Dr.  Cristy Phillips, PT, MSPT, SCCD, EdD - Arkansas State University - Assistant Professor

Dr. Cristy Phillips

PT, MSPT, SCCD, EdD

Arkansas State University

Assistant Professor

Jonesboro , AR | United States

Main Specialties: Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

Additional Specialties: Rehabilitation

ORCID logohttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-0849-9822

Dr.  Cristy Phillips, PT, MSPT, SCCD, EdD - Arkansas State University - Assistant Professor

Dr. Cristy Phillips

PT, MSPT, SCCD, EdD

Introduction

Dr. Cristy Phillips is an Associate Professor at AState, an Associated faculty member with the University of Tennessee Health Sciences, and CEO of a physical therapy company. Her research interest is integrating neurobiology and rehab medicine to solve unmet clinical problems, including how to utilize physical activity to mitigate neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disease. Her work has appeared in several top-tier journals, including Neuroscience

Primary Affiliation: Arkansas State University - Jonesboro , AR , United States

Specialties:

Additional Specialties:

Education

Aug 2008 - May 2013
Arkansas State University
Doctorate
Education

Experience

Aug 2012
Arkansas State University
Assistant Professor
Physical Therapy

Publications

23Publications

110Reads

47Profile Views

94PubMed Central Citations

Immune and Neuroprotective Effects of Physical Activity On the Brain in Depression

Fronteirs in Neuroscience. 2018. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2018.00498

Frontiers in Neuroscience

Physical activity—a lifestyle factor that is associated with immune function, neuroprotection, and energy metabolism—modulates the cellular and molecular processes in the brain that are vital for emotional and cognitive health, collective mechanisms that can go awry in depression. Physical activity optimizes the stress response, neurotransmitter level and function (e.g., serotonergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic), myokine production (e.g., interleukin-6), transcription factor levels and correlates [e.g., peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor C coactivator-1α [PGC-1α], mitochondrial density, nitric oxide pathway activity, Ca2+ signaling, reactive oxygen specie production, and AMP-activated protein kinase [AMPK] activity], kynurenine metabolites, glucose regulation, astrocytic health, and growth factors (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor). Dysregulation of these interrelated processes can effectuate depression, a chronic mental illness that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Although the biogenic amine model has provided some clinical utility in understanding chronic depression, a need remains to better understand the interrelated mechanisms that contribute to immune dysfunction and the means by which various therapeutics mitigate them. Fortunately, convergent evidence suggests that physical activity improves emotional and cognitive function in persons with depression, particularly in those with comorbid inflammation. Accordingly, the aims of this review are to (1) underscore the link between inflammatory correlates and depression, (2) explicate immuno-neuroendocrine foundations, (3) elucidate evidence of neurotransmitter and cytokine crosstalk in depressive pathobiology, (4) determine the immunomodulatory effects of physical activity in depression, (5) examine protocols used to effectuate the positive effects of physical activity in depression, and (6) highlight implications for clinicians and scientists. It is our contention that a deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which inflammation contributes to the pathobiology of depression will translate to novel and more effective treatments, particularly by identifying relevant patient populations that can benefit from immune-based therapies within the context of personalized medicine.

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July 2018
4 Reads

Mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of NMDA receptor modulators in mood disorders

Ghasemi, M., Phillips, C., Fahimi, A., McNerney, M.W., Salehi, A. 2017 Mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of NMDA receptor modulators in mood disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 80: 555-572.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev

Although the biogenic amine models have provided meaningful links between clinical phenomena and pharmacological management of mood disorders (MDs), the onset of action of current treatments is slow and a proportion of individuals fail to adequately respond. A growing number of investigations have focused on the glutamatergic system as a viable target. Herein we review the putative role of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) signaling in the pathophysiology of MDs. Prompting this focus are several lines of evidence: 1) altered glutamate and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) expression and functioning; 2) antidepressant effects of NMDAR signaling blockers; 3) interaction between conventional therapeutic regimens and NMDAR signaling modulators; 4) biochemical evidence of interaction between monoaminergic system and NMDAR signaling; 5) interaction between neurotrophic factors and NMDAR signaling in mood regulation; 6) cross-talk between NMDAR signaling and inflammatory processes; and 7) antidepressant effects of a number of NMDA modulators in recent clinical trials. Altogether, these studies establish a warrant for the refinement of novel compounds that target glutamatergic mechanisms for the treatment of MDs

