Publications by authors named "Cyprien Kengne-Nde"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Couple oriented counselling improves male partner involvement in sexual and reproductive health of a couple: Evidence from the ANRS PRENAHTEST randomized trial.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(7):e0255330. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Centre Pasteur Cameroon, Epidemiology and Public Health Service, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Background: Male partner involvement (MPI) has been recognized as a priority area to be strengthened in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. We explored the impact of Couple Oriented Counselling (COC) in MPI in sexual and reproductive health and associated factors.

Method: From February 2009 to October 2011, pregnant women were enrolled at their first antenatal care visit (ANC-1) and followed up until 6 months after delivery in the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal Biya Foundation within the randomized prenahtest multicentric trial. The MPI index was defined using sexual and reproductive health behaviour variables by using multiple correspondence analysis followed by mixed classification. Men were considered as highly involved if they had shared their HIV test results with their partner, had discussed on HIV or condom used, had contributed financially to ANC, had accompanied their wife to ANC or had practiced safe sex. Factors associated to MPI were investigated by the logistic model with GEE estimation approach.

Results: A total of 484 pregnant women were enrolled. The median age of the women was 27 years (IQR: 23-31) and 55.23% had a gestational age greater than 16 weeks at ANC-1. Among them, HIV prevalence was 11.9% (95% CI: 9.0-15.4). The median duration of the women's relationship with their partner was 84 months (IQR: 48-120). MPI index at 6 months after delivery was significantly greater in the COC group than the classical counselling group (14.8% vs 8,82%; p = 0,043; Fig 1). The partners of the women who participated in the COC were more likely to be involved during follow up than others (aOR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.00-2.10). Partners with no incoming activity (aOR = 2.90; 95% CI = 1.96-4.29), who did not used violence within the couple (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI = 1.07-2.68), and whose partner came early for ANC-1 (aOR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.00-1.89) were more likely to be involved than others.

Conclusion: MPI remains low in stable couples and COC improves partner involvement. Our findings also support the need of strengthening outreach towards "stable" couples and addressing barriers. This could go a long way to improve PMTCT outcomes in Cameroon.

Trial Registration: PRENAHTEST, NCT01494961. Registered 15 December 2011-Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01494961.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255330PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323939PMC
July 2021

Incidence and seroprevalence of rabies virus in humans, dogs and other animal species in Africa, a systematic review and meta-analysis.

One Health 2021 Dec 26;13:100285. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Virology Department, Centre, Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Rabies is transmitted to humans mainly by dogs but also by other animal species. Reliable data on the incidence of Rabies virus (RABV) in humans, dogs, and other animal species in Africa, could be essential in the implementation of a global strategic plan to eliminate the RABV by 2030 as adopted by the WHO, OIE, and FAO. We searched the Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, African Journal Online, and African Index Medicus databases for relevant studies that report data on the incidence of RABV in Africa up to February 17, 2020. Information on active and past RABV exposures in various categories of dogs, humans and other animal species were extracted. Incidence and seroprevalence estimates were pooled using a random-effect meta-analysis. We included 73 articles which provided 142 RABV incidence and seroprevalence records in 21 African countries. The estimated incidence of RABV in 222 humans, 15,600 dogs, and 12,865 other animal species was 83.4% (95% CI = 64.6-96.5), 44.1% (95% CI = 35.1-53.4), and 41.4% (95% CI = 29.6-53.8), respectively. The estimated seroprevalence of RABV in 420 humans, 3577 dogs, and 8,55 other animal species was 33.8% (95% CI = 21.9-46.8), 19.8% (95% CI = 13.3-27.3), and 3.6% (95% CI = 0.3-9.2), respectively. The incidence of RABV in general was higher in suspected rabid dogs, other animal species of the Orders Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla and Carnivora. The incidence of RABV was higher for humans in regions of West and East Africa, for dogs in urban areas and in regions of Central and South Africa, and for animals of the order Perissodactyla in urban areas. This meta-analysis demonstrated a high incidence of RABV in Africa. Itis necessary to improve surveillance system to provide reliable data on RABV in Africa, essential for the implementation of an effective control strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254041PMC
December 2021

