Publications by authors named "Crystal M Weyman"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Basal Signalling Through Death Receptor 5 and Caspase 3 Activates p38 Kinase to Regulate Serum Response Factor (SRF)-Mediated MyoD Transcription.

J Mol Signal 2020 May 8;14. Epub 2020 May 8.

Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, US.

We have previously reported that stable expression of a dominant negative Death Receptor 5 (dnDR5) in skeletal myoblasts results in decreased basal caspase activity and decreased mRNA and protein expression of the muscle regulatory transcription factor MyoD in growth medium (GM), resulting in inhibited differentation when myoblasts are then cultured in differentiation media (DM). Further, this decreased level of MyoD mRNA was not a consequence of altered message stability, but rather correlated with decreased acetylation of histones in the distal regulatory region (DRR) of the MyoD extended promoter known to control MyoD transcription. As serum response factor (SRF) is the transcription factor known to be responsible for basal MyoD expression in GM, we compared the level of SRF binding to the non-canonical serum response element (SRE) within the DRR in parental and dnDR5 expressing myoblasts. Herein, we report that stable expression of dnDR5 resulted in decreased levels of serum response factor (SRF) binding to the CArG box in the SRE of the DRR. Total SRF expression levels were not affected, but phosphorylation indicative of SRF activation was impaired. This decreased SRF phosphorylation correlated with decreased phosphorylation-induced activation of p38 kinase. Moreover, the aforementioned signaling events affected by expression of dnDR5 could be appropriately recapitulated using either a pharmacological inhibitor of caspase 3 or p38 kinase. Thus, our results have established a signaling pathway from DR5 through caspases to p38 kinase activation, to SRF activation and the basal expression of MyoD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/1750-2187-14-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7207250PMC
May 2020

MiR-644a Disrupts Oncogenic Transformation and Warburg Effect by Direct Modulation of Multiple Genes of Tumor-Promoting Pathways.

Cancer Res 2019 04 26;79(8):1844-1856. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Biological Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is defined by tumor microenvironment heterogeneity affecting intrinsic cellular mechanisms including dysregulated androgen signaling, aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), and aberrant activation of transcription factors including androgen receptor (AR) and c-Myc. Using , and animal models, we find a direct correlation between miR-644a downregulation and dysregulation of essential cellular processes. MiR-644a downregulated expression of diverse tumor microenvironment drivers including c-Myc, AR coregulators, and antiapoptosis factors Bcl-xl and Bcl2. Moreover, miR-644a modulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by directly targeting EMT-promoting factors ZEB1, cdk6, and Snail. Finally, miR-644a expression suppresses the Warburg effect by direct targeting of c-Myc, Akt, IGF1R, and GAPDH expression. RNA sequencing analysis revealed an analogous downregulation of these factors in animal tumor xenografts. These data demonstrate miR-644a mediated fine-tuning of oncogenesis, stimulating pathways and resultant potentiation of enzalutamide therapy in CRPC patients. SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that miR-644a therapeutically influences the CRPC tumor microenvironment by suppressing androgen signaling and additional genes involved in metabolism, proliferation, Warburg effect, and EMT, to potentiate the enzalutamide therapy. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/79/8/1844/F1.large.jpg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-2993DOI Listing
April 2019

The muscle regulatory transcription factor MyoD participates with p53 to directly increase the expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA.

Apoptosis 2017 Dec;22(12):1532-1542

Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, 44115, USA.

The muscle regulatory transcription factor MyoD is a master regulator of skeletal myoblast differentiation. We have previously reported that MyoD is also necessary for the elevated expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA, and the ensuing apoptosis, that occurs in a subset of myoblasts induced to differentiate. Herein, we report the identification of a functional MyoD binding site within the extended PUMA promoter. In silico analysis of the murine PUMA extended promoter revealed three potential MyoD binding sites within 2 kb of the transcription start site. Expression from a luciferase reporter construct containing this 2 kb fragment was enhanced by activation of MyoD in both myoblasts and fibroblasts and diminished by silencing of MyoD in myoblasts. Experiments utilizing truncated versions of this promoter region revealed that the potential binding site at position - 857 was necessary for expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis confirmed binding of MyoD to the DNA region encompassing position - 857. The increase in MyoD binding to the PUMA promoter as a consequence of culture in differentiation media (DM) was comparable to the increase in MyoD binding at the myogenin promoter and was diminished in myoblasts silenced for MyoD expression. Finally, ChIP analysis using an antibody specific for the transcription factor p53 demonstrated that, in myoblasts silenced for MyoD expression, p53 binding to the PUMA promoter was diminished in response to culture in DM. These data indicate that MyoD plays a direct role in regulating PUMA expression and reveal functional consequences of MyoD expression on p53 mediated transcription of PUMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10495-017-1423-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5693709PMC
December 2017

Targeting of Androgen Receptor Expression by Andro-miRs as Novel Adjunctive Therapeutics in Prostate Cancer.

