Publications by authors named "Cynthia M Clark"

42 Publications

Connecting and Healing Through the Superpower of Kindness.

Authors:
Cynthia M Clark

J Nurs Educ 2021 Jun 1;60(6):307-308. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Founder of Civility Matters ™, Professor Emeritus, Boise State University.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20210520-01DOI Listing
June 2021

Faculty development workshop on gender-associated incivility in nursing education.

Nurs Forum 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Education and Practice, American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, Park Ridge, Illinois, USA.

Background: Men comprise the minority of entry-level baccalaureate nursing students and are at increased risk of experiencing gender-associated incivility.

Problem: Uncivil peer-to-peer behavior can negatively affect students' mental and physical well-being, and learning experience. Nursing faculty must be able to identify and address gender-associated incivility among students.

Aim: The purpose of this quality improvement program was to train nursing faculty to prevent, identify, and manage gender-associated incivility in the educational environment.

Methods: A day-long interactive workshop utilizing trigger films, small group discussions, and interactive theater was developed to train nursing faculty to implement proactive and reactive techniques to address uncivil behavior which will enhance the learning environment for all students. Utilizing Kirkpatrick's Model of Evaluation, participants were surveyed at the conclusion of the workshop and four months postworkshop to evaluate their learning and its implementation.

Results: Participants gained greater understanding of the impact of gender-associated incivility and felt both empowered and better prepared to manage gender-associated conflict.

Conclusion: Similar approaches may be useful for schools of nursing that wish to empower their nursing faculty to support an equitable nursing education environment free of gender-associated incivility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nuf.12615DOI Listing
May 2021

Assisting Learners to Understand and Incorporate Functions of Clinical Judgment Into Nursing Practice.

Nurse Educ 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Author Affiliations: Chief Nursing Officer (Dr Sommer), Nursing Strategist (Ms Johnson), and Former Strategic Nursing Advisor (Dr Clark), Assessment Technologies Institute, LLC; and Director (Dr Mills), Research and Applied Psychometrics, Ascend Learning, Leawood, Kansas.

Background: Mastering clinical judgment (CJ) skills is an essential competency for nurses in all health care environments.

Problem: Complexities of the health environment combined with the intricacies of nursing practice can pose potential risks to client safety.

Approach: Over a 2-year period, a 3-phased approach using (1) survey results from nurses in education and practice, (2) discussion forums, and (3) a series of think tanks that comprised nurse educators resulted in the development of the Guide for CJ.

Outcomes: The Guide for CJ provides nurse educators with an evidence-based resource to promote CJ skills in nursing students. The environmental and individual factors and expected nurse responses and behaviors contained in the Guide are well-aligned with the cognitive operations contained in the National Council of State Boards of Nursing Action Model.

Conclusions: Educators may use the Guide to support faculty development and operationalize CJ to develop a variety of learning strategies for use in multiple learning environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000001020DOI Listing
April 2021

National Study on Faculty and Administrators' Perceptions of Civility and Incivility in Nursing Education.

Nurse Educ 2020 Dec 4. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Author Affiliations: Professor Emeritus (Dr Clark), Boise State University, Boise, Idaho; Assistant Professor (Dr Landis) and Associate Professor and Vice Chancellor for Research (Dr Barbosa-Leiker), College of Nursing, Washington State University, Spokane.

Background: Incivility among nursing faculty and administrators lowers morale, damages relationships, and threatens workplace health and productivity.

Purpose: This national study examined nursing faculty and administrators' perceptions of civility and incivility in nursing education, ways to address the problem, and psychometric properties of the Workplace Incivility/Civility Survey (WICS).

Methods: A convergent mixed-methodological study was used to conduct the study. A factor analysis and other reliability analyses were conducted on the WICS.

Results: Respondents included 1074 faculty and administrators who identified types and frequency of incivility, severity and contributors to the problem, reasons for avoiding incivility, and strategies to improve civility. Eight themes of uncivil behaviors were garnered. The WICS was shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument to measure civility and incivility.

Conclusion: This study reported faculty and administrators' perceptions of civility and incivility in nursing education and provided evidence-based strategies to prevent and address the problem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000000948DOI Listing
December 2020

The Imperative of Civility in Uncertain Times.