Worldwide epidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in humans, ticks and other animal species, a systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 04 22;15(4):e0009299. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Virology Department, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

There are uncertainties about the global epidemiological data of infections due to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). We estimated the global case fatality rate (CFR) of CCHFV infections and the prevalence of CCHFV in humans, ticks and other animal species. We also explored the socio-demographic and clinical factors that influence these parameters. In this systematic review with meta-analyses we searched publications from database inception to 03rd February 2020 in Pubmed, Scopus, and Global Index Medicus. Studies included in this review provided cross-sectional data on the CFR and/or prevalence of one or more targets used for the detection of CCHFV. Two independent investigators selected studies to be included. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment were conducted independently by all authors. Data collected were analysed using a random effect meta-analysis. In all, 2345 records were found and a total of 312 articles (802 prevalence and/or CFR data) that met the inclusion criteria were retained. The overall CFR was 11.7% (95% CI = 9.1-14.5), 8.0% (95% CI = 1.0-18.9), and 4.7% (95% CI = 0.0-37.6) in humans with acute, recent, and past CCHFV infections respectively. The overall CCHFV acute infections prevalence was 22.5% (95% CI = 15.7-30.1) in humans, 2.1% (95% CI = 1.3-2.9) in ticks, and 4.5% (95% CI = 1.9-7.9) in other animal species. The overall CCHFV recent infections seroprevalence was 11.6% (95% CI = 7.9-16.4) in humans and 0.4% (95% CI = 0.0-2.9) in other animal species. The overall CCHFV past infections seroprevalence was 4.3% (95% CI = 3.3-5.4) in humans and 12.0% (95% CI = 9.9-14.3) in other animal species. CFR was higher in low-income countries, countries in the WHO African, South-East Asia and Eastern Mediterranean regions, in adult and ambulatory patients. CCHFV detection rate in humans were higher in CCHFV suspected cases, healthcare workers, adult and hospitalized patients, ticks of the genus Ornithodoros and Amblyomma and in animals of the orders Perissodactyla and Bucerotiformes. This review highlights a significant disease burden due to CCHFV with a strong disparity according to country income levels, geographic regions, various human categories and tick and other animal species. Preventive measures in the light of these findings are expected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096040PMC
April 2021

Association between early viral LRTI and subsequent wheezing development, a meta-analysis and sensitivity analyses for studies comparable for confounding factors.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0249831. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Virology, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Introduction: Consideration of confounding factors about the association between Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LRTI) in childhood and the development of subsequent wheezing has been incompletely described. We determined the association between viral LRTI at ≤ 5 years of age and the development of wheezing in adolescence or adulthood by a meta-analysis and a sensitivity analysis including comparable studies for major confounding factors.

Methods: We performed searches through Pubmed and Global Index Medicus databases. We selected cohort studies comparing the frequency of subsequent wheezing in children with and without LRTI in childhood regardless of the associated virus. We extracted the publication data, clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of the children, and confounding factors. We analyzed data using random effect model.

Results: The meta-analysis included 18 publications (22 studies) that met the inclusion criteria. These studies showed that viral LRTI in children ≤ 3 years was associated with an increased risk of subsequent development of wheezing (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.4-3.9). The risk of developing subsequent wheezing was conserved when considering studies with comparable groups for socio-demographic and clinical confounders.

Conclusions: When considering studies with comparable groups for most confounding factors, our results provided strong evidence for the association between neonatal viral LRTI and the subsequent wheezing development. Further studies, particularly from lower-middle income countries, are needed to investigate the role of non-bronchiolitis and non-HRSV LRTI in the association between viral LRTI in childhood and the wheezing development later. In addition, more studies are needed to investigate the causal effect between childhood viral LRTI and the wheezing development later.