J Cancer Ther 2013 Apr;4(4A):47-58

Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, USA; Department of Biological, Environmental Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, USA.

Prostate cancer begins as an androgen-responsive disease. However, subsequent accumulation of multiple sequential genetic and epigenetic alterations transforms the disease into an aggressive, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The monoallelic Androgen Receptor (AR) is associated with the onset, growth and development of Prostate cancer. The AR is a ligand-dependent transcription factor, and the targeting of androgen- and AR-signaling axis remains the primary therapeutic option for Prostate cancer (PCa) treatment. A durable and functional disruption of AR signaling pathways combining both traditional and novel therapeutics is likely to provide better treatment options for CRPC. Recent work has indicated that expression of AR is modulated at the posttranscriptional level by regulatory miRNAs. Due to a relatively long 3' untranslated region (UTR) of AR mRNA, the posttranscription expression is likely to be regulated by hundreds of miRNAs in normal as well as in disease state. The main objective of the article is to offer a thought-provoking concept of "andro-miRs" and their potential application in AR gene expression targeting. This new paradigm for targeting constitutively active AR and its tumor specific splicing isoforms using andro-miRs may pave the way for a novel adjunctive therapy and improved treatment of CRPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jct.2013.44A006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751888PMC
April 2013

IRES-mediated translation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA.

Translation (Austin) 2013 1;1(1):e24391. Epub 2013 Apr 1.

Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease; Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences; Cleveland State University; Cleveland, OH USA.

The proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member PUMA is a critical regulator of apoptosis. We have previously shown that PUMA plays a pivotal role in the apoptosis associated with skeletal myoblast differentiation and that a MyoD-dependent mechanism is responsible for the increased expression of PUMA in these cells. Herein, we report that the increased expression of PUMA under these conditions involves regulation at the level of translation. Specifically, we have found that the increase in PUMA protein levels occurs under conditions of decreased total protein synthesis, eIF2-alpha phosphorylation and hypophosphorylation of eIF4E-BP, suggesting that PUMA translation is proceeding via an alternative initiation mechanism. Polyribosome analysis of PUMA mRNA further corroborated this suggestion. A combination of in vitro and ex vivo (cellular) approaches has provided evidence suggesting that PUMA mRNA 5'UTR harbors an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) element. Using mono- and bi-cistronic reporter constructs, we have delineated an mRNA fragment that allows for cap-independent translation in vitro and ex vivo (in skeletal myoblasts) in response to culture in differentiation media (DM), or in response to treatment with the DNA-damaging agent, etoposide. This mRNA fragment also supports translation in HeLa and 293T cells. Thus, our data has revealed a novel IRES-mediated regulation of PUMA expression in several cell types and in response to several stimuli. These findings contribute to our understanding and potential manipulation of any developmental or therapeutic scenario involving PUMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/trla.24391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4718066PMC
January 2016

Increased expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA and apoptosis by the muscle regulatory transcription factor MyoD in response to a variety of stimuli.

Apoptosis 2010 Jan;15(1):71-82

Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Cleveland State University, Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA.

We have previously reported that the level of MyoD expression correlates with the level of apoptosis that occurs in a subpopulation of skeletal myoblasts induced to differentiate by serum withdrawal. Herein we document that MyoD expression contributes to the level of apoptosis in myoblasts and fibroblasts in response to a variety of apoptotic stimuli. Specifically, re-expression of MyoD in skeletal myoblasts rendered defective for both differentiation and apoptosis by the expression of oncogenic Ras restores their ability to undergo both differentiation and apoptosis in response to serum withdrawal. Further, using a fibroblast cell line expressing an estrogen receptor:MyoD fusion protein, we have determined that addition of estrogen sensitizes these fibroblasts to apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal, or by treatment with etoposide or thapsigargin. RNAi mediated silencing of MyoD in either 23A2 or C2C12 myoblasts renders these cells resistant to apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal, or by treatment with etoposide or thapsigargin. Finally, MyoD mediated regulation of the apoptotic response to these various stimuli, in both myoblasts and fibroblasts, correlates with the level of induction of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10495-009-0428-5DOI Listing
January 2010

Non-canonical role for the TRAIL receptor DR5/FADD/caspase pathway in the regulation of MyoD expression and skeletal myoblast differentiation.

