Publications by authors named "Cutmore S"

79 Publications

A complex of the blood fluke genus Psettarium (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting tetraodontiform fishes of east Queensland waters.

Parasitol Int 2018 Jun 19;67(3):321-340. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Seven species of Psettarium (Digenea: Aporocotylidae), including four new species, are reported from tetraodontiform fishes from off coastal east Queensland. Psettarium pandora n. sp. infects the yellow boxfish, Ostracion cubicus (Ostraciidae), the first known aporocotylid to infect this family of fishes. Three new species are reported from pufferfishes of the genus Arothron (Tetraodontidae): Psettarium yoshidai n. sp. infects the map puffer (Arothron mappa), Psettarium hustoni n. sp. infects the black-spotted puffer (A. nigropunctatus) and Psettarium martini n. sp. infects the starry puffer (A. stellatus). We also report three species of Psettarium from Australian waters for the first time. Paracardicola hawaiensis Martin, 1960, the sole species of Paracardicola, is redescribed based on specimens collected from the type-host, the stars-and-stripes puffer, Arothron hispidus. Paracardicola is synonymised with Psettarium and P. hawaiensis is recombined as Psettarium hawaiiense (Martin, 1960) n. comb. Psettarium pulchellum Yong, Cutmore, Bray, Miller, Semarariana, Palm & Cribb, 2016, described from the narrow-lined puffer (Arothron manilensis) from off Bali, Indonesia, is reported from the same fish species at two locations on the Queensland coast, significantly extending the range of this species. Psettarium nolani (Bray, Cribb & Littlewood, 2013), originally described from French Polynesia, is reported from A. hispidus, A. manilensis and A. stellatus, representing both new host and locality records for this species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis shows these species to all be closely related, such that they cannot be considered to represent separate genera despite their differing morphology. Analysis of 28S sequence data for Psettarium anthicum Bullard & Overstreet, 2006, a non-tetraodontiform-infecting species, shows it to be distantly related to all other species of Psettarium for which sequence data are available. The species is re-assigned to a new genus, Cardallagium n. gen., as Cardallagium anthicum (Bullard & Overstreet, 2006) n. comb. We think it likely that the host range of species of Psettarium is limited to tetraodontiform fishes. We assessed the infection biology of two species, P. nolani and P. hawaiiense n. comb. infecting A. hispidus, using histology to assess the pathways of egg release for these species. Eggs of both species were observed in both circulatory and visceral organs of infected hosts, often in high numbers. Eggs were seen trapped in the mucosal layer of the intestine and, in rare instances, causing lesions in the laminar epithelium, providing the strongest evidence yet that they pass through the gut wall and escape the host via the faeces. Lastly, we discuss the biogeographical implications of our findings, noting that some Psettarium species now show very wide geographical distributions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2017.12.003DOI Listing
June 2018

Revision of Podocotyloides Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Opecoelidae), resurrection of Pedunculacetabulum Yamaguti, 1934 and the naming of a cryptic opecoelid species.

Syst Parasitol 2018 01 22;95(1):1-31. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Despite morphological and ecological inconsistencies among species, all plagioporine opecoelids with a pedunculate ventral sucker are currently considered to belong in the genus Podocotyloides Yamaguti, 1934. We revise the genus based on combined morphological and phylogenetic analyses of novel material collected from haemulid fishes in Queensland waters that we interpret to represent species congeneric with the type-species, Pod. petalophallus Yamaguti, 1934, also known from a haemulid, off Japan. Our phylogenetic analysis demonstrates polyphyly of Podocotyloides; prompts us to resurrect Pedunculacetabulum Yamaguti, 1934; and suggests that Pod. brevis Andres & Overstreet, 2013, from a deep-sea congrid in the Caribbean, and Pod. parupenei (Manter, 1963) Pritchard, 1966 and Pod. stenometra Pritchard, 1966, from mullids and chaetodontids, respectively, on the Great Barrier Reef, may each represent a distinct genus awaiting recognition. Our revised concept of Podocotyloides requires a pedunculate ventral sucker, but also a uterine sphincter prior to the genital atrium, a petalloid cirrus appendage, restriction of the vitelline follicles to the hindbody, and for the excretory vesicle to reach to the level of the ventral sucker. Of about 20 nominal species, we recognise just three in Podocotyloides (sensu stricto): Pod. petalophallus, Pod. gracilis (Yamaguti, 1952) Pritchard, 1966 and Pod. magnatestes Aleshkina & Gaevskaya, 1985. We provide new records for Pod. gracilis, and propose two new species of Podocotyloides, Pod. australis n. sp. and Pod. brevivesiculatus n. sp., and one new Pedunculacetabulum species, Ped. inopinipugnus n. sp., all from haemulids. Podocotyloides australis is morphologically indistinguishable from Pod. gracilis, and exploits the same definitive host, but is genetically and biogeographically distinct. It is thus a cryptic species, the first such opecoelid to be formally named.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-017-9761-1DOI Listing
January 2018

Monorchis lewisi n. sp. (Trematoda: Monorchiidae) from the surf bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Sparidae), in Moreton Bay, Australia.

J Helminthol 2018 Jan 17;92(1):100-108. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

The University of Queensland,School of Biological Sciences,St Lucia,Queensland, 4072,Australia.

We describe Monorchis lewisi n. sp. (Monorchiidae) from the surf bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Günther, 1859) (Sparidae), in Moreton Bay, eastern Australia. The new species differs from most existing species of Monorchis Monticelli, 1893 in its possession of an elongate I-shaped excretory vesicle, and from other congeners in the relative configuration of the gut and suckers. Ovipusillus mayu Dove & Cribb, 1998 is re-reported from Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål, 1775) (Carangidae) from Moreton Bay. We report new second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and 28S rDNA sequence data for both species. Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses of the 28S rDNA dataset suggest that existing subfamily and genus concepts within the family require substantial revision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1700102XDOI Listing
January 2018

Isorchis cannoni n. sp. (Digenea: Atractotrematidae) from Great Barrier Reef rabbitfishes and the molecular elucidation of its life cycle.

J Helminthol 2018 Sep 2;92(5):604-611. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

School of Biological Sciences,The University of Queensland,St Lucia,QLD 4072,Australia.