Trial Registration: Review registration: PROSPERO, CRD42018116955; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42018116955.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249831PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049235PMC
April 2021

Prevalence of respiratory viruses using polymerase chain reaction in children with wheezing, a systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(12):e0243735. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Virology, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Introduction: Wheezing is a major problem in children, and respiratory viruses are often believed to be the causative agent. While molecular detection tools enable identification of respiratory viruses in wheezing children, it remains unclear if and how these viruses are associated with wheezing. The objective of this systematic review is to clarify the prevalence of different respiratory viruses in children with wheezing.

Methods: We performed an electronic in Pubmed and Global Index Medicus on 01 July 2019 and manual search. We performed search of studies that have detected common respiratory viruses in children ≤18 years with wheezing. We included only studies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Study data were extracted and the quality of articles assessed. We conducted sensitivity, subgroup, publication bias, and heterogeneity analyses using a random effects model.

Results: The systematic review included 33 studies. Rhinovirus, with a prevalence of 35.6% (95% CI 24.6-47.3, I2 98.4%), and respiratory syncytial virus, at 31.0% (95% CI 19.9-43.3, I2 96.4%), were the most common viruses detected. The prevalence of other respiratory viruses was as follows: human bocavirus 8.1% (95% CI 5.3-11.3, I2 84.6%), human adenovirus 7.7% (95% CI 2.6-15.0, I2 91.0%), influenza virus6.5% (95% CI 2.2-12.6, I2 92.4%), human metapneumovirus5.8% (95% CI 3.4-8.8, I2 89.0%), enterovirus 4.3% (95% CI 0.1-12.9, I2 96.2%), human parainfluenza virus 3.8% (95% CI 1.5-6.9, I2 79.1%), and human coronavirus 2.2% (95% CI 0.6-4.4, I2 79.4%).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus may contribute to the etiology of wheezing in children. While the clinical implications of molecular detection of respiratory viruses remains an interesting question, this study helps to illuminate the potential of role respiratory viruses in pediatric wheezing.

Review Registration: PROSPERO, CRD42018115128.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243735PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735590PMC
December 2020

Highlighting a population-based re-emergence of Syphilis infection and assessing associated risk factors among pregnant women in Cameroon: Evidence from the 2009, 2012 and 2017 national sentinel surveillance surveys of HIV and syphilis.

PLoS One 2020 13;15(11):e0241999. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Central Technical Group, National AIDS Control Committee, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Background: Syphilis and HIV can be transmitted from pregnant women to their children and they remain a public health problem in Africa. Our study aimed to determine the trends of seroprevalence of HIV/syphilis co-infection and syphilis infection overtime through the national surveillance system in Cameroon and to explore associated risk factors.

Methods: We conducted cross-sectional studies of HIV and syphilis, targeting each year 7000 first antenatal care (ANC-1) attendees at the same sites during the 2009, 2012 and 2017 sentinel surveillance surveys. Pregnant women were enrolled at their ANC-1, sociodemographic and clinical information were collected. HIV and Syphilis test were performed by serial algorithm as per the national guidelines. Trends were assessed for HIV, syphilis and HIV/syphilis by estimating seroprevalence from cross-sectional studies. Associated risk factors were explored using multinomial logistic regression with 4 outcomes: HIV/syphilis co-infection, HIV infection only, syphilis infection only and no infection.

Results: Overall, 6 632, 6 521 and 6 859 pregnant women were enrolled in 2009, 2012 and 2017 respectively. In 2017, a total of 3 901 pregnant women enrolled were tested for syphilis. Almost half of them (47.9%) were living in urban area and were aged less than 25 years (44.7%). While HIV epidemic was on a decline (from 7.6% (95% CI: 6.99-8.28) in 2009 to 5.7% (95% CI: 4.93-6.4) in 2017), a huge significant increase of syphilis prevalence was observed (from 0.6% (95% CI:0.40-0.80) in 2009 to 5.7% (95% CI:4.93-6.40) in 2017). Pregnant women residing in rural areas were more likely to be infected with syphilis than those living in the urban area (aOR = 1.8 [95% CI: 1.3-2.4]). Unmarried pregnant women were three time more likely to be infected by HIV/Syphilis Co-infection than married, cohabiting, widow or divorced pregnant women (aOR = 2.8 [95% CI: 1.3-2.4]). Furthermore; living in Northern region was associated with a lower risk of being infected with HIV (aOR = 0.6 [95% CI: 0.5-0.9]) and Syphilis infection (aOR = 0.6 [95% CI: 0.4-0.9]).