Authors:
Cynthia M Clark

Nurse Educ 2020 Jul/Aug;45(4):173

Author Affiliation: Strategic Nursing Advisor, ATI Nursing Education, Boise, Idaho.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000000874DOI Listing
July 2021

Cyber-incivility, cyber-bullying, and other forms of online aggression: A call to action for nurse educators.

Nurse Educ Today 2020 Feb 29;85:104310. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Montana State University, College of Nursing, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717, United States of America. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2019.104310DOI Listing
February 2020

Cognitive Rehearsal, HeartMath, and Simulation: An Intervention to Build Resilience and Address Incivility.

J Nurs Educ 2019 Dec;58(12):690-697

Background: The detrimental impact of incivility in health care is well documented. Nursing students and new graduate nurses are particularly vulnerable to its effects. Evidence-based civility education strategies are urgently needed to address incivility, which can protect patient safety.

Method: Using a mixed methodology, 188 incoming, upper division, prelicensure nursing students participated in an intervention study that combined cognitive rehearsal, HeartMath, and simulation using TeamSTEPPS™ Concerned, Uncomfortable, and Safety model to address acts of incivility that threaten patient safety.

Results: Student evaluations immediately following the intervention and 6 months postintervention rendered positive results. Eight themes emerged describing uncivil experiences occurring in the patient care environment.

Conclusion: This intervention provided nursing students with evidence-based tools to build resilience to effectively address incivility in the patient care environment. Nurse educators are urged to provide civility education in conjunction with tested techniques to build resilience and address uncivil encounters in health care. [J Nurs Educ. 2019;58(12):690-697.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20191120-03DOI Listing
December 2019

Civility Mentor: A Virtual Learning Experience.

Nurse Educ 2020 Jul/Aug;45(4):189-192

Author Affiliations: Strategic Nursing Advisor (Dr Clark), ATI Nursing Education, Boise, Idaho; Senior Research Scientist (Dr Dunham), Assessment Sciences, Ascend Learning, Leawood, Kansas.

Background: Incivility and disrespect in health care weaken teamwork and collaboration, diminish communication, and can impact an individual's ability and willingness to speak up and advocate for patient care.

Problem: Evidence-based teaching strategies are needed to prepare nursing students to address incivility in academic and practice settings.

Approach: The authors describe a virtual learning experience designed to prepare students to prevent and address incivility in academic and health care environments and report preliminary assessment data from student users.

Outcomes: More than 90% of 22 000 student respondents indicated they were satisfied with the learning experience, were made aware of the consequences of incivility and its effects on patient safety, and planned to apply techniques for addressing incivility into their nursing practice CONCLUSION: Civility mentor is effective in educating students about the consequences of incivility, developing skills to foster civility, communicating more assertively, and addressing incivility in academic and health care environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000000757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329244PMC
July 2021

Fostering Civility in Learning Conversations: Introducing the PAAIL Communication Strategy.

Nurse Educ 2020 May/Jun;45(3):139-143

Author Affiliations: Strategic Nursing Advisor (Dr Clark), ATI Nursing Education, Boise, Idaho; Associate Director (Dr Fey), Institute for Medical Simulation, Center for Medical Simulation, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Civility, psychological safety, and effective stress management are essential for meaningful learning conversations.

Problem: Incivility triggers fear and humiliation, impairs clinical judgment and learning, reduces psychological safety, and increases cognitive load. These factors converge to make learners less likely to incorporate feedback, speak up when there is a problem, and discuss practice errors and patient safety issues.

Approach: The authors combined the Basic Assumption and the PAAIL (Preview, Advocacy1, Advocacy2, Inquiry, and Listen) conversational strategy to help surface (rather than obscure) both educators' and learners' thinking. The synergy of these 2 strategies allows educators to identify individual learning needs and develop the learners' clinical judgment skills. This process improves learning by reducing incivility and cognitive load, improving psychological safety, and strengthening clinical judgment skills.

Conclusion: This conversational strategy can minimize stress and anxiety in learners and optimize learning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000000731DOI Listing
February 2021

Development and Psychometric Testing of the Workplace Civility Index: A Reliable Tool for Measuring Civility in the Workplace.

J Contin Educ Nurs 2018 Sep;49(9):400-406

Background: Fostering civility in practice and academic health care settings is a desirable goal for individuals, teams, and organizations and is paramount to safe patient care.

Method: A convenience sample of 393 nursing faculty and practice-based nurses in the United States participated in a study to test the psychometric properties of the Workplace Civility Index (WCI).

