Publications by authors named "Csongor György Lengyel"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Knowledge, Practice, and Attitudes of Physicians in Low- and Middle-Income Countries on Fertility and Pregnancy-Related Issues in Young Women With Breast Cancer.

JCO Glob Oncol 2022 Jan;8:e2100153

Department of Medical Oncology, U.O. Clinica di Oncologia Medica, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy.

Purpose: Fertility and pregnancy-related issues are highly relevant for young (≤ 40 years) patients with breast cancer. Limited evidence exists on knowledge, practice, and attitudes of physicians from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) regarding these issues.

Methods: A 19-item questionnaire adapted from an international survey exploring issues about fertility preservation and pregnancy after breast cancer was sent by e-mail between November 2019 and January 2020 to physicians from LMICs involved in breast cancer care. Descriptive analyses were performed.

Results: A total of 288 physicians from Asia, Africa, America, and Europe completed the survey. Median age was 38 years. Responders were mainly medical oncologists (44.4%) working in an academic setting (46.9%). Among responders, 40.2% and 53.8% reported having never consulted the available international guidelines on fertility preservation and pregnancy after breast cancer, respectively. 25.0%, 19.1%, and 24.3% of responders answered to be not at all knowledgeable about embryo, oocyte, or ovarian tissue cryopreservation, respectively; 29.2%, 23.6%, and 31.3% declared that embryo, oocyte, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation were not available in their countries, respectively. 57.6% of responders disagreed or were neutral on the statement that controlled ovarian stimulation can be considered safe in patients with breast cancer. 49.7% and 58.6% of responders agreed or were neutral on the statement that pregnancy in breast cancer survivors may increase the risk of recurrence overall or only in those with hormone receptor-positive disease, respectively.

Conclusion: This survey showed suboptimal knowledge, practice, and attitudes of physicians from LMICs on fertility preservation and pregnancy after treatment completion in young women with breast cancer. Increasing awareness and education on these aspects are needed to improve adherence to available guidelines and to promote patients' oncofertility counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/GO.21.00153DOI Listing
January 2022

The Emerging Role of Liquid Biopsy in Gastric Cancer.

J Clin Med 2021 May 13;10(10). Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa 1560, Ethiopia.

(1) Background: Liquid biopsy (LB) is a novel diagnostic method with the potential of revolutionizing the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of several solid tumors. The present paper aims to summarize the current knowledge and explore future possibilities of LB in the management of metastatic gastric cancer. (2) Methods: This narrative review examined the most recent literature on the use of LB-based techniques in metastatic gastric cancer and the current LB-related clinical trial landscape. (3) Results: In gastric cancer, the detection of circulating cancer cells (CTCs) has been recognized to have a prognostic role in all the disease stages. In the setting of localized disease, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) qualitative and quantitative detection have the potential to inform on the risk of cancer recurrence and metastatic dissemination. In addition, gastric cancer-released exosomes may play an essential part in metastasis formation. In the metastatic setting, the levels of cfDNA show a positive correlation with tumor burden. There is evidence that circulating tumor microemboli (CTM) in the blood of metastatic patients is an independent prognostic factor for shorter overall survival. Gastric cancer-derived exosomal microRNAs or clonal mutations and copy number variations detectable in ctDNA may contribute resistance to chemotherapy or targeted therapies, respectively. There is conflicting and limited data on CTC-based PD-L1 verification and cfDNA-based Epstein-Barr virus detection to predict or monitor immunotherapy responses. (4) Conclusions: Although preliminary studies analyzing LBs in patients with advanced gastric cancer appear promising, more research is required to obtain better insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to systemic therapies. Moreover, validation and standardization of LB methods are crucial before introducing them in clinical practice. The feasibility of repeatable, minimally invasive sampling opens up the possibility of selecting or dynamically changing therapies based on prognostic risk or predictive biomarkers, such as resistance markers. Research is warranted to exploit a possible transforming area of cancer care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10102108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153353PMC
May 2021

Microsatellite Instability as a Predictor of Outcomes in Colorectal Cancer in the Era of Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors.

Curr Drug Targets 2021 ;22(9):968-976

Head and Neck Surgery, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary.