Conclusion: The epidemiological dynamics of syphilis suggests a growing burden of syphilis infection in the general population of Cameroon. Our findings support the fact that while emphasizing strategies to fight HIV, huge efforts should also be made for strategies to prevent and fight syphilis infection especially among HIV positive women, in rural area, and southern regions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241999PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665812PMC
December 2020

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of common respiratory viruses in children < 2 years with bronchiolitis in the pre-COVID-19 pandemic era.

PLoS One 2020 12;15(11):e0242302. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Virology, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Introduction: The advent of genome amplification assays has allowed description of new respiratory viruses and to reconsider the role played by certain respiratory viruses in bronchiolitis. This systematic review and meta-analysis was initiated to clarify the prevalence of respiratory viruses in children with bronchiolitis in the pre-COVID-19 pandemic era.

Methods: We performed an electronic search through Pubmed and Global Index Medicus databases. We included observational studies reporting the detection rate of common respiratory viruses in children with bronchiolitis using molecular assays. Data was extracted and the quality of the included articles was assessed. We conducted sensitivity, subgroups, publication bias, and heterogeneity analyses using a random effect model.

Results: The final meta-analysis included 51 studies. Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) was largely the most commonly detected virus 59.2%; 95% CI [54.7; 63.6]). The second predominant virus was Rhinovirus (RV) 19.3%; 95% CI [16.7; 22.0]) followed by Human bocavirus (HBoV) 8.2%; 95% CI [5.7; 11.2]). Other reported viruses included Human Adenovirus (HAdV) 6.1%; 95% CI [4.4; 8.0]), Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV) 5.4%; 95% CI [4.4; 6.4]), Human Parainfluenzavirus (HPIV) 5.4%; 95% CI [3.8; 7.3]), Influenza 3.2%; 95% CI [2.2; 4.3], Human Coronavirus (HCoV) 2.9%; 95% CI [2.0; 4.0]), and Enterovirus (EV) 2.9%; 95% CI [1.6; 4.5]). HRSV was the predominant virus involved in multiple detection and most codetections were HRSV + RV 7.1%, 95% CI [4.6; 9.9]) and HRSV + HBoV 4.5%, 95% CI [2.4; 7.3]).

Conclusions: The present study has shown that HRSV is the main cause of bronchiolitis in children, we also have Rhinovirus, and Bocavirus which also play a significant role. Data on the role played by SARS-CoV-2 in children with acute bronchiolitis is needed.

Review Registration: PROSPERO, CRD42018116067.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242302PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7660462PMC
November 2020

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiology of Lassa virus in humans, rodents and other mammals in sub-Saharan Africa.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 08 26;14(8):e0008589. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Virology, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Accurate data on the Lassa virus (LASV) human case fatality rate (CFR) and the prevalence of LASV in humans, rodents and other mammals are needed for better planning of actions that will ultimately reduce the burden of LASV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. In this systematic review with meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Scopus, Africa Journal Online, and African Index Medicus from 1969 to 2020 to obtain studies that reported enough data to calculate LASV infection CFR or prevalence. Study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted independently. We extracted all measures of current, recent, and past infections with LASV. Prevalence and CFR estimates were pooled using a random-effect meta-analysis. Factors associated with CFR, prevalence, and sources of between-study heterogeneity were determined using subgroup and metaregression analyses. This review was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020166465. We initially identified 1,399 records and finally retained 109 reports that contributed to 291 prevalence records from 25 countries. The overall CFR was 29.7% (22.3-37.5) in humans. Pooled prevalence of LASV infection was 8.7% (95% confidence interval: 6.8-10.8) in humans, 3.2% (1.9-4.6) in rodents, and 0.7% (0.0-2.3) in other mammals. Subgroup and metaregression analyses revealed a substantial statistical heterogeneity explained by higher prevalence in tissue organs, in case-control, in hospital outbreak, and surveys, in retrospective studies, in urban and hospital setting, in hospitalized patients, and in West African countries. This study suggests that LASV infections is an important cause of death in humans and that LASV are common in humans, rodents and other mammals in sub-Saharan Africa. These estimates highlight disparities between sub-regions, and population risk profiles. Western Africa, and specific key populations were identified as having higher LASV CFR and prevalence, hence, deserving more attention for cost-effective preventive interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478710PMC
August 2020