Results: A factor analysis and other reliability analyses support the use of the WCI as a valid and reliable measurement to measure perceptions of workplace civility acumen.

Conclusion: The WCI is a 20-item psychometrically sound instrument used to measure perceptions of workplace civility among individuals and groups within work environments. The index may be completed as an individual exercise; however, it is highly recommended that the index be completed with a trusted coworker, colleague, or work group to improve self-awareness, give and receive constructive feedback, and form the basis for continuing strengths and addressing areas for improvement. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2018;49(9):400-406.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/00220124-20180813-05DOI Listing
September 2018

Combining Cognitive Rehearsal, Simulation, and Evidence-Based Scripting to Address Incivility.

Authors:
Cynthia M Clark

Nurse Educ 2019 Mar/Apr;44(2):64-68

Author Affiliation: Strategic Nursing Advisor, ATI Nursing Education, Boise, Idaho.

Background: Nurses have a professional and ethical obligation to foster civility and healthy work environments to protect patient safety. Evidence-based teaching strategies are needed to prepare nursing students to address acts of incivility that threaten patient safety.

Problem: Incivility in health care must be effectively addressed because the delivery of safe patient care may depend on these vital skills.

Approach: Cognitive rehearsal (CR) is an evidence-based technique where learners practice addressing workplace incivility in a nonthreatening environment with a skilled facilitator. The author describes the unique combination of CR, simulation, evidence-based scripting, deliberate practice, and debriefing to prepare nursing students to address uncivil encounters.

Outcomes: Learners who participated in CR identified benefits using this approach.

Conclusions: Combining CR with simulation, evidence-based scripting, repeated dosing through deliberate practice, and skillful debriefing is an effective method to provide nursing students with the skills needed to address incivility, thereby increasing the likelihood of protecting patient safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000000563DOI Listing
April 2019

Policy to Foster Civility and Support a Healthy Academic Work Environment.

J Nurs Educ 2018 Jun;57(6):325-331

Background: Incivility in academic workplaces can have detrimental effects on individuals, teams, departments, and the campus community at large. Alternately, healthy academic workplaces generate heightened levels of employee satisfaction, engagement, and morale.

Method: This article describes the development and implementation of a comprehensive, legally defensible policy related to workplace civility and the establishment of a healthy academic work environment.

Results: A detailed policy exemplar is included to provide a structure for fostering a healthy academic work environment, a fair, consistent, confidential procedure for defining and addressing workplace incivility, a mechanism for reporting and subsequent investigation of uncivil acts if indicated, and ways to foster civility and respectful workplace behavior.

Conclusion: The authors detail a step-by-step procedure and an incremental approach to address workplace incivility and reward policy adherence. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(6):325-331.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20180522-02DOI Listing
June 2018

A Life Well Lived: A Tribute to Dr Kathleen T. Heinrich.

Authors:
Cynthia M Clark

Nurse Educ 2017 May/Jun;42(3):109

Author Affiliation: Strategic Nursing Advisor, ATI Nursing Education, Boise, Idaho.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000000374DOI Listing
May 2019

Promoting Civility in the OR: An Ethical Imperative.

AORN J 2017 Jan;105(1):60-66

Recognizing, addressing, and preventing incivility in the health care environment, including the perioperative area, requires an intentional and informed approach to foster healthy workplaces and protect patient safety. Several important foundational documents and position statements speak directly to the nurse's responsibility to protect patient, coworker, and personal safety and promote civility and respect. In the complex, fast-paced environment of the OR, the pressure to meet patient needs, performance outcomes, and patient safety standards can lead to conflict and incivility. In this article, we present a case-based scenario to illustrate a multilevel evidence-based response to an uncivil encounter that could negatively affect patient safety in the OR. After the scenario, we discuss the responses to the encounter from the organization, the nurse manager, and the individual nurse. When nurses speak up and resolve issues, they report better patient outcomes, greater satisfaction in the workplace, and heightened organizational commitment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aorn.2016.10.019DOI Listing
January 2017

An Evidence-Based Approach to Integrate Civility, Professionalism, and Ethical Practice Into Nursing Curricula.

Authors:
Cynthia M Clark

Nurse Educ 2017 May/Jun;42(3):120-126

Author Affiliation: Strategic Nursing Advisor and Consultant, ATI Nursing Education, Corporate Office, Leawood, Kansas, and Professor Emeriti, Boise State University, Idaho.