We describe Isorchis cannoni n. sp. from the rabbitfishes Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn) and Siganus lineatus (Valenciennes) (Siganidae) collected off Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia and, using molecular data, demonstrate that 'Cercariae queenslandae II' of Cannon (1978) from the gastropod Clypeomorus batillariaeformis Habe & Kosuge (Cerithiidae) is the larval form of this new species. The cercariae of I. cannoni n. sp. develop in rediae, encyst in the environment after emergence, and are inferred to then be consumed by grazing rabbitfish. Additionally, we provide a new report of Isorchis currani Andres, Pulis & Overstreet, 2016 from the type host, Selenotoca multifasciata (Richardson) (Scatophagidae) collected in Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland, Australia, greatly expanding the known geographical range of this species. Molecular sequence data (ITS1, ITS2 and 28S rDNA) generated for I. cannoni n. sp. and the new specimens of I. currani, confirm the identification of I. currani and demonstrate a distinct genotype for I. cannoni n. sp. relative to other species of Isorchis Durio & Manter, 1969, for which molecular data are available. Isorchis cannoni n. sp. is morphologically distinct from all other species in the genus, and is further distinguished by utilizing species of Siganidae as definitive hosts, rather than species of Chanidae or Scatophagidae. Because haploporid and atractotrematid cercariae have well-developed reproductive organs, we find cercariae of these closely related families morphologically distinguishable in the same way as adult trematodes: atractotrematids have two symmetrical testes and haploporids have a single testis or, rarely, two tandem or oblique testes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X17000906DOI Listing
September 2018

Patterns of specificity and diversity in species of Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994 (Cestoda: Phyllobothriidae) in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, with the description of four new species.

Syst Parasitol 2017 11 19;94(9):941-970. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

A survey of tapeworms of galeomorph sharks from Moreton Bay (Queensland, Australia) identified a complex of species of Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994 infecting 11 carcharhiniform and two orectolobiform species. Combined morphological and multi-locus molecular analyses (based on the 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA and partial mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes) revealed the presence of 12 species of Paraorygmatobothrium; four species (Paraorygmatobothrium christopheri n. sp., P. harti n. sp., P. sinclairtaylori n. sp. and P. ullmanni n. sp.) are considered to be new to science and are formally described, four represent known species, and four lack sufficient morphological data to allow definitive identification. In contrast to previous records for the genus, four of the species found in this study exhibited low host specificity [P. orectolobi (Butler, 1987) Ruhnke, 2011, P. sinclairtaylori, P. ullmanni and Paraorygmatobothrium sp. 3], three stenoxenic species were each found in two closely-related sharks (P. orectolobi, P. ullmanni and Paraorygmatobothrium sp. 3) and one euryxenic species was found in five species from two shark families (P. sinclairtaylori). One species was found to exhibit mild morphologically plasticity (P. orectolobi), with size range being associated with different shark species. Conversely, collections of almost morphologically indistinguishable specimens from single shark species were found to represent multiple species of Paraorygmatobothrium. The findings of this study indicate that the description of species of this genus on the basis of morphological data alone is problematic and that the inclusion of multi-locus molecular data is essential for future work on Paraorygmatobothrium. Host specificity, morphology and phylogenetic relatedness of species of Paraorygmatobothrium are explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-017-9759-8DOI Listing
November 2017

Two new and one known species of Tergestia Stossich, 1899 (Trematoda: Fellodistomidae) with novel molecular characterisation for the genus.

Syst Parasitol 2017 10 2;94(8):861-874. Epub 2017 Sep 2.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Combined morphological and molecular analyses are employed to characterise three species of Tergestia Stossich, 1899 (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) from fishes of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Tergestia clonacantha Manter, 1963 is reported here for the first time from the halfbeak (Beloniformes: Hemiramphidae) species Arrhamphus sclerolepis krefftii (Steindachner), Hyporhamphus australis (Steindachner), H. quoyi (Valenciennes) and H. regularis ardelio (Whitley). Two new species, both infecting trevally (Perciformes: Carangidae) species, are described: T. maryae n. sp. from Alepes apercna Grant and T. henryi n. sp. from Pantolabus radiatus (MacLeay). Complete ITS2 and partial 28S ribosomal DNA data were generated for each of the new taxa. The three species differ from each other by 47-58 base pairs (bp) in the ITS2 rDNA region. Phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA supports Tergestia as a reliable generic concept, with our analyses showing that some species of the genus form a well-supported clade to the exclusion of all other fellodistomids for which sequence data are available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-017-9749-xDOI Listing
October 2017

Evidence that blood flukes (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) of chondrichthyans infect bivalves as intermediate hosts: indications of an ancient diversification of the Schistosomatoidea.

Int J Parasitol 2017 11 12;47(13):885-891. Epub 2017 Aug 12.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) of actinopterygians (bony fishes) have been shown to infect freshwater gastropods and marine polychaetes as intermediate hosts. However, no life cycle is known for any aporocotylid of chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes) and no adult aporocotylid has been linked to a cercaria infecting a bivalve. Here we report two novel infections that fill these gaps. Cercariae consistent with the family Aporocotylidae were found developing in sporocysts in the gonad of the surf pipi, Donax deltoides Lamarck, 1818 (Bivalvia: Donacidae), from Stockton Beach, central New South Wales, Australia. Adult aporocotylids were found in the heart of the giant shovelnose ray, Glaucostegus typus (Anonymous [Bennett], 1830), from Moreton Bay, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Phylogenetic analyses of the 28S rDNA region generated from the new specimens resulted in phylograms in which the two parasites form a strongly supported clade with Chimaerohemecus trondheimensis van der Land, 1967, the only aporocotylid known from a holocephalan and the only other chondrichthyan-infecting aporocotylid for which sequence data are available. Most marine aporocotylids of actinopterygians also form a strongly supported clade. These findings lead us to hypothesise that the aporocotylids of chondrichthyans are distinct from all other blood flukes in infecting bivalves as intermediate hosts. Putative cophyly between three major blood fluke clades and both definitive and intermediate host groups is consistent with diversification of the Schistosomatoidea over 400million years ago.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2017.05.008DOI Listing
November 2017

A re-evaluation of diversity of the Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912 in Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn) (Perciformes: Siganidae) and associated species.