Clinical signs predictive of influenza virus infection in Cameroon.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(7):e0236267. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Virology Department, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Influenza virus accounts for majority of respiratory virus infections in Cameroon. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), influenza-like illnesses (ILI) are identified by a measured temperature of ≥38°C and cough, with onset within the past 10 days. Other symptoms could as well be observed however, none of these are specific to influenza alone. This study aimed to determine symptom based predictors of influenza virus infection in Cameroon. Individuals with ILI were recruited from 2009-2018 in sentinel sites of the influenza surveillance system in Cameroon according to the WHO case definition. Individual data collection forms accompanied each respiratory sample and contained clinical data. Samples were analyzed for influenza using the gold standard assay. Two statistical methods were compared to determine the most reliable clinical predictors of influenza virus activity in Cameroon: binomial logistic predictive model and random forest model. Analyses were performed in R version 3.5.2. A total of 11816 participants were recruited, of which, 24.0% were positive for influenza virus. Binomial logistic predictive model revealed that the presence of cough, rhinorrhoea, headache and myalgia are significant predictors of influenza positivity. The prediction model had a sensitivity of 75.6%, specificity of 46.6% and AUC of 66.7%. The random forest model categorized the reported symptoms according to their degree of importance in predicting influenza virus infection. Myalgia had a 2-fold higher value in predicting influenza virus infection compared to any other symptom followed by arthralgia, head ache, rhinorrhoea and sore throat. The model had a OOB error rate of 25.86%. Analysis showed that the random forest model had a better performance over the binomial regression model in predicting influenza infection. Rhinorrhoea, headache and myalgia were symptoms reported by both models as significant predictors of influenza infection in Cameroon. These symptoms could be used by clinicians in their decision to treat patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236267PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377385PMC
September 2020

The declining trend of HIV-Infection among pregnant women in Cameroon infers an epidemic decline in the general population.

Heliyon 2020 Jun 11;6(6):e04118. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Central Technical Group, National AIDS Control Committee, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: HIV remains a generalised epidemic in Cameroon, with regular sentinel surveillance surveys (SSS) conducted among pregnant women to monitor the epidemiological dynamics, and for strategic policy making. Our main objective was to actualise data on HIV epidemiology, and compare the trends overtime among pregnant women versus data from the general population in Cameroon.

Methods: Sentinel surveillance was conducted in 2016 among pregnant women in the 10 regions (60 sites) of Cameroon, targeting 7,000 first antenatal care (ANC-1) attendees (4,000 in urban; 3,000 in rural). HIV testing was done following the serial national algorithm at the National Public Health Laboratory. Results of 2016 were compared with 2009 and 2012 dataset, alongside reports from the general population; with p < 0.05 considered statistical significant.

Findings: A total of 6,859 ANC-1 (97.99% sampling) were enrolled in 2016, with 99.19% (6,513/6,566) acceptability for HIV testing; similar to performances in 2009 and 2012 (>99%). National prevalence of HIV was 5.70% (389/6,819), similar between urban (5.58%) and rural (5.87%) settings. HIV prevalence among pregnant women declined significantly from 2009 (7.6%), 2012 (7.8%) to 2016 (5.7%), p < 0.0001; with a similar declining trend in the general population: from 2004 (5.5%), 2011 (4.3%) to 2017 (3.4%), p < 0.0001. Difference between SSS and the population-based survey was non-significant (r = 0.6; p = 0.285). Following geographical settings, HIV prevalence was higher in urban vs. rural settings from 2009-2012 (p < 0.0001), followed by similar rates in 2016. Early-age infection (15-24 years) decreased from 6.7% in 2009 to 3.4% in 2016, with remarkable declines in new infections within the age ranges 15-19 years (5.1%-1.57%) and 20-24 years (7.8%-4.39%).