This article presents an evidence-based approach to integrate concepts of civility, professionalism, and ethical practice into nursing curricula to prepare students to foster healthy work environments and ensure safe patient care. The author provides evidence to support this approach and includes suggestions for new student orientation, strategies for the first day of class, exemplars for incorporating active learning strategies to enhance student engagement, an emphasis on positive faculty role modeling, and suggestions for curricular integration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000000331DOI Listing
July 2017

Development and Testing of the Healthy Work Environment Inventory: A Reliable Tool for Assessing Work Environment Health and Satisfaction.

J Nurs Educ 2016 Oct;55(10):555-62

Background: Fostering healthy work environments that enhance job satisfaction and reflect high levels of employee engagement and productivity is imperative for all organizations. This is especially true for health care organizations where unhealthy work conditions can lead to poor patient outcomes.

Method: A convenience sample of 520 nursing faculty and practice-based nurses in the United States participated in a study to test the psychometric properties of the Healthy Work Environment Inventory (HWEI).

Results: A factor analysis and other reliability analyses support the use of the HWEI as a valid and reliable instrument to measure perceptions of work environment health.

Conclusion: The HWEI is a 20-item psychometrically sound instrument to measure perceptions of the health of the work environment. It may be completed either as an individual exercise or by all members of a team to compare perceptions of work environment health, to determine areas of strength and improvement, and to form the basis for interviewing. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(10):555-562.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20160914-03DOI Listing
October 2016

An Integrative Review of Cybercivility in Health Professions Education.

Nurse Educ 2016 Sep-Oct;41(5):239-45

Author Affiliations: Assistant Professor, School of Nursing (Dr De Gagne); Master's in Nursing Student, School of Nursing (Ms Choi); Research and Education Librarian, Medical Center Library (Ms Ledbetter), Duke University, Durham, North Carolina; Professor (Dr Kang), Red Cross College of Nursing, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea; Nurse Consultant (Dr Clark), ATI Nursing Education, Leawood, Kansas, and Professor Emeritus, Boise State University, Idaho.

Although incivility in higher education has been widely described, little evidence exists regarding incivility among health professions students in online environments. This study aims to integrate literature on cybercivility in health professions education. The extent to which health professions students and faculty experience cyberincivility, the direct and indirect effects and actions taken after cyberincivility, and themes that guide facilitation of cybercivility are discussed. Efforts to prevent cyberincivility can be achieved through focused education on cybercivility, development of clear policies related to its consequences, and formulation of guidelines for both student and faculty behavior online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000000264DOI Listing
April 2017

Revision and psychometric testing of the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey: introducing the INE-R.

J Nurs Educ 2015 Jun;54(6):306-15

Background: Academic incivility is a serious challenge for nursing education, which needs to be empirically measured and fully addressed.

Method: A convenience sample of nursing faculty and students from 20 schools of nursing in the United States participated in a mixed-methods study to test the psychometric properties of the Incivility in Nursing Education-Revised (INE-R) Survey.

Results: A factor analysis and other reliability analyses support the use of the INE-R as a valid and reliable measurement of student and faculty perceptions of incivility in nursing education.

Conclusion: The INE-R is a psychometrically sound instrument to measure faculty and student perceptions of incivility; to examine differences regarding levels of nursing education, program type, gender, age, and ethnicity; to compare perceptions of incivility between and among adjunct, clinical, teaching, and research faculty; and to conduct pre- and postassessments of the perceived levels of faculty and student incivility in nursing programs to inform evidence-based interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20150515-01DOI Listing
June 2015

The power and potential of positive mentoring.

Authors:
Cynthia M Clark

Nurse Educ 2015 May-Jun;40(3):109-10

Author Affiliation: Professor, Boise State University, and Nurse Consultant, ATI Nursing Education, Leawood, Kansas; Founder, Civility Matters, Boise, Idaho. The author declares no conflicts of interest.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000000158DOI Listing
August 2015

Revisiting cognitive rehearsal as an intervention against incivility and lateral violence in nursing: 10 years later.