Syst Parasitol 2017 09 2;94(7):717-737. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

The aporocotylid fauna of the mottled spinefoot, Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn), from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, was characterised using a combined morphological and molecular approach. Four aporocotylid species were identified, three belonging to the genus Ankistromeces Nolan & Cribb, 2006 and one to Cardicola Short, 1953. Specimens of Cardicola matched an undescribed species from the same host and locality; this species is described as Cardicola mogilae n. sp. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS2 and 28S data showed that C. mogilae n. sp. forms a strongly supported clade with other Cardicola species from siganid fishes. We record Ankistromeces olsoni Nolan & Cribb, 2006 in Moreton Bay for the first time, redescribe A. dunwichensis Nolan & Cribb, 2006 on the basis of new specimens and sequence data and re-report Ankistromeces sp. X from Moreton Bay based on molecular data. We review the status of the ten putative species of aporocotylids reported from siganids. Small variation in ITS2 rDNA sequences, in association with different geographic localities, was previously used to separate Cardicola lafii Nolan & Cribb, 2006 from C. parilus Nolan & Cribb, 2006, C. bartolii Nolan & Cribb, 2006 from C. watsonensis Nolan & Cribb, 2006, C. tantabiddii Nolan & Cribb, 2006 from Cardicola sp. 2, Ankistromeces sp. Y from A. olsoni and Ankistromeces sp. X from Ankistromeces sp. Z. These five combinations are reinterpreted as each representing a single species; Cardicola lafii is recognised as the senior synonym of C. parilus and C. bartolii as the senior synonym of C. watsonensis. This study thus suggests that six, rather than ten, species should be recognised as infecting S. fuscescens. This richness remains greater than is known for any other fish species and siganids are, so far, unique among fishes in harbouring two strongly radiated lineages of aporocotylids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-017-9744-2DOI Listing
September 2017

Molecular phylogeny of the Haplosplanchnata Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray and Littlewood, 2003, with a description of Schikhobalotrema huffmani n. sp.

Acta Parasitol 2017 Sep;62(3):502-512

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We describe Schikhobalotrema huffmani n. sp. from Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron and Leseur) (Belonidae) collected off Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia and Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau) collected from Moreton Bay, Queensland. Schikhobalotrema huffmani n. sp., along with Schikhobalotrema ablennis (Abdul-Salam and Khalil, 1987) Madhavi, 2005, Schikhobalotrema acutum (Linton, 1910) Skrjabin and Guschanskaja, 1955 and Schikhobalotrema adacutum (Manter, 1937) Skrjabin and Guschanskaja, 1955 are distinguished from all other species of Schikhobalotrema Skrjabin and Guschanskaja, 1955 in having ventral suckers which bear lateral lobes and have longitudinal apertures. Schikhobalotrema huffmani n. sp. differs from S. ablennis in having an obvious post-vitelline region and a longer forebody. From S. acutum, S. huffmani n. sp. differs in having a prostatic bulb smaller than the pharynx and more anterior testis. From S. adacutum, S. huffmani n. sp. differs in having more prominent ventral sucker lobes, a conspicuous prostatic bulb and a longer forebody. We also report the first Australian record of Haplosplanchnus pachysomus (Eysenhardt, 1829) Looss, 1902, from Mugil cephalus Linnaeus (Mugilidae) collected in Moreton Bay. Molecular sequence data (ITS2, 18S and 28S rDNA) were generated for Schikhobalotrema huffmani n. sp., H. pachysomus and archived specimens of Hymenocotta mulli Manter, 1961. The new 18S and 28S molecular data were combined with published data of five other haplosplanchnid taxa to expand the phylogeny for the Haplosplanchnata. Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses recovered identical tree topology and demonstrated the Haplosplanchnata as a well-supported monophyletic group. However, relationships at and below the subfamily level remain poorly resolved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ap-2017-0060DOI Listing
September 2017

An updated concept and revised composition for Hamacreadium Linton, 1910 (Opecoelidae: Plagioporinae) clarifies a previously obscured pattern of host-specificity among species.

Zootaxa 2017 Apr 12;4254(2):151-187. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, 4072 Australia..

The present concept of the trematode genus Hamacreadium Linton, 1910 encompasses considerable morphological variability and includes species reported from a broad range of fishes. These include herbivores and planktivores, despite the life-cycle of the type-species, Hamacreadium mutabile Linton, 1910, being known to use fishes as intermediate hosts. Reports of H. mutabile are numerous, spanning the west Atlantic, east Pacific and Indo-west Pacific, whereas other nominal species are infrequently reported and several inadequately described. Following a comprehensive review, a strict revised morphological definition is proposed for the genus. Several nominal species are excluded, but, conversely, finer distinctions are recognised among the species concluded to genuinely belong in the genus. Justified records for species retained in the genus are overwhelmingly from fishes of the families Lutjanidae Gill (snappers) and Lethrinidae Bonaparte (emperors), revealing a previously concealed pattern of host-specificity. For H. mutabile, it is argued that only records from western Atlantic lutjanid fishes should be considered genuine; those from plausible Indo-Pacific fishes most likely represent different species. In addition to H. mutabile, eight species are recognised: Hamacreadium cribbi Bray & Justine, 2016, Hamacreadium hainanense Shen, 1990, Hamacreadium interruptum Nagaty, 1941, Hamacreadium lethrini Yamaguti, 1934, Hamacreadium longivesiculum (Yamaguti, 1952) n. comb., Hamacreadium lutiani (Shen, 1990) n. comb., Hamacreadium morgani Baz,1946 and Hamacreadium phyllorchis (Bilqees, 1976) Cribb, 2005. A key to species of Hamacreadium and comprehensive lists of all host-locality records are included.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4254.2.1DOI Listing
April 2017

Three members of Opisthomonorcheides Parukhin, 1966 (Digenea: Monorchiidae) from carangid fishes (Perciformes) from Indonesia, with a review of the genus.

Syst Parasitol 2017 05 23;94(4):443-462. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Three species of Opisthomonorcheides Parukhin, 1966 are reported for the first time from Indonesian waters: O. pampi (Wang, 1982) Liu, Peng, Gao, Fu, Wu, Lu, Gao & Xiao, 2010 and O. ovacutus (Mamaev, 1970) Machida, 2011 from Parastromateus niger (Bloch), and O. decapteri Parukhin, 1966 from Atule mate (Cuvier). Both O. pampi and O. ovacutus can now be considered widespread in the Indo-Pacific region, with earlier records of these species being from Fujian Province, China and Penang, Malaysia, respectively. We redescribe O. decapteri from one of its original hosts, Atule mate, off New Caledonia, and report this species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia, extending its range throughout the Indian Ocean into the south-western Pacific. All three species possess a genital atrium that is long, sometimes very long, and a genital pore that is located in the forebody. This validates the interpretation that the original description was erroneous in reporting the genital pore in the hindbody, well posterior to the ventral sucker. These observations verify the synonymy of Retractomonorchis Madhavi, 1977 with Opisthomonorcheides. A major discrepancy between the species of Opisthomonorcheides is that some are described with the uterus entering the terminal organ laterally and some with it entering terminally; this feature needs further analysis. Based on the length of the genital atrium and the posterior extent of the vitellarium, the 27 species of Opisthomonorcheides considered valid can be divided into four groups. Among the 53 host records analysed, the families Carangidae (53% of records), Stromateidae (17%) and Serranidae (5.7%) are the most common; the reports are overwhelmingly from members of the Perciformes (91%), with further records in the Clupeiformes (5.7%), Gadiformes (1.9%) and Pleuronectiformes (1.9%). Two fish genera (Parastromateus Bleeker and Pampus Bonaparte) dominate the recorded hosts, with the black pomfret Parastromateus niger harbouring six species, the silver pomfret Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen) harbouring six, and the Chinese silver pomfret P. chinensis (Euphrasen) two. A host-parasite checklist is presented. We discuss the host-specificity of members of the genus, questioning some records such as that of O. decapteri in a deep-sea macrourid. We also comment on the morphological similarity, but phylogenetic distance, between the various Pomfret species, advancing the possibility that a series of host misidentifications has occurred. Sequences of the ITS2 rDNA gene generated for O. pampi and O. ovacutus are briefly discussed and molecular data are lodged in the GenBank database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-017-9717-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5385322PMC
May 2017

