=25 and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)=21. PCR-SSP method was carried out to ascertain TGF- beta1 codon 25 G/C polymorphism genotypes. The frequency of TGF- beta1 codon 25 GG, GC and CC genotypes among all cases were 77.3%, 21.5% and 1.2%, respectively. Recipients with the GG genotype developed severe aGVHD significantly more than those with CC or GC genotypes (Odds Ratio =12.133, P=0.015). Genetic background of TGF-beta1 may be involved in aGVHD development and/or severity in the patients who received Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) from their siblings with the similar HLA among the Iranian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/09.01/ijaai.16DOI Listing
March 2010

Screening of patients with craniosynostosis: molecular strategy.

Am J Med Genet A 2003 Aug;120A(4):470-3

Departments of Genetics and Pediatric Laboratory Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of calvarial bones leading to an abnormal head shape. The craniosynostosis syndromes are clinically heterogeneous with overlapping features, which make an accurate diagnosis difficult at times. Although the clarification of a genetic lesion does not have a direct impact on patient management in many cases, there is a significant benefit in providing accurate prenatal diagnosis. Genetic counsellors are also able to offer better risk estimates of recurrences to non-manifesting carriers and their extended family members and for affected patients of reproductive age. Advances in gene discovery have shown that craniosynostosis syndromes delineated on clinical bases, with the possible exception of Apert syndrome, are genetically heterogeneous, and mutations have been found in fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) 1, 2, 3 and TWIST. We surveyed 99 craniosynostosis patients at the molecular level and found mutations in 50 of them. Six novel point mutations were identified: three in FGFR2 and three in TWIST. Two Saethre-Chotzen patients with TWIST microdeletions at 7p21 were also found. The other mutations identified have been previously reported. In studying these 99 patients, we developed a diagnostic strategy for craniosynostosis testing, where sequential analysis of recurrent mutations was followed by selective sequencing. This algorithm makes testing of craniosynostosis disorders more efficient and cost-effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.20258DOI Listing
August 2003

Clinical and genetic aspects of trigonocephaly: a study of 25 cases.

Am J Med Genet A 2003 Mar;117A(2):127-35

Division of Clinical & Metabolic Genetics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

We reviewed 25 patients ascertained through the finding of trigonocephaly/metopic synostosis as a prominent manifestation. In 16 patients, trigonocephaly/metopic synostosis was the only significant finding (64%); 2 patients had metopic/sagittal synostosis (8%) and in 7 patients the trigonocephaly was part of a syndrome (28%). Among the nonsyndromic cases, 12 were males and 6 were females and the sex ratio was 2 M:1 F. Only one patient with isolated trigonocephaly had an affected parent (5.6%). All nonsyndromic patients had normal psychomotor development. In 2 patients with isolated metopic/sagittal synostosis, FGFR2 and FGFR3 mutations were studied and none were detected. Among the syndromic cases, two had Jacobsen syndrome associated with deletion of chromosome 11q 23 (28.5%). Of the remaining five syndromic cases, different conditions were found including Say-Meyer syndrome, multiple congenital anomalies and bilateral retinoblastoma with no detectable deletion in chromosome 13q14.2 by G-banding chromosomal analysis and FISH, I-cell disease, a new acrocraniofacial dysostosis syndrome, and Opitz C trigonocephaly syndrome. The last two patients were studied for cryptic chromosomal rearrangements, with SKY and subtelomeric FISH probes. Also FGFR2 and FGFR3 mutations were studied in two syndromic cases, but none were found. This study demonstrates that the majority of cases with nonsyndromic trigonocephaly are sporadic and benign, apart from the associated cosmetic implications. Syndromic trigonocephaly cases are causally heterogeneous and associated with chromosomal as well as single gene disorders. An investigation to delineate the underlying cause of trigonocephaly is indicated because of its important implications on medical management for the patient and the reproductive plans for the family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.10021DOI Listing
March 2003