J Contin Educ Nurs 2014 Dec;45(12):535-42; quiz 543-4

Ten years ago, Griffin wrote an article on the use of cognitive rehearsal as a shield for lateral violence. Since then, cognitive rehearsal has been used successfully in several studies as an evidence-based strategy to address uncivil and bullying behaviors in nursing. In the original study, 26 newly licensed nurses learned about lateral violence and used cognitive rehearsal techniques as an intervention for nurse-to-nurse incivility. The newly licensed nurses described using the rehearsed strategies as difficult, yet successful in reducing or eliminating incivility and lateral violence. This article updates the literature on cognitive rehearsal and reviews the use of cognitive rehearsal as an evidence-based strategy to address incivility and bullvina behaviors in nursing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/00220124-20141122-02DOI Listing
December 2014

Student perceptions of stress, coping, relationships, and academic civility: a longitudinal study.

Nurse Educ 2014 Jul-Aug;39(4):170-4

Author Affiliations: Professor (Dr Clark), School of Nursing, Boise State University, Idaho; No affiliation (Mr Nguyen); Assistant Professor (Dr Barbosa-Leiker), College of Nursing, Washington State University, Spokane.

Academic incivility can increase student stress, jeopardize learning, damage relationships, and negatively impact the academic environment. This 3-year longitudinal study measured a cohort of prelicensure nursing students' progressive perceptions of stress, coping, student-student and faculty-student relationships, and levels of academic civility. While civility scores remained mild to moderately high overall, there was a slightly declining trend over the 3-year period. Perceived stressors and coping strategies and ways to improve academic civility are identified and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000000049DOI Listing
April 2015

National study on faculty-to-faculty incivility: strategies to foster collegiality and civility.

Authors:
Cynthia M Clark

Nurse Educ 2013 May-Jun;38(3):98-102

School of Nursing, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725, USA.

Faculty incivility can have lasting and devastating effects on individuals and organizations, including low morale, high turnover, increased absenteeism, isolation and alienation, diminished quality of work, and increased illness and health issues. To assess the nature and impact of faculty-to-faculty incivility, the author discusses a national study, its outcomes, and several evidence-based strategies to affectively address the problem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0b013e31828dc1b2DOI Listing
August 2013

Exploring and addressing faculty-to-faculty incivility: a national perspective and literature review.

J Nurs Educ 2013 Apr 19;52(4):211-8. Epub 2013 Mar 19.

School of Nursing, Boise State University, Boise, ID, USA.

This is the first-known quantitative study to measure nursing faculty perceptions of faculty-to-faculty incivility. A total of 588 nursing faculty representing 40 states in the United States participated in the study. Faculty-to-faculty incivility was perceived as a moderate to serious problem. The behaviors reported to be most uncivil included setting a coworker up to fail, making rude remarks or put-downs, and making personal attacks or threatening comments. The most frequently occurring incivilities included resisting change, failing to perform one's share of the workload, distracting others by using media devices during meetings, refusing to communicate on work-related issues, and making rude comments or put-downs. Stress and demanding workloads were two of the factors most likely to contribute to faculty-to-faculty incivility. Fear of retaliation, lack of administrative support, and lack of clear policies were cited as the top reasons for avoiding addressing the problem of incivility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20130319-01DOI Listing
April 2013

Faculty and student perceptions of academic incivility in the People's Republic of China.

J Cult Divers 2012 ;19(3):85-93

School of Nursing, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho, USA.

This is the second article of a two-part series regarding nursing faculty and student perceptions of incivility in nursing education in the People's Republic of China (PRC). Nursing faculty from the United States of America (USA) and the PRC collaborated to conduct this empirical study. A sample of 382 Chinese nursing faculty and students responded to 4 open-ended questions on the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) Survey. Both groups reported similar perceptions of uncivil behaviors, contributors to incivility, and ways to address the problem. A conceptual model for fostering civility in nursing education was adapted to illustrate the findings.
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November 2012

Cyber-bullying and incivility in an online learning environment, part 2: promoting student success in the virtual classroom.

Nurse Educ 2012 Sep-Oct;37(5):192-7

School of Nursing, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725, USA.

The appeal of online learning has increased dramatically among nurses who are pursuing higher-education opportunities. However, online learning has created potential avenues for uncivil behaviors that can affect student satisfaction, performance, and retention. This is the second of 2 articles detailing a study to empirically measure nursing faculty and student perceptions of an online learning environment (OLE). Part 1, in the July/August 2012 issue, described the quantitative results including the types and frequency of uncivil behaviors and the extent to which they are perceived to be a problem in online courses. In this portion of the study, the authors discuss the qualitative findings, including the challenges and advantages of the OLE, specific ways to foster civility, and strategies to promote student success and retention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0b013e318262eb2bDOI Listing
November 2012

Cyber-bullying and incivility in the online learning environment, Part 1: Addressing faculty and student perceptions.