Did biogeographical processes shape the monogenean community of butterflyfishes in the tropical Indo-west Pacific region?

Int J Parasitol 2017 07 18;47(8):447-455. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Centre des Recherches Insulaires et Observatoire de l'Environnement (CRIOBE), USR3278-EPHE/CNRS/UPVD/PSL, University of Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan, France; Laboratoire d'Excellence "CORAIL", 98729 Moorea, French Polynesia.

Geographical distribution of parasite species can provide insights into the evolution and diversity of parasitic communities. Biogeography of marine parasites is poorly known, especially because it requires an understanding of host-parasite interactions, information that is rare, especially over large spatial scales. Here, we have studied the biogeographical patterns of dactylogyrid parasites of chaetodontids, one of the most well-studied fish families, in the tropical Indo-west Pacific region. Dactylogyrid parasites were collected from gills of 34 butterflyfish species (n=560) at nine localities within an approximate area of 62millionkm. Thirteen dactylogyrid species were identified, with richness ranging from 6 to 12 species at individual localities. Most dactylogyrid communities were dominated by Haliotrema angelopterum or Haliotrema aurigae, for which relative abundance was negatively correlated (ρ=-0.59). Parasite richness and diversity were highest in French Polynesia and the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) and lowest in Palau. Three biogeographic regions were identified based on dactylogyrid dissimilarities: French Polynesia, characterised by the dominance of H. angelopterum, the western Pacific region dominated by H. aurigae, and Ningaloo Reef (Australia), dominated by Euryhaliotrema berenguelae. Structure of host assemblages was the main factor explaining the dissimilarity (turnover and nestedness components of the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and overall Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) of parasite communities between localities, while environment was only significant in the turnover of parasite communities and overall dissimilarity. Spatial structure of localities explained only 10% of the turnover of parasite communities. The interaction of the three factors (host assemblages, environment and spatial structure), however, explained the highest amounts of variance of the dactylogyrid communities, indicating a strong colinearity between the factors. Our findings show that spatial arrangement of chaetodontid dactylogyrids in the tropical Indo-west Pacific is primarily characterised by the turnover of the main Haliotrema spp., which is mainly explained by the structure of host assemblages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2017.01.006DOI Listing
July 2017

Revision of Neolebouria Gibson, 1976 (Digenea: Opecoelidae), with Trilobovarium n. g., for species infecting tropical and subtropical shallow-water fishes.

Syst Parasitol 2017 03 22;94(3):307-338. Epub 2017 Feb 22.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

A new opecoelid trematode is reported from fishes of the Lethrinidae, Lutjanidae and Nemipteridae off Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The new species keys to Neolebouria Gibson, 1976 and shows strong similarity to several species of that genus, but is not consistent with the type-species, N. georgiensis Gibson, 1976, or others known from temperate/polar and/or deep-sea fishes. The new species is also phylogenetically distant from N. lanceolata (Price, 1934) Reimer, 1987, the only representative of the genus for which molecular data are available. A new genus, Trilobovarium n. g., is proposed for the new species, T. parvvatis n. sp. Eight morphologically similar species, previously recognised as belonging to Neolebouria, from shallow-water, mostly tropical/subtropical fishes, are transferred to Trilobovarium: T. diacopae (Nagaty & Abdel Aal, 1962) n. comb.; T. ira (Yamaguti, 1940) n. comb.; T. khalili (Ramadan, 1983) n. comb.; T. krusadaiense (Gupta, 1956) n. comb.; T. lineatum (Aken'Ova & Cribb, 2001) n. comb.; T. moretonense (Aken'Ova & Cribb, 2001) n. comb.; T. palauense (Machida, 2014) n. comb.; and T. truncatum (Linton, 1940) n. comb. Paramanteriella Li, Qiu & Zhang, 1988 is resurrected for five species of Neolebouria with a post-bifurcal genital pore: P. cantherini Li, Qiu & Zhang, 1988; P. capoori (Jaiswal, Upadhyay, Malhotra, Dronen & Malhotra, 2014) n. comb.; P. confusa (Overstreet, 1969) n. comb.; P. leiperi (Gupta, 1956) n. comb.; and P. pallenisca (Shipley & Hornell, 1905) n. comb. Neolebouria georgenascimentoi Bray, 2002, a species with an exceptionally long cirrus-sac, is transferred to Bentholebouria Andres, Pulis & Overstreet, 2004 as B. georgenascimentoi (Bray, 2002) n. comb., and N. maorum (Allison, 1966) Gibson 1976, an unusual species known from cephalopods, is designated a species incertae sedis. Eleven species are retained in a revised concept of Neolebouria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-017-9707-7DOI Listing
March 2017

Four new species of Paradiscogaster Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Faustulidae) from batfishes (Perciformes: Ephippidae) on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

Syst Parasitol 2017 03 20;94(3):339-349. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, OLD, 4072, Australia.

Examination of three species of batfishes (Teleostei: Epphippidae) from off Lizard and Heron Islands on the Great Barrier Reef led to the discovery of specimens of the trematode genus Paradiscogaster Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Faustulidae). Morphological analysis demonstrated that the new specimens represented four morphotypes which we interpret to be new species: Paradiscogaster martini n. sp., P. vichovae n. sp. and P. brayi n. sp. from Platax orbicularis (Forsskål) and P. pinnatus (Linnaeus) off Lizard Island, and P. nitschkei n. sp. from P. teira (Forsskål) off Heron Island. Published material was re-examined and the specimens identified as P. chaetodontis okinawensis Yamaguti, 1971 from P. pinnatus from Okinawa, Japan, actually represent the new species P. brayi n. sp., demonstrating that some species of Paradiscogaster have wide geographical distributions. ITS2 rDNA data for the four morphotypes differ by 4-39 base pairs confirming the delineation of the four species proposed. A feature of this study is the recognition of Platax spp. as an important host group for Paradiscogaster, with the new species placing them as the second richest host group for these parasites after the Chaetodontidae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-017-9709-5DOI Listing
March 2017

The Cardiovascular and Neurotoxic Effects of the  Venoms of Six Bony and Cartilaginous Fish Species.