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Ghasemi%2C+Phillips%2C+Fahimi%2C+Salehi

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July 2017
3 Reads

Noradrenergic System in Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease A Target for Therapy.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2016 ;13(1):68-83

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, 3801 Miranda Ave, 151Y, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567205012666150921095924DOI Listing
September 2016
9 Reads
10 Citations
3.890 Impact Factor

A Special Regenerative Rehabilitation and Genomics Letter: Is There a "Hope" Molecule?

Phys Ther 2016 Apr;96(4):581-3

A. Salehi, MD, PhD, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2522/ptj.2016.96.4.581DOI Listing
April 2016
16 Reads
2 Citations
2.530 Impact Factor

A Special Regenerative Rehabilitation and Genomics Letter: Is There a "Hope" Molecule?

Authors:
Phillips C. Salehi A

Apr;96(4):581-3

Physical Therapy

We are delighted to see the dedication of a special series to regenerative rehabilitation and genomics. There is no doubt that an increased focus on genetically driven responses to injury, disease, and aging will enhance prevention and treatment efforts for a number of conditions. Among those well-positioned to benefit from this progress are individuals with mood disorders, which has prompted us to alert our colleagues about recent progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie musculoskeletal and central nervous system interdependence, knowledge that may be deployed to prevent and treat stress-related depression in the near future.

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April 2016
5 Reads

The 10 Hz Frequency: A Fulcrum For Transitional Brain States

Trans Brain Rhythm

A 10 Hz rhythm is present in the occipital cortex when the eyes are closed (alpha waves), in the precentral cortex at rest (mu rhythm), in the superior and middle temporal lobe (tau rhythm), in the inferior olive (projection to cerebellar cortex), and in physiological tremor (underlying all voluntary movement). These are all considered resting rhythms in the waking brain which are "replaced" by higher frequency activity with sensorimotor stimulation. That is, the 10 Hz frequency fulcrum is replaced on the one hand by lower frequencies during sleep, or on the other hand by higher frequencies during volition and cognition. The 10 Hz frequency fulcrum is proposed as the natural frequency of the brain during quiet waking, but is replaced by higher frequencies capable of permitting more complex functions, or by lower frequencies during sleep and inactivity. At the center of the transition shifts to and from the resting rhythm is the reticular activating system, a phylogenetically preserved area of the brain essential for preconscious awareness.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27547831

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March 2016
3 Reads

Noradrenergic System in Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease A Target for Therapy.

13(1):68-83.

Current Alzheimers Research

Locus coeruleus (LC) neurons in the brainstem send extensive noradrenergic (NE)-ergic terminals to the majority of brain regions, particularly those involved in cognitive function. Both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS) are characterized by similar pathology including significant LC degeneration and dysfunction of the NE-ergic system. Extensive loss of NE-ergic terminals has been linked to alterations in brain regions vital for cognition, mood, and executive function. While the mechanisms by which NE-ergic abnormalities contribute to cognitive dysfunction are not fully understood, emergent evidence suggests that rescue of NE-ergic system can attenuate neuropathology and cognitive decline in both AD and DS. Therapeutic strategies to enhance NE neurotransmission have undergone limited testing. Among those deployed to date are NE reuptake inhibitors, presynaptic α-adrenergic receptor antagonists, NE prodrugs, and β-adrenergic agonists. Here we examine alterations in the NE-ergic system in AD and DS and suggest that NE-ergic system rescue is a plausible treatment strategy for targeting cognitive decline in both disorders.

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March 2016
6 Reads

Pedunculopontine Gamma Band Activity and Development.