Interpretation: With high acceptability in HIV testing, the prevalence of HIV-infection through SSS indicates a declining but generalised epidemic among pregnant women in Cameroon. Of note, as the declining prevalence among pregnant women also reflects an epidemic reduction in the general population, SSS represents an efficient strategy to understand the dynamics of HIV epidemics in the general Cameroonian population, pending validation by periodic population surveys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298417PMC
June 2020

Association of early viral lower respiratory infections and subsequent development of atopy, a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

PLoS One 2020 24;15(4):e0231816. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Virology, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Introduction: Existing evidence on the relationship between childhood lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and the subsequent atopy development is controversial. We aimed to investigate an association between viral LRTI at <5 years and the development of atopy at > 2 years.

Methods: We conducted a search at Embase, Pubmed, Web of Science, and Global Index Medicus. We collected data from the included articles. We estimated the odds ratio and the 95% confidence intervals with a random effect model. We determined factors associated with atopy development after childhood LRTI using univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses. We recorded this systematic review at PROSPERO with the number CRD42018116955.

Results: We included 24 studies. There was no relationship between viral LRTI at <5 years and skin prick test-diagnosed-atopy (OR = 1.2, [95% CI = 0.7-2.0]), unknown diagnosed-atopy (OR = 0.7, [95% CI = 0.4-1.3]), atopic dermatitis (OR = 1.2, [95% CI = 0.9-1.6]), hyperreactivity to pollen (OR = 0.8, [95% CI = 0.3-2.7]), food (OR = 0.8, [95% CI = 0.3-2.5]), or house dust mite (OR = 1.1, [95% CI = 0.6-2.2]). Although not confirmed in all studies with a symmetric distribution of the 23 confounding factors investigated, the overall analyses showed that there was a relationship between childhood viral LRTI at < 5 years and serum test diagnosed-atopy (OR = 2.0, [95% CI = 1.0-4.1]), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (OR = 1.7, [95% CI = 1.1-2.9]), hyperreactivity diagnosed by serum tests with food (OR = 5.3, [1.7-16.7]) or inhaled allergens (OR = 4.2, [95% CI = 2.1-8.5]), or furred animals (OR = 0.6, [95% CI = 0.5-0.9]).

Conclusion: These results suggest that there is no association between viral LRTI at < 5 years and the majority of categories of atopy studied during this work. These results, however, are not confirmed for the remaining categories of atopy and more particularly those diagnosed by serum tests. There is a real need to develop more accurate atopy diagnostic tools.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231816PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182231PMC
July 2020

Comparison of health care resource utilization among preterm and term infants hospitalized with Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis of retrospective cohort studies.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(2):e0229357. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Virology, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Introduction: Data on the variation in the medical resource utilization rate of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV) infected children by gestational age have recently been made available. This review aimed to determine whether prematurity is independently associated with the use of medical resources in hospitalized children for HRSV infections.

Methods: We conducted this systematic review on cohort studies published on the medical resources use in preterm and full-term patients hospitalized for confirmed HRSV infections. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Global Index medicus for eligible studies. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and Risk Ratio (RR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated as summary statistics with random effects meta-analysis. The overall results were adjusted to the common confounders by stratified analyses.

Results: A total of 14 articles (20 studies) were included. Compared to full-term, preterm hospitalized with HRSV infections had more frequent intensive care unit admission (RR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.9-3.5), increased length of stay in hospital (SMD = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.5-0.8) and intensive care unit (SMD = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-0.8) and increased case fatality rate (RR = 6.9, 95% CI = 2.0-23.8). Mechanical ventilation utilization was more frequent in preterm children ≤ 2 years (RR = 15.5, 95% CI = 8.9-26.4) and those who did not receive prophylaxis against HRSV (RR = 15.9, 95% CI = 9.1-27.9)] than in full-term children. No differences were identified in the frequency of emergency department visits, oxygen utilization, and the age at the first HRSV episode between preterm and full-term infants.