Toxins (Basel) 2017 02 16;9(2). Epub 2017 Feb 16.

Department of Pharmacology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.

Fish venoms are often poorly studied, in part due to the difficulty in obtaining, extracting, and storing them. In this study, we characterize the cardiovascular and neurotoxic effects of the venoms from the following six species of fish: the cartilaginous stingrays Neotrygon kuhlii and Himantura toshi, and the bony fish Platycephalus fucus, Girella tricuspidata, Mugil cephalus, and Dentex tumifrons. All venoms (10-100 μg/kg, i.v.), except G. tricuspidata and P. fuscus, induced a biphasic response on mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the anesthetised rat. P. fucus venom exhibited a hypotensive response, while venom from G. tricuspidata displayed a single depressor response. All venoms induced cardiovascular collapse at 200 μg/kg, i.v. The in vitro neurotoxic effects of venom were examined using the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle (CBCNM) preparation. N. kuhlii, H. toshi, and P. fucus venoms caused concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect twitches in the CBCNM preparation. These three venoms also inhibited responses to exogenous acetylcholine (ACh) and carbachol (CCh), but not potassium chloride (KCl), indicating a post-synaptic mode of action. Venom from G. tricuspidata, M. cephalus, and D. tumifrons had no significant effect on indirect twitches or agonist responses in the CBCNM. Our results demonstrate that envenoming by these species of fish may result in moderate cardiovascular and/or neurotoxic effects. Future studies aimed at identifying the molecules responsible for these effects could uncover potentially novel lead compounds for future pharmaceuticals, in addition to generating new knowledge about the evolutionary relationships between venomous animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins9020067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5331446PMC
February 2017

Elucidation of the first definitively identified life cycle for a marine turtle blood fluke (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae) enables informed control.

Int J Parasitol 2017 01 18;47(1):61-67. Epub 2016 Dec 18.

Fundación Oceanogràfic, Veterinary Services & Research Department, Avanqua Oceanogràfic-Ágora, C/ Eduardo Primo Yúfera 1B, 46013 Valencia, Spain.

Blood flukes of the family Spirorchiidae are significant pathogens of both free-ranging and captive marine turtles. Despite a significant proportion of marine turtle mortality being attributable to spirorchiid infections, details of their life cycles remain almost entirely unknown. Here we report on the molecular elucidation of the complete life cycle of a marine spirorchiid, identified as Amphiorchis sp., infecting vermetid gastropods and captive hatched neonate Caretta caretta in the Oceanogràfic Aquarium, in Valencia, Spain. Specimens of a vermetid gastropod, Thylaeodus cf. rugulosus (Monterosato, 1878), collected from the aquarium filtration system housing diseased C. caretta, were infected with sporocysts and cercariae consistent with the family Spirorchiidae. We generated rDNA sequence data [internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and partial 28S rDNA] from infections from the vermetid which were identical to sequences generated from eggs from the serosa of the intestine of neonate C. caretta, and an adult spirorchiid from the liver of a C. caretta from Florida, USA. Given the reliability of these markers in the delineation of trematode species, we consider all three stages to represent the same species and tentatively identify it as a species of Amphiorchis Price, 1934. The source of infection at the Oceanogràfic Foundation Rehabilitation Centre, Valencia, Spain, is inferred to be an adult C. caretta from the western Mediterranean being rehabilitated in the same facility. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this Amphiorchis sp. is closely related to other spirorchiids of marine turtles (species of Carettacola Manter & Larson, 1950, Hapalotrema Looss, 1899 and Learedius Price, 1934). We discuss implications of the present findings for the control of spirorchiidiasis in captivity, for the better understanding of epidemiology in wild individuals, and the elucidation of further life cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2016.11.002DOI Listing
January 2017

Two known and one new species of Proctoeces from Australian teleosts: Variable host-specificity for closely related species identified through multi-locus molecular data.

Parasitol Int 2017 Apr 15;66(2):16-26. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Species of Proctoeces Odhner, 1911 (Trematoda: Fellodistomidae) have been reported from a wide range of marine animals globally. Members of the genus tend to lack strongly distinguishing morphological features for diagnosis, making identification difficult and the true number of species in the genus contentious. Combined morphological and molecular analyses were used to characterise three species of Proctoeces from Moreton Bay and the southern Great Barrier Reef. Data for two ribosomal regions and one mitochondrial region were generated for specimens collected from Australia. Three unique 18S-genotypes were identified which corresponded to subtle, but reliable, morphological differences. Two species of Proctoeces were identified from fishes of Moreton Bay, Proctoeces insolitus (Nicoll, 1915) Yamaguti, 1953 and P. major Yamaguti, 1934, and a third, P. choerodoni n. sp. from off Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 18S and partial 28S rDNA indicated that these three species differ from the four species reported outside of Australia for which sequence data are available. Phylogenetically, Proctoeces proved to be a reliable concept, with all species of Proctoeces that have been characterised genetically forming a well-supported clade in all analyses. Dramatically different patterns of host-specificity were identified for each of the three Australian species; P. insolitus apparently infects a single species of fish, P. choerodoni n. sp. infects multiple species of a single genus of fish, and P. major infects multiple species of two teleost orders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2016.11.008DOI Listing
April 2017

A new species of microphallid (Trematoda: Digenea) infecting a novel host family, the Muraenidae, on the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

Syst Parasitol 2016 11 14;93(9):863-876. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, 4072, Australia.