Differentiation 2009 Nov 11;78(4):205-12. Epub 2009 Jun 11.

Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA.

We report herein that the TRAIL receptor DR5/FADD/caspase pathway plays a role in skeletal myoblast differentiation through modulation of the expression of the muscle regulatory transcription factor MyoD. Specifically, treatment with the selective caspase 3 inhibitor DEVD-fmk or the selective caspase 8 inhibitor IETD-fmk in growth media (GM), prior to culture in differentiation media (DM), inhibited differentiation. Further, this treatment resulted in decreased levels of MyoD message and protein. We next explored a role for the TRAIL receptor DR5/FADD pathway. We found that expression of either dominant negative (dn) FADD or dominant negative (dn) DR5 also resulted in decreased levels of MyoD mRNA and protein and blocked differentiation. This decreased level of MyoD mRNA was not a consequence of altered stability. Treatment with TSA, an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), allowed MyoD expression in myoblasts expressing dnDR5. Finally, acetylation of histones associated with the distal regulatory region (DRR) enhancer of MyoD was decreased in myoblasts expressing dnDR5. Thus, our data suggests a non-canonical role for the TRAIL receptor/FADD pathway in the regulation of MyoD expression and skeletal myoblast differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diff.2009.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2784740PMC
November 2009

Statins induce apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells through activation of JNK and enhancement of Bim expression.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2009 May 3;63(6):997-1005. Epub 2008 Sep 3.

The First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710061, Xi'an, China.

Purpose: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among all gynecological malignancies in Western countries. Although therapy for ovarian cancer has been greatly improved in the past 20 years, the overall survival for patients with advanced ovarian cancer has not changed significantly. The poor survival rates in patients with advanced ovarian cancer are due both to late diagnosis and to lack of effective drugs for the majority of patients who have a relapse and develop resistance to current chemotherapy agents used for ovarian cancer. Thus, developing and discovering effective novel drugs with different molecular structures from conventional chemotherapy agents have become an urgent clinical need.

Methods: Ovarian cancer cells were treated with lovastatin and atorvastatin. Apoptosis in these cells and tumor formation in soft agar were determined. The molecular mechanism by which statins suppress ovarian cancer cell growth was evaluated.

Results: Both lovastatin and atorvastatin effectively induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells and suppressed anchorage-independent growth of these cells in soft agar. Further investigation of the molecular mechanism has revealed that the expression of Cdc42 and Rac1, small GTPase family members, was highly induced in the cells by these statins along with the activation of Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). In addition, Bim, a proapoptotic protein, was significantly induced by these statins.

Conclusions: Our findings provide new insight into the molecular mechanism by which statins induce apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells and may lead to novel therapies for advanced ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-008-0830-7DOI Listing
May 2009

IFN-gamma induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells through decreased Bcl-2 and increased Bak expression.

J Interferon Cytokine Res 2008 Feb;28(2):65-72

Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA.

Interferons (IFNs) are pleiotropic cytokines responsible for inducing innate and adaptive immunities against a wide range of viruses and other microbial pathogens. In addition, IFNs also exert antitumor activities due to their antiproliferative, immunomodulatory, proapoptotic functions. In the last decades, the successful clinical application of IFNs for treatment of cancer, particularly leukemia, has improved the quality and longevity of life for many patients. The induction of tumor cell apoptosis by IFNs is believed to contribute, at least in part, to the beneficial effects. IFN subtypes, such as IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, and IFN-gamma, induce apoptosis through cell type-specific signaling pathways, and several putative IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) with proapoptotic functions have been identified. Here, we analyzed the ability of IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, or IFN-gamma to induce apoptosis in several malignant hematologic cell lines. We found that treatment with IFN-gamma, but not IFN-alpha, or IFN-beta, specifically induces HL-60 leukemia cells to undergo apoptosis. Roughly 30% of HL-60 cells treated for 48 h with IFN-gamma, but not IFN-gamma, or IFN-beta, underwent apoptosis as monitored by annexin V labeling to determine changes in phosphatidylserine (PS) asymmetry and TUNEL assay to detect DNA fragmentation. Consistent with these results, treatment with IFN-gamma, but not IFN-alpha or IFN-beta, induced the release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a well-characterized caspase-3 substrate. Further investigation into the potential mechanism responsible for mitochondrial disruption revealed that treatment with IFN-gamma caused decreased levels of Bcl-2 and increased levels of Bak. This study thus provides the basis for additional research to uncover the molecular mechanism by which IFN-gamma regulates the expression of Bcl-2 family members in various cell types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jir.2007.0025DOI Listing
February 2008

Increased expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA is required for mitochondrial release of cytochrome C and the apoptosis associated with skeletal myoblast differentiation.