Conclusions: Regardless of gestational age, preterm infants hospitalized for HRSV infections, especially those ≤ 2 years, have an increased frequency of use of health resources and poor outcomes compared to full-term infants. HRSV vaccine development programs for pregnant women should be accelerated.

Clinical Trials Registration: Review registration PROSPERO, CRD42019124375.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229357PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034889PMC
May 2020

Acute respiratory infection related to air pollution in Bamenda, North West Region of Cameroon.

Pan Afr Med J 2019 4;32:99. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Introduction: Air pollution is a global health problem. It's responsible for over 4 million deaths each year and constitutes a risk factor for acute respiratory infections (ARI). The aims of this study was to assess knowledge about air pollution, and to determine environmental risk factors associated with ARIs occurence in the city of Bamenda, Cameroon.

Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study and performed a rectrospective analysis of ARI consultation within the period March 2016 to July 2016 in the Bamenda Health District. We interviewd 201 patients and recorded 1849 cases from hospital registers of patients diagnosed ARI from January 2013 to April 2016. Epi-info 7.2 was used for data entry and analysis. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the importance of the different environmental risk factors.

Results: Over 70% of the participants used at least a form of solid fuel for cooking. The Odds of developing an ARI was 3.62 greater among those exposed to indoor cooking compared to the unexposed (OR 3.62, CI 1.45-4.90). Participants exposed to open fire burning were 1.91 times more like to develop ARI compared to unexposed (OR: 1.91, CI 1.03-3.55: p : 0.03). Particulate Matter (PM 2.5) levels was 13.2 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended levels. Dry and dusty weathers increased the risk of ARIs (OR 3.24; CI 1.47-7.13). The prevalence of ARIs in the Bamenda Health District was 6% of all consultations.

Conclusion: Using solid fuels in poorly ventilated homes increase the total air particle suspension indoor. Inhalling this poor air irritates the repiratory tract, eyes while longterm exposure increases the odds of cancers. Ventilating homes with indoor cooking space reduces exposure while using clean fuels like electricity reduces the odds of ARI associated with pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2019.32.99.15228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6560959PMC
July 2019

Factors associated with risk of HIV-infection among pregnant women in Cameroon: Evidence from the 2016 national sentinel surveillance survey of HIV and syphilis.

PLoS One 2019 12;14(4):e0208963. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

National AIDS Control Committee, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection (HIV) remains a public health concern in Cameroon that requires regular surveillance for informed policy-making to guide programmatic interventions. Using data from the 2016 HIV national sentinel survey in Cameroon, we ascertained HIV prevalence and factors associated with risk of infection among pregnant women.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted throughout 2016 in the 10 regions of Cameroon, targeting 7000 first antenatal care (ANC-1) attendees (4000 from urban and 3000 from rural areas) in 60 sentinel health facilities. HIV serological test was performed using the national serial algorithm at the National Reference Laboratory (NRL). Prevalence was determined, and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess determinants of HIV infection, with p-value<0.05 considered statistically significant.

Results: Of the 7000 targeted participants, a total of 6859 first ANC-1 attendees were enrolled (98.0% sampling coverage). Median age was 26 [IQR: 21-30] years and 47,40% had a secondary school level of education. The national prevalence of HIV was 5.70% (95% CI: 4.93-6.40) and range from 9.7% in East region to 2.6% in North region. The prevalence was 5.58% (95% CI: 95%: 4.88-6.35) in urban and 5.87% (95% CI: 5.04-6.78) in rural settings. Factors that were associated with HIV infection included marital status, women who were married or living with their partner are less likely to be infected than singles women (aOR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.46-0.78), multiparity [aOR = 1.5(95%CI:1.0-2.2)] and been living in the Centre, East, North-west and South-west regions. HIV infection was also significantly associated with age, with the risk of being infected increasing with age.