A new species of microphallid, Longiductotrema tethepae n. sp., is reported from a muraenid eel Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker) on the northern Great Barrier Reef. The new species is described based on adults from Gy. pseudothyrsoideus and metacercariae from a grapsid crab, Grapsus albolineatus Latreille in Milbert, collected from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. The new species is assigned to Longiductotrema Deblock & Heard, 1969 based on morphological characters (presence of a cirrus-sac; a long metraterm, intensively ensheathed by gland-cells; an entirely postcaecal uterus; vitellarium composed of two lateral clusters each of about ten follicles, situated in the testicular and post-testicular areas). Longiductotrema tethepae n. sp. is the third species assigned to the genus, differing from its congeners in having a distinctly larger body dimensions, a smaller pharynx in relation to oral sucker, the anterior limits of the vitelline fields at the level of the testes (vs at the level of the ovary) and in its parasitism of a muraenid fish (vs birds). Additionally, the new species differs from L. floridense Deblock & Heard, 1969 in having a shorter metraterm and from L. scandolensis Deblock & Bartoli, 1988 in having a less elongate forebody in relation to body length, shorter caeca and prepharynx, and slightly larger eggs. Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial 28S rRNA gene sequences, showed that the present species is sister to all other microphallids for which sequence data are available. This is the fourth report of a microphallid from a marine eel, the first from the Muraenidae Rafinesque and the first from a marine fish in the Indo-west Pacific. A summary of all species of the Microphallidae parasitising fish is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-016-9670-8DOI Listing
November 2016

A complex of Cardicola Short, 1953 (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) species infecting the milkfish Chanos chanos Forsskål (Gonorynchiformes), with descriptions of two new species.

Syst Parasitol 2016 11 14;93(9):831-846. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Two new species of Cardicola Short, 1953 are described from the milkfish, Chanos chanos Forsskål (Gonorynchiformes: Chanidae), obtained from off Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and North Stradbroke Island in southeast Queensland. These are the first known blood flukes from this order of fishes. Cardicola suni n. sp. differs from all other Cardicola spp. by a combination of a large ovoid oral sucker surrounding a subterminal mouth, recurved tegumental spines up to 16 μm long, anterior caeca occupying 25.1-31.3% (28.7%) of total body length and a mostly-intercaecal ovary. Cardicola jiigurru n. sp. differs from C. suni n. sp. and all other species of Cardicola by a combination of a narrowly lanceolate body, weakly-muscularised and poorly-demarcated oral sucker, minute tegumental spines <1 µm in length, and anterior caeca occupying 15.9-22.0% (19.4%) of total body length, an almost entirely post-caecal ovary and the male genital pore terminal on a dorsolateral protuberance. A third species, closely resembling C. suni n. sp., was also discovered off Wangetti Beach, north Queensland, but is not described due to lack of material. Molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on both ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA regions, shows that these three species form a clade nested within that formed by existing species of Cardicola.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-016-9673-5DOI Listing
November 2016

Gill monogenean communities (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) of butterflyfishes from tropical Indo-West Pacific Islands.

Parasitology 2016 10 30;143(12):1580-91. Epub 2016 Aug 30.

CRIOBE, USR3278-EPHE/CNRS/UPVD, Paris Sciences et Lettres (PSL),University of Perpignan Via Domitia,52 Avenue Paul Alduy,66860 Perpignan,France.

We studied the monogenean communities of 34 species of butterflyfish from the tropical Indo-West Pacific, identifying 13 dactylogyrid species (including two species that are presently undescribed). Monogenean assemblages differed significantly between host species in terms of taxonomic structure, intensity and prevalence. Parasite richness ranged from 0 (Chaetodon lunulatus) to 11 (C. auriga, C. citrinellus and C. lunula). Host specificity varied between the dactylogyrids species, being found on 2-29 of the 34 chaetodontid species examined. Sympatric butterflyfish species were typically parasitized by different combinations of dactylogyrid species, suggesting the existence of complex host-parasite interactions. We identified six clusters of butterflyfish species based on the similarities of their dactylogyrid communities. Dactylogyrid richness and diversity were not related to host size, diet specialization, depth range or phylogeny of butterflyfish species. However, there was a weak positive correlation between monogenean richness and diversity and host geographical range. Most communities of dactylogyrids were dominated by Haliotrema aurigae and H. angelopterum, indicating the importance of the genus Haliotrema in shaping monogenean communities of butterflyfishes. This study casts light on the structure of the monogenean communities of butterflyfishes, suggesting that the diversity and complexity of community structures arises from a combination of host species-specific parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182016001463DOI Listing
October 2016

The life-cycle of Gorgocephalus yaaji Bray & Cribb, 2005 (Digenea: Gorgocephalidae) with a review of the first intermediate hosts for the superfamily Lepocreadioidea Odhner, 1905.

Syst Parasitol 2016 09 13;93(7):653-65. Epub 2016 Aug 13.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Using novel molecular and morphological data we elucidated the life-cycle of Gorgocephalus yaaji Bray & Cribb, 2005 from off Lizard Island, on the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ITS2 rDNA sequences generated for larval trematodes from the infected snail species Echinolittorina austrotrochoides Reid (Littorinidae) were identical to those from adult G. yaaji from the fish Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål) (Kyphosidae). Cercariae develop in rediae in E. austrotrochoides, emerge from the snail, encyst on algae as metacercariae, and are inferred to then be consumed by the herbivorous definitive fish host, K. cinerascens. In addition, we generated the first ITS2 rDNA sequences for a gorgocephalid previously reported from the littorind gastropod Austrolittorina unifasciata Gray. Although infections previously reported from A. unifasciata were the first larval gorgocephalids characterised, this study is the first to connect an intramolluscan infection to a sexual adult. In light of the new life-cycle information, a review of mollusc associations for the digenean superfamily Lepocreadioidea was performed, highlighting gaps in the knowledge and revealing patterns of host-parasite association. We find that distinct patterns of first intermediate host association are discernible for three lepocreadioid lineages: the Aephnidiogenidae Yamaguti, 1934, Gorgocephalidae Manter, 1966, and the Lepocreadiidae Odhner, 1905. However, the evolutionary origin for these patterns of host association remains unclear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-016-9655-7DOI Listing
September 2016

Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Trematoda: Transversotrematidae) from inshore fishes of Australia: description of a new species and significant range extensions for three congeners.

Syst Parasitol 2016 09 13;93(7):639-52. Epub 2016 Aug 13.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Four transversotrematid trematodes are reported from commercial teleost species in Australian waters. Transversotrema hunterae n. sp. is described from three species of Sillago Cuvier (Sillaginidae) from Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland. Molecular characterisation using ITS2 rDNA confirmed this stenoxenic specificity of Transversotrema hunterae n. sp., with identical sequence data from Sillago maculata Quoy & Gaimard, S. analis Whitley and S. ciliata Cuvier. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 28S rDNA data, demonstrates that T. hunterae n. sp. belongs to the 'Transversotrema licinum clade' and is most closely related to Transversotrema licinum Manter, 1970 and T. polynesiae Cribb, Adlard, Bray, Sasal & Cutmore, 2014, with the three species forming a well-supported clade in all analyses. We extend the known host and geographical ranges of three previously described Transversotrema species, T. licinum, T. elegans Hunter, Ingram, Adlard, Bray & Cribb, 2010 and T. espanola Hunter & Cribb, 2012. The new records represent significant range extensions for the three species and permit further examination of the patterns of biogeographical distribution in Australian waters. Host-specificity of Transversotrema species is examined, and the degree to which morphological analysis can inform taxonomic studies of this group is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-016-9658-4DOI Listing
September 2016

Three new species of blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting pufferfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae) from off Bali, Indonesia.