Apoptosis 2007 Dec;12(12):2143-54

Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA.

We have previously shown that when skeletal myoblasts are cultured in differentiation medium (DM), roughly 30% undergo caspase 3-dependent apoptosis rather than differentiation. Herein, we investigate the molecular mechanism responsible for the activation of caspase 3 and the ensuing apoptosis. When 23A2 myoblasts are cultured in DM, caspase 9 activity is increased and pharmacological abrogation of caspase 9 activation impairs caspase 3 activation and apoptosis. Further, we detect a time dependent release of mitochondrial cytochrome C into the cytosol in roughly 30% of myoblasts. Inclusion of cycloheximide inhibits the release of cytochrome C, the activation of caspase 9 and apoptosis. These data indicate that the mitochondrial pathway plays a role in this apoptotic process and that engagement of this pathway relies on de novo protein synthesis. Through RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis, we have determined that the expression level of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA is elevated when 23A2 myoblasts are cultured in DM. Further, silencing of PUMA inhibits the release of cytochrome C and apoptosis. Signaling by the transcription factor p53 is not responsible for the increased level of PUMA. Finally, myoblasts rescued from apoptosis by either inhibition of elevated caspase 9 activity or silencing of PUMA are competent for differentiation. These results indicate a critical role for PUMA in the apoptosis associated with skeletal myoblast differentiation and that a p53-independent mechanism is responsible for the increased expression of PUMA in these cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10495-007-0135-zDOI Listing
December 2007

ADAMTS-like 2 (ADAMTSL2) is a secreted glycoprotein that is widely expressed during mouse embryogenesis and is regulated during skeletal myogenesis.

Matrix Biol 2007 Jul 30;26(6):431-41. Epub 2007 Mar 30.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Orthopaedic Research Center, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

ADAMTS-like 2 (ADAMTSL2), is a secreted protein resembling the ancillary domains of the ADAMTS proteases, but with distinct structural features. It has 7 thrombospondin type-1 repeats (TSRs), but an unusually long spacer module, which in both humans and mice, contains a novel insertion bearing six N-glycosylation sites. The ADAMTSL2 protein expressed in HEK293F and COS-1 cells, is a cell-surface and extracellular matrix binding glycoprotein, with N-linked carbohydrate constituting approximately 20% by mass. The 4.0 kb Adamtsl2 mRNA is found most abundantly in adult mouse liver, lung and spleen by northern blotting. During mouse embryogenesis, Adamtsl2 was expressed most strongly in the third week of gestation. Adamtsl2 mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in developing skeletal muscle, liver, bronchial and arterial smooth muscle, skin, intervertebral disc, perichondrium, pancreas and spinal cord. Immunohistochemical localization of ADAMTSL2 protein was similar to mRNA expression. Detection of Adamtsl2 mRNA and protein in developing skeletal myotubes, but not undifferentiated myogenic precursors led us to investigate its regulation during in vitro myogenic differentiation. In C2C12 and 23A2 myogenic cells, but not in 23A2 cells rendered non-myogenic by expression of G12V:H-Ras (9A2 cells), differentiation induced by serum starvation triggered expression of Adamtsl2 mRNA, coordinately with Myog, a marker of muscle differentiation. Furthermore, activation of the key myogenic determinant MyoD in 10T1/2 fibroblasts also triggered expression of Adamtsl2 mRNA. Collectively, the data suggest that induction of Adamtsl2 mRNA is an integral feature of myogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matbio.2007.03.003DOI Listing
July 2007

PKCalpha regulates phosphorylation and enzymatic activity of cPLA2 in vitro and in activated human monocytes.

Cell Signal 2007 Feb 25;19(2):359-66. Epub 2006 Jul 25.