The microsatellite instable phenotype resulting from errors in DNA mismatch repair proteins accounts for as far as 15 to 20% of non-hereditary colon cancers but is scarce in rectal cancer. It has been shown that the increased existence of tumor-specific neoantigens in hypermutated tumors is correlated with higher tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and overexpression of immune checkpoint receptors and ligands, mainly PD-1 and PD-L1. In particular, the data gained up to now gives evidence that neoantigen recognition constitutes a dominant component in the course of immunotherapies. This review's primary objective is to describe current approvals and summarize present knowledge about the outcomes of immuno-oncology treatment of microsatellite instable colorectal cancer (CRC). The secondary objective is to give a narrative report about testing methodologies, prognostics, and the predictive value of microsatellite instability. For this purpose, a literature review was performed, focusing on published clinical trial results, ongoing clinical trials and timelines, testing methods, and prognostic and predictive value of MSI. Following four recent FDA approvals of immunotherapy of MSI-high CRC, further work should be warranted by pathology societies towards standardization and rising concordance and reproducibility across the IHC/MSI testing landscape in order to facilitate professionals to offer better survival options for patients with CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389450122666210325121322DOI Listing
November 2021

Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, Via Giacomo Venezian 1, 20133 Milano, Italy.

Platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (OC) has limited treatment options and is associated with a poor prognosis. There appears to be an overlap between molecular mechanisms responsible for platinum resistance and immunogenicity in OC. Immunotherapy with single agent checkpoint inhibitors has been evaluated in a few clinical trials with disappointing results. This has prompted exploration of immunotherapy combination strategies with chemotherapy, anti-angiogenics, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and other targeted agents. The role of immunotherapy in the treatment of platinum-resistant OC remains undefined. The aim of this review is to describe the immunobiology of OC and likely benefit from immunotherapy, discuss clinical trial data and biomarkers that warrant further exploration, as well as provide an overview of future drug development strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037571PMC
April 2021

The Potential of PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling as a Druggable Target for Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinomas.

Curr Drug Targets 2020 ;21(10):946-961

Department of Clinical Oncology, Bannu Institute Nuclear Medicine Oncology and Radiotherapy, Bannu, Pakistan.

Aims: In this narrative review, we summarize the role and significance of PI3K-AKTmTOR (PAM) pathway in ovarian and endometrial cancers, providing the most recent and relevant literature on the topic and addressing options for targeting PAM along with future perspectives of drug development.

Background: Alterations of the PAM-pathway are common in both endometrial and ovarian cancers, and are described in specific histology-defined subtypes. PAM seems to be involved in critical steps of endometrial and ovarian carcinogenesis, often mechanistically involved in the acquisition of a phenotype of treatment resistance, which could be targetable. However, early clinical trials with PAMinhibitors (PAMi) have provided disappointing results, particularly when non isoform-specific inhibitors were tested in unselected populations, accompanied by an adverse safety profile. Since then, more encouraging observations have been collected when targeting specific isoforms of PAM proteins with more selective drugs, resulting in encouraging activity and more manageable toxicity.

Conclusion: Although the rationale of inhibiting the PAM-pathway has been demonstrated in several promising preclinical studies, no Phase III clinical trial is available to demonstrate a significant benefit of PAM-inhibitors. A way to manage targeted agents is to tailor their use to particular subpopulations most likely to obtain a considerable benefit, namely pursuing an individualized, precision-medicine approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389450120666191120123612DOI Listing
July 2021

[Laser surgery of head and neck lesions at the National Institute of Oncology, Budapest].

Magy Onkol 2008 Jun;52(2):171-6

Országos Onkológiai Intézet Fej-Nyak-, Allcsont és Rekonstrukciós Sebészet, Onkológiai Helyreállító Plasztikai Sebészet és Lézersebészeti Osztály 1122 Budapest Ráth György u. 7-9.

In spite of the continued expansion of non-surgical therapeutic modalities surgery still plays an important role in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Parallel with the use of conventional approaches, more sophisticated surgical approaches, like the use of laser in oncologic surgery, appeared with a more favorable outcome. Laser is a precise surgical tool, particularly when coupled to an operating microscope (with a variable spot size micromanipulator), allowing microprecision and hemostatic ability. The benefits of the use of laser are: bloodless operation field, high hit probability, "no touch" technique, ablasticity, support of tissue repair, and the lack of edema and scar formation. Between 1981 and 2008, 7934 surgical procedures were performed at the Department of Head and Neck Surgery, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary. The aim is to present our results and experience with laser surgery of cutaneous lesions of the head and neck, oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal pathologies including cases of laryngotracheal stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/MOnkol.52.2008.2.5DOI Listing
June 2008
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