Parasitol Int 2016 Oct 18;65(5 Pt A):432-43. Epub 2016 May 18.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

We describe three new species of blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) and propose their classification within the genus Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929. All three species were collected from the circulatory systems of pufferfishes caught off Bali, central Indonesia. Psettarium pulchellum n. sp. was found in the gills of both the narrow-lined puffer (Arothron manilensis de Procé) and the spiny blaasop (Tylerius spinosissimus Regan), while P. ogawai n. sp. and P. jimbaranense n. sp. were found in the gills of the reticulated puffer (Arothron reticularis Bloch & Schneider). The morphological characteristics of these taxa necessitated emendation of the diagnosis for the genus Psettarium, to accommodate the presence of an oral sucker, multiple or entirely post-caecal testes and a degenerate posterior testis. Features such as proportion of body length occupied by the oesophagus, and posterior caeca being ≥7× the length of anterior caeca, are no longer regarded as useful genus-level characters. Additionally, Sasala nolani is reassigned to this genus as Psettarium nolani n. comb. In phylogenetic analyses of the 28S and ITS2 rDNA regions, all three new taxa form a well-supported clade, together with Psettarium sinense and Psettarium nolani n. comb., the two other species of tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids for which comparative rDNA data were available. The short branch lengths within this clade, despite dramatic morphological differences between the five species, suggest that rapid morphological diversification has occurred among the tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids. The genus Psettarium has long been considered problematic. Further commentary is given on the history of this genus and how the issues presented might be resolved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2016.05.011DOI Listing
October 2016

High-intensity cardiac infections of Phthinomita heinigerae n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) in the orangelined cardinalfish, Taeniamia fucata (Cantor), off Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef.

Parasitol Int 2016 Oct 14;65(5 Pt A):371-7. Epub 2016 May 14.

Centre for Sustainable Tropical Fisheries and Aquaculture, School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, PO Box 6811, Cairns 4878, Australia; Fish Health Laboratory, Department of Fisheries Western Australia, 3 Baron-Hay Court, South Perth 6151, Australia. Electronic address:

We report a new species of aporocotylid trematode (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) from the heart of the orangelined cardinalfish, Taeniamia fucata (Cantor), from off Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef. We used an integrated approach, analysing host distribution, morphology, and genetic data from the internal transcribed spacer 2 of the ribosomal DNA, to circumscribe Phthinomita heinigerae n. sp. This is the first species of Phthinomita Nolan & Cribb, 2006 reported from the Apogonidae; existing species and known 'types' are recorded from species of the Labridae, Mullidae, and Siganidae. The new species is distinguished from its 11 congeners in having a body 2977-3539 long and 16.5-22.4 times longer than wide, an anterior testis 6.2-8.2 times longer than wide and 8.3-13.0 times longer than the posterior testis, a posterior testis whose width is 35-56% of the body width, and an ovary positioned 11-13% of the body length from the posterior end, and is entirely anterior to the posterior margin of the anterior testis. In addition, 2-34 base differences (0.4-7.0% sequence divergence over 485 base positions) were detected among the ITS2 sequence representing P. heinigerae n. sp. and the 14 representing other Phthinomita species/molecular types. Prevalence and intensity of infection with P. heinigerae n. sp. was relatively high within the heart tissue of T. fucata, with 19 of 20 fish examined from off Heron Island infected (95%) with 7-25 adult worms (arithmetic mean 16.6). Infections by these parasites accounted for an occupation of 7-30% of the total estimated heart volume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2016.05.006DOI Listing
October 2016

Molecular approaches to trematode systematics: 'best practice' and implications for future study.

Syst Parasitol 2016 Mar 22;93(3):295-306. Epub 2016 Feb 22.

Department of Pathology and Pathogen Biology, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hatfield, AL9 7TA, UK.

To date, morphological analysis has been the cornerstone to trematode systematics. However, since the late-1980s we have seen an increased integration of genetic data to overcome problems encountered when morphological data are considered in isolation. Here, we provide advice regarding the 'best molecular practice' for trematode taxonomy and systematic studies, in an attempt to help unify the field and provide a solid foundation to underpin future work. Emphasis is placed on defining the study goals and recommendations are made regarding sample preservation, extraction methods, and the submission of molecular vouchers. We advocate generating sequence data from all parasite species/host species/geographic location combinations and stress the importance of selecting two independently evolving loci (one ribosomal and one mitochondrial marker). We recommend that loci should be chosen to provide genetic variation suitable to address the question at hand and for which sufficient 'useful' comparative sequence data already exist. Quality control of the molecular data via using proof-reading Taq polymerase, sequencing PCR amplicons using both forward and reverse primers, ensuring that a minimum of 85% overlap exists when constructing consensus sequences, and checking electropherograms by eye is stressed. We advise that all genetic results are best interpreted using a holistic biological approach, which considers morphology, host identity, collection locality, and ecology. Finally, we consider what advances next-generation sequencing holds for trematode taxonomy and systematics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-016-9631-2DOI Listing
March 2016

Trematodes of fishes of the Indo-west Pacific: told and untold richness.

Syst Parasitol 2016 Mar 22;93(3):237-47. Epub 2016 Feb 22.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, 4072, Australia.

The Indo-west Pacific is a marine bioregion stretching from the east coast of Africa to Hawaii, French Polynesia and Easter Island. An assessment of the literature from the region found reports of 2,582 trematode species infecting 1,485 fish species. Reports are concentrated in larger fishes, undoubtedly reflecting the tendency for larger hosts to be infected by more species of parasites as well as a collecting bias. Many hundreds of fish species, including many from families known to be rich in trematodes, have yet to be reported as hosts. Despite some areas (the Great Barrier Reef, Hawaii and the waters off China, India and Japan) receiving sustained attention, none can be considered to be comprehensively known. Several regions, most importantly in East Africa, French Polynesia and the Coral Triangle, are especially poorly known. The fauna of the Indo-west Pacific has been reported so unevenly that we consider it impossible to predict the true trematode richness for the region. We conclude that the greatest gap in our understanding is of the geographical distribution of species in the Indo-west Pacific. This is highlighted by the fact that 87% of trematodes in the region have been reported no more than five times. The reliable recognition of species is a major problem in this field; molecular approaches offer prospects for resolution of species identification but have been little adopted to date.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-016-9625-0DOI Listing
March 2016

Morphological and molecular data for three species of the Microphallidae (Trematoda: Digenea) in Australia, including the first descriptions of the cercariae of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948.