Department of Cell Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) are potent regulators of the inflammatory response. We have observed that Group IV cPLA(2) activity is required for the production of superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) in human monocytes [Li Q., Cathcart M.K. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (4) (1997) 2404-2411.]. We have previously identified PKCalpha as a kinase pathway required for monocyte O(2)(-) production [Li Q., Cathcart M.K. J. Biol. Chem. 269 (26) (1994) 17508-17515.]. We therefore investigated the potential interaction between PKCalpha and cPLA(2) by evaluating the requirement for specific PKC isoenzymes in the process of activating cPLA(2) enzymatic activity and protein phosphorylation upon monocyte activation. We first showed that general PKC inhibitors and antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODN) to the cPKC group of PKC enzymes inhibited cPLA(2) activity. To distinguish between PKCalpha and PKCbeta isoenzymes in regulating cPLA(2) protein phosphorylation and enzymatic activity, we employed our previously characterized PKCalpha or PKCbeta isoenzyme-specific antisense ODN [Li Q., Subbulakshmi V., Fields A.P., Murray, N.R., Cathcart M.K., J. Biol. Chem. 274 (6) (1999) 3764-3771]. Suppression of PKCalpha expression, but not PKCbeta expression, inhibited cPLA(2) protein phosphorylation and enzymatic activity. Additional studies ruled out a contribution by Erk1/2 to cPLA(2) phosphorylation and activation. We also found that cPLA(2) co-immunoprecipitated with PKCalpha and vice versa. In vitro studies demonstrated that PKCalpha could directly phosphorylate cPLA(2).and enhance enzymatic activity. Finally, we showed that addition of arachidonic acid restored the production of O(2)(-) in monocytes defective in either PKCalpha or cPLA(2) expression. Taken together, our data suggest that PKCalpha, but not PKCbeta, is the predominant cPKC isoenzyme required for cPLA(2) protein phosphorylation and maximal induction of cPLA(2) enzymatic activity upon activation of human monocytes. Our data also support the concept that the requirements for PKCalpha and cPLA(2) in O(2)(-) generation are solely due to their seminal role in generating arachidonic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2006.07.007DOI Listing
February 2007

Differential signaling through NFkappaB does not ameliorate skeletal myoblast apoptosis during differentiation.

FEBS Lett 2003 Jun;545(2-3):246-52

Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA.

During 23A2 skeletal myoblast differentiation, roughly 30% of the population undergoes apoptosis. Further, constitutive signaling by G12V:H-Ras or Raf:CAAX abrogates this apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrate an increase in NFkappaB activity in myoblasts that have survived and are expressing muscle-specific genes. NFkappaB activity is also elevated in myoblasts expressing constitutively active G12V:H-Ras but not Raf:CAAX. Expression of a dominant negative IkappaB (IkappaB-SR) sufficient to eliminate this elevated level of NFkappaB activity, in either the 23A2 myoblasts or their G12V:H-Ras-expressing counterparts, however, does not affect survival. Furthermore, expression of a constitutively active IkappaB kinase in 23A2 myoblasts does not protect these cells from the apoptosis associated with differentiation. Since signaling by IkappaB kinase can abrogate differentiation, this result demonstrates that abrogated differentiation and abrogated apoptosis are separable phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0014-5793(03)00571-4DOI Listing
June 2003

Raf-induced effects on the differentiation and apoptosis of skeletal myoblasts are determined by the level of Raf signaling: abrogation of apoptosis by Raf is downstream of caspase 3 activation.

Oncogene 2002 Aug;21(34):5268-79

Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, OH 44115, USA.

We examined the effect of a constitutively active Raf protein (Raf-CAAX) on the differentiation and the coincident apoptosis of skeletal myoblasts. We found that a low level of Raf signaling leads to accelerated differentiation when compared to parental myoblasts, while a higher level of Raf signaling induces a transformed morphology and abrogates both differentiation and the coincident apoptosis. Raf signaling abrogates apoptosis without blocking the activation of caspase 3 and the subsequent cleavage of caspase 3 substrates. Eliminating the signal from Raf through MEK does not restore the ability to differentiate or to undergo apoptosis in the myoblasts with a high level of Raf signal, nor does it abrogate the accelerated differentiation observed in myoblasts with lower levels of Raf signal. Constitutive signaling through MEK is required, however, to maintain a transformed morphology. These results indicate that the effect of Raf on the differentiation and apoptosis of skeletal myoblasts is dictated by the level of Raf signaling, and that Raf signaling sufficient to abrogate the apoptosis coincident with differentiation does so downstream of caspase 3 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1205648DOI Listing
August 2002