Conclusion: Pregnant women in Cameroon are still disproportionately infected with HIV compared with the general population (prevalence 4.3%). Preventive actions to curb the epidemic amongst pregnant women should prioritize interventions targeting single pregnant women, who are older, and residing particularly in the Centre, East, North West and South West regions of the country.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208963PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461244PMC
January 2020

Using dried blood spot for the detection of HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies in Cameroon.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Nov 16;11(1):818. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Virology Department, Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, 451 Rue 2005, Yaoundé 2, P.O.Box 1274, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Objective: Dried blood spots (DBS) offer multiple benefits for collecting, storing and shipping whole blood samples. Our objective was to compare, for the first time in Africa, the performance of DBS with respect to plasma in the detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus (anti-HCV) using Architect, Abbott Diagnostics.

Results: DBS had a sensitivity of 99%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 99%, a negative predictive value of 100% and a kappa index of 0.99 for the detection of HBsAg. For anti-HCV detection, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and kappa index were 99%, 98%, 98%, 99%, and 0.97, respectively. This study confirms that DBS may be a reliable alternative specimen type for HBV and HCV diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-018-3931-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6240176PMC
November 2018

Influence of meteorological parameters in the seasonality of influenza viruses circulating in Northern Cameroon.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2019 03 17;13(2):158-165. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Background: Several studies have demonstrated the role of meteorological parameters in the seasonality of influenza viruses in tropical and subtropical regions, most importantly temperature, humidity, and rainfall.

Objectives: This study aimed to describe the influence of meteorological parameters in the seasonality of influenza viruses in Northern Cameroon, a region characterized by high temperatures.

Methods: This was a retrospective study performed in Garoua Cameroon from January 2014 to December 2016. Monthly proportions of confirmed influenza cases from six sentinel sites were considered as dependent variables, whereas monthly values of mean temperature, average relative humidity, and accumulated rainfall were considered as independent variables. A vector error correction model was used to determine the relationship between influenza activity and the meteorological variables.

Results And Conclusion: Analysis showed that there was a statistically significant association between overall influenza activity and influenza A activity with respect to average relative humidity. A unit increase in humidity within a given month leads to more than 85% rise in the overall influenza and influenza A activity 2 months later. Meanwhile, none of the three meteorological variables could explain influenza B activity. This observation is essential in filling the gap of knowledge and could help in the prevention and control strategies to strengthen influenza surveillance program in Cameroon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379661PMC
March 2019

Evaluation of the performances of twelve rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of HIV infection in Yaounde, Cameroon.

J Virol Methods 2017 05 20;243:158-163. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Member of the International Network of Pasteur Institutes, 451 Rue 2005, P.O. Box 1274, Yaounde II, Yaounde, Cameroon. Electronic address:

According to the WHO/UNAIDS recommendations, an acceptable HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has to perform a sensitivity≥99% and a specificity≥98%. Given the constant release of new RDTs for HIV testing in the market and the high HIV genetic diversity in Cameroon, it is interesting to monitor their performances in that setting. A total of 240 HIV positive (including 219 HIV-1 M, 15 HIV-1 O, 1 HIV-1 N, 1 HIV-1 M/O recombinant and 4 HIV-2) and 240 HIV negative plasma samples were used to evaluate twelve routinely used RDTs in Cameroon. A reference algorithm combining Enzyme Immunoassays and nucleic acid testing was used as gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the twelve RDTs evaluated varied between 93.7 and 100%; 95.8 and 100%; 96.0 and 100%, and 94.1 and 100%, respectively. Five out of the twelve RDTs could not detect some HIV-1 O variants, one of them failed to detect an HIV-2 variant while all them efficiently detected HIV-1 N and HIV M/O recombinant. Our findings underscore the need to monitor the performances of RDTs to be used for HIV testing in Cameroon using locally obtained well-characterized samples panels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2017.02.008DOI Listing
May 2017
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