Nurse Educ 2012 Jul-Aug;37(4):150-6

School of Education, Counseling, & Social Work, Northwest Nazarene University, Nampa, Idaho, USA.

Online learning has created another potential avenue for incivility. Cyber-bullying, a form of incivility that occurs in an electronic environment, includes posting rumors or misinformation, gossiping, or publishing materials that defame and humiliate others. This is the first of 2 articles detailing a study to empirically measure nursing faculty and student perceptions of incivility in an online learning environment (OLE). In this article, the authors discuss the quantitative results including the types and frequency of uncivil behaviors and the extent to which they are perceived to be a problem in online courses. Part 2 in the September/October issue will describe challenges and advantages of the OLE, discuss specific ways to foster civility, and present strategies to promote student success and retention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0b013e31825a87e5DOI Listing
September 2012

Using transformational change to improve organizational culture and climate in a school of nursing.

J Nurs Educ 2012 Feb 30;51(2):81-8. Epub 2011 Dec 30.

Boise State University, Boise, ID, USA.

A positive organizational culture and climate is closely associated with an affirming workplace and job satisfaction. Especially during a time of faculty shortages, academic leaders need to be cognizant of the culture and climate in schools of nursing. The culture of an organization affects employees, systems, and processes, and if the culture becomes problematic, transformational leadership is essential to create change. The purpose of this article is to describe an 8-year journey to change the culture and climate of a school of nursing from one of dissatisfaction and distrust to one of high employee satisfaction and trust. Kotter's model for transformational change was used to frame a longitudinal study using the Cultural and Climate Assessment Scale to transform the organizational culture and climate of a school of nursing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20111230-02DOI Listing
February 2012

Development and description of the culture/climate assessment scale.

J Nurs Educ 2012 Feb 30;51(2):75-80. Epub 2011 Dec 30.

Boise State University, Boise, ID, USA.

This article describes the development, implementation, and preliminary psychometric testing of the Culture/Climate Assessment Scale (CCAS), designed and used by a school of nursing. The CCAS comprises 37 items arranged into five scales of communication, decision support, level of conflict, teamwork, and general work satisfaction, as well as three additional items that measure personal level of stress, perceived level of change, and overall level of morale. Faculty and staff completed the CCAS in three progressive administrations over a 5-year period to provide empirical data to chart the progress to improve the organizational culture and climate of one school of nursing. Preliminary testing of the CCAS supports its continued use in nursing education and other academic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20111230-01DOI Listing
February 2012

Nurse residents' first-hand accounts on transition to practice.

Nurs Outlook 2012 Jul-Aug;60(4):e2-8. Epub 2011 Oct 13.

Boise State University, School of Nursing, Boise, ID 83725, USA.

Background: The first year of nursing practice is critical to developing new graduate nurses into safe practitioners. Many new graduate nurses leave the profession because of job stress, lack of organizational support, poor nurse-physician relations, unreasonable workloads, uncivil work environments, and difficulty transitioning into practice. In response, Nurse Residency programs reflect an organizational commitment to support new nurses, allowing them time and support to become competent professional nurses.

Purpose And Method: Thirty-seven new graduate nurses employed in a hospital in a northwestern state participated in a descriptive qualitative study to examine the "lived experience" as new nurses and to assess the level of job satisfaction during the first year of their nursing practice.

Results: New graduate nurses described themes related to their first year of nursing practice including rhythm in the chaos, feeling valued, stress from 'not knowing', life-long learning, and preserving the profession.

Conclusions: Having supportive preceptors and nursing staff, feeling valued by the health care team, and being perceived as a vital member of the organization contributed to job satisfaction and overall commitment to the profession.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2011.08.003DOI Listing
October 2012

Fostering civility in nursing education and practice: nurse leader perspectives.

J Nurs Adm 2011 Jul-Aug;41(7-8):324-30

School of Nursing, Boise State University, Idaho, USA.

Incivility in healthcare can lead to unsafe working conditions, poor patient care, and increased medical costs. The authors discuss a study that examined factors that contribute to adverse working relationships between nursing education and practice, effective strategies to foster civility, essential skills to be taught in nursing education, and how education and practice can work together to foster civility in the profession.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0b013e31822509c4DOI Listing
October 2011
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