Brain Sci 2015 Dec 3;5(4):546-67. Epub 2015 Dec 3.

Department of Physical Therapy, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, AR 72476, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci5040546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4701027PMC
December 2015
4 Reads
1 Citation

Pedunculopontine Gamma Band Activity and Development.

Dec 3;5(4):546-67

Brain Science

This review highlights the most important discovery in the reticular activating system in the last 10 years, the manifestation of gamma band activity in cells of the reticular activating system (RAS), especially in the pedunculopontine nucleus, which is in charge of waking and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The identification of different cell groups manifesting P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels that control waking vs. those that manifest N-type channels that control REM sleep provides novel avenues for the differential control of waking vs. REM sleep. Recent discoveries on the development of this system can help explain the developmental decrease in REM sleep and the basic rest-activity cycle.

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December 2015
7 Reads

The Link Between Physical Activity and Cognitive Dysfunction in Alzheimer Disease.

Phys Ther 2015 Jul 8;95(7):1046-60. Epub 2015 Jan 8.

A. Salehi, MD, PhD, VA Palo Alto Health Care System and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Stanford University.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20140212DOI Listing
July 2015
58 Reads
12 Citations
2.530 Impact Factor

Assessment of dendritic arborization in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal region in mice.

J Vis Exp 2015 Mar 31(97). Epub 2015 Mar 31.

VA Palo Alto Health Care System; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine;

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/52371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4401398PMC
March 2015
3 Reads
2 Citations

The role of NMDA receptors in the pathophysiology and treatment of mood disorders.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2014 Nov 16;47:336-58. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.08.017DOI Listing
November 2014
10 Reads
18 Citations
8.802 Impact Factor

Neurotransmitter-based strategies for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in Down syndrome.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2014 Oct 17;54:140-8. Epub 2014 May 17.

VA Palo Alto Health Care System, 3801 Miranda Ave., Palo Alto, CA, USA; Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94304, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.05.004DOI Listing
October 2014
8 Reads
4 Citations
3.690 Impact Factor

Neuroprotective effects of physical activity on the brain: a closer look at trophic factor signaling.

Front Cell Neurosci 2014 20;8:170. Epub 2014 Jun 20.

VA Palo Alto Health Care System Palo Alto, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2014.00170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4064707PMC
July 2014
2 Reads
45 Citations
4.290 Impact Factor

Skin pH Changes Associated With Iontophoresis

1999 Nov;29(11):656-60

Journal of Orthopedic Sports Medicine

STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. The researcher measuring skin pH was blinded to group assignment. OBJECTIVES: To compare the skin surface pH changes associated with iontophoresis. The investigation was designed to address the question of whether significant skin pH changes occur under the cathode on the skin surface when performing iontophoresis and assessed the influence of different electrode-buffering systems intended to stabilize skin pH (surface). BACKGROUND: Whether buffers are needed to stabilize skin pH during iontophoresis has not been thoroughly addressed in the literature. The effectiveness of immobile resins versus simple phosphate buffers is also unclear. METHODS AND MEASURES: Sixty volunteer subjects were administered iontophoresis of normal saline using buffered or nonbuffered electrode systems. Each subject participated in 1 of the 12 doses by electrode conditions (i.e., 5 subjects per group). Surface skin pH was measured before and after iontophoresis with a flat-surface pH electrode in concert with an analog pH meter. The independent variables were electrode type (4 levels) and dosage (3 levels). The dependent variable was the change in skin surface pH. RESULTS: A significant change in skin pH was found only when the treatment dose was 80 mA/minute with a nonbuffered electrode (x = 3.14 +/- 1.09). CONCLUSIONS: The skin pH changes that occur during a properly delivered iontophoresis treatment at dosages of 20 and 40 mA/min were small and not significantly different with or without the addition of buffers. Those pH changes associated with 80 mA/min doses were significantly greater when no buffer was employed but were stabilized by each of the buffers used in the study (preloaded immobile resins or simple phosphates added at point of treatment).

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November 1999
5 Reads