Folia Parasitol (Praha) 2015 Sep 16;62. Epub 2015 Sep 16.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Cercariae and metacercariae of three species of the Microphallidae Travassos, 1920 were found in snails and crustaceans from tributaries of the Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Specimens of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948, which have previously been reported in Queensland, were found as cercariae in the tateid gastropod Posticobia brazieri (Smith) and as metacercariae of M. brevisacciferum in the atyid shrimp Caridina indistincta Calman and of M. minutus in the parastacid crayfish Cherax dispar Reik. Combined analysis of morphological and molecular data, based on newly generated ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA data, linked cercariae and metacercariae for both species. This is the first report of the first intermediate hosts of M. brevisacciferum and M. minutus. Infections of another unidentified microphallid metacercariae, Microphallidae gen. sp., were found in P. brazieri and C. indistincta. The sequences of metacercarial isolates from both hosts were identical. The data on the Microphallidae from Australia and species that develop in freshwater invertebrates were examined in detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2015.053DOI Listing
September 2015

A review of the genus Antorchis Linton, 1911 (Trematoda: Faustulidae) from Indo-Pacific fishes with the description of a new species.

Syst Parasitol 2015 Sep 7;92(1):1-11. Epub 2015 Aug 7.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia,

Species of the faustulid genus Antorchis Linton, 1911 of the tropical Indo-West Pacific are reviewed. We recognise five species in the region, including a novel form. Antorchis nasonis n. sp. is described from Naso annulatus (Quoy & Gaimard) and N. tonganus (Valenciennes) on the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). We interpret specimens reported from Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker) from Japan as the same species. This species appears to be the only faustulid known from acanthurid fishes and differs from all other species in the genus in having the prominent dorsal genital invagination close to the posterior end of the body. In addition, new host and locality records are reported for two described species of Antorchis, A. pomacanthi (Hafeezullah & Siddiqi, 1970) and A. tsushimaensis (Machida, 1971). The wide distribution of A. pomacanthi was further demonstrated by the generation of identical ITS2 rDNA sequences for specimens from Ningaloo Reef off Western Australia, off Lizard and Heron Islands (GBR) and off New Caledonia, localities separated by up to 5,300 km. The host-specificity of the genus is considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-015-9579-7DOI Listing
September 2015

Dollfustrema durum n. sp. and Heterobucephalopsis perardua n. sp. (Digenea: Bucephalidae) from the giant moray eel, Gymnothorax javanicus (Bleeker) (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae), and proposal of the Heterobucephalopsinae n. subfam.

Parasitol Int 2015 Dec 18;64(6):559-70. Epub 2015 Jul 18.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Two new species of bucephalid trematode (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) are described from the giant moray eel, Gymnothorax javanicus (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae), from off Lizard Island, Australia. We used a combined morphological and molecular-based approach targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the D1-D3 region of the large subunit (28S) of rDNA to circumscribe the species. Dollfustrema durum n. sp. is distinguished from seven congeners in having 5-6 rows of enlarged body spines circling the anterior portion of the rhynchus. From the remaining 10 species, D. durum n. sp. differs in body length, and in having a caecum that terminates posteriorly to the confluent arc formed by the vitelline follicles, gonads predominantly anterior to the pharynx, testes in tandem, an anterior testis positioned posteriorly to the vitelline follicles, and the pre-vitelline field 23-40% of the body length. Heterobucephalopsis perardua n. sp. differs from Heterobucephalopsis gymnothoracis, the type- and only other reported species, in being two to three times smaller. Heterobucephalopsis, currently considered a genus inquirendum, is confirmed as valid and is rediagnosed. Bayesian inference analysis of 28S rDNA sequences representing 28 species from nine genera and four subfamilies of bucephalid, indicates that i) subfamily classifications previously based on morphological characters are broadly robust, ii) the sequence representing H. perardua n. sp. is resolved as distinct, and basal, to sequences representing the Bucephalinae, the Prosorhynchinae, the Paurorhynchinae, and the Dolichoenterinae, iii) the Dolichoenterinae and the Prosorhynchinae are monophyletic sister clades, basal to the Bucephalinae and the Paurorhynchinae, iv) sequences representing Grammatorcynicola, Prosorhynchus, and Dollfustrema are also monophyletic, v) the Bucephalinae is paraphyletic relative to the Paurorhynchinae, and vi) the bucephaline genera Prosorhynchoides, Rhipidocotyle, and Bucephalus are each polyphyletic. The morphological and molecular differences observed among the four previously recognised subfamilies in this study lead us to propose Heterobucephalopsinae n. subfam. to accommodate the genus Heterobucephalopsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2015.07.003DOI Listing
December 2015

A complex of species related to Paradiscogaster glebulae (Digenea: Faustulidae) in chaetodontid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) of the Great Barrier Reef.

Parasitol Int 2015 Oct 18;64(5):421-8. Epub 2015 Jun 18.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

A total of 1523 individuals of 34 species of chaetodontids from the Great Barrier Reef were examined for faustulid trematodes. Specimens resembling Paradiscogaster glebulae Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1994 were found in nine chaetodontid species at three localities. These specimens are shown, on the basis of combined morphological and molecular analyses, to comprise a complex of morphologically similar and partly cryptic species. The complex may comprise as many as six distinct species of which three are resolved here. The true P. glebulae is identified in Chaetodon ornatissimus Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon aureofasciatus Macleay, 1878, Chaetodon plebeius Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon rainfordi McCulloch, 1923 and Chaetodon speculum Cuvier, 1831. Two new species are described, Paradiscogaster munozae n. sp. from Heniochus varius (Cuvier, 1829), Heniochus chrysostomus Cuvier, 1831 and Chaetodon citrinellus Cuvier, 1831 and Paradiscogaster melendezi n. sp. from Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790. In terms of morphology the three species differ most clearly in the development of the appendages on the ventral sucker. The three species differ at 3-6consistent bp of ITS2 rDNA. The host-specificity of the three species differs strikingly. P. melendezi n. sp. infects just one fish species, P. glebulae infects species of only one clade of Chaetodon, and P. munozae n. sp. infects quite unrelated species. The basis of this unusual pattern of host-specificity requires further exploration. Two of the species recognised here, P. glebulae and P. munozae n. sp., showed apparent intra-individual variation in the ITS2 rDNA sequences as demonstrated by clear, replicated double peaks in the electropherograms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2015.06.004DOI Listing
October 2015
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