Publications by authors named "Cristina R Antonescu"

380 Publications

Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma-like tumors in male with JAZF1 gene fusions.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is a hormone-responsive low-grade sarcoma typically occurring in the uterine corpus in women. Their genetic hallmarks are recurrent gene fusions involving JAZF1, partnering with either SUZ12 gene or less commonly with PHF1. Low-grade ESS-like sarcoma, or endometrioid stromal sarcoma, is exceptionally rare in males and has been reported to date only in two cases, one in the paratesticular area and the other of prostatic stromal origin. We report herein two new cases of low-grade ESS-like sarcoma in male patients, one presenting as a periprostatic/peri-rectal mass with a JAZF1-GLI3 fusion, while the other as a paratesticular mass with a JAZF1-PHF1 fusion. As the GLI3 fusion appeared novel, we searched the transcriptional signature of 35 low-grade ESS from our archives and found a similar JAZF1-GLI3 fusion in a low-grade ESS arising from the uterine corpus, supporting a common pathogenesis. Histopathologically, both cases demonstrate cellular, monotonous proliferation of ovoid to fusiform cells with a background of arteriolar vascular network. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells express ER, PR, and CD10, similar to ESS. One case also expresses diffuse and strong AR. On follow-up, the patient with the periprostatic mass recurred 2 years after initial surgery with peritoneal "sarcomatosis." We describe the salient diagnostic morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features and discuss the differential diagnosis and possible pathogenesis of this unusual entity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.23003DOI Listing
October 2021

HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) recommendations for the designation of gene fusions.

Leukemia 2021 Oct 6. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Division of Clinical Genetics, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Gene fusions have been discussed in the scientific literature since they were first detected in cancer cells in the early 1980s. There is currently no standardized way to denote the genes involved in fusions, but in the majority of publications the gene symbols in question are listed either separated by a hyphen (-) or by a forward slash (/). Both types of designation suffer from important shortcomings. HGNC has worked with the scientific community to determine a new, instantly recognizable and unique separator-a double colon (::)-to be used in the description of fusion genes, and advocates its usage in all databases and articles describing gene fusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01436-6DOI Listing
October 2021

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors with BRAF gene fusions. A report of two cases showing low or absent KIT expression resulting in diagnostic pitfalls.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 Dec 25;60(12):789-795. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

Although most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) exhibit activating mutations in either KIT or PDGFRA, rare cases have shown to be driven by gene fusions involving kinases, mainly involving NTRK3, and rarely BRAF or FGFR1. BRAF gene rearrangements have been described in only two patients to date, as separate case reports. In addition, BRAF V600E mutation is an uncommon but established oncogenic pathway in GIST. In this report, we describe two new GIST cases harboring novel BRAF fusion genes, arising in two young-adult women (37 and 40 years of age) in the small bowel and distal esophagus, both with a spindle cell phenotype. The small bowel GIST measured 2.8 cm and showed a high cellularity and a mitotic rate of 20/50 HPFs, while the esophageal lesion measured 7 cm and 1/50 HPFs. Immunohistochemically, both tumors showed diffuse reactivity for DOG1, while KIT/CD117 was weakly positive in the small bowel GIST and completely negative in the esophageal tumor. Based on these findings, the latter case was misinterpreted as a low-grade myxoid leiomyosarcoma, as it showed a myxoid stroma, reactivity for SMA and focal positivity for desmin. Archer FusionPlex revealed a fusion between BRAF with either AGAP3 or MKRN1 gene partners. Moreover, MSK-IMPACT DNA targeted sequencing confirmed both fusions but did not identify additional mutations. In one case with available material, the BRAF gene rearrangement was also validated by FISH. The recognition of BRAF fusion-positive GISTs is critical as it may be associated with a low level of KIT expression and may result in diagnostic challenges with significant impact on therapeutic management. The clinical benefit with KIT inhibitors, such as imatinib, remains to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22991DOI Listing
December 2021

Intimal sarcomas and undifferentiated cardiac sarcomas carry mutually exclusive MDM2, MDM4, and CDK6 amplifications and share a common DNA methylation signature.

Mod Pathol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of General Pathology, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Undifferentiated mesenchymal tumors arising from the inner lining (intima) of large arteries are classified as intimal sarcomas (ISA) with MDM2 amplification as their molecular hallmark. Interestingly, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPS) of the heart have recently been suggested to represent the cardiac analog of ISA due to morphological overlap and high prevalence of MDM2 amplifications in both neoplasms. However, little is known about ISAs and cardiac UPS without MDM2 amplifications and molecular data supporting their common classification is sparse. Here, we report a series of 35 cases comprising 25 ISAs of the pulmonary artery, one ISA of the renal artery and 9 UPS of the left atrium. Tumors were analyzed utilizing the Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip array, enabling copy number profile generation and unsupervised DNA methylation analysis. DNA methylation patterns were investigated using t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) analysis. Histologically, all ISAs and UPS of the left atrium resembled extra-cardiac UPS. All cases exhibited highly complex karyotypes with overlapping patterns between ISA and UPS. 29/35 cases showed mutually exclusive amplifications in the cell-cycle associated oncogenes MDM2 (25/35), MDM4 (2/35), and CDK6 (2/35). We further observed recurrent co-amplifications in PDGFRA (21/35), CDK4 (15/35), TERT (11/35), HDAC9 (9/35), and CCND1 (4/35). Sporadic co-amplifications occurred in MYC, MYCN, and MET (each 1/35). The tumor suppressor CDKN2A/B was frequently deleted (10/35). Interestingly, DNA methylation profiling (t-SNE) revealed an overlap of ISA and cardiac UPS. This "ISA" methylation signature was distinct from potential histologic and molecular mimics. In conclusion, our data reveal MDM4 and CDK6 amplifications in ISAs and UPS of the left atrium, lacking MDM2 amplification. We further report novel co-amplifications of various oncogenes, which may have therapeutic implications. Finally, the genetic and epigenetic concordance of ISAs and UPS of the left atrium further supports a shared pathogenesis and common classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00874-yDOI Listing
July 2021

A unique epithelioid vascular neoplasm of bone characterized by EWSR1/FUS-NFATC1/2 fusions.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 Nov 6;60(11):762-771. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

An increasing number of epithelioid vascular lesions, in particular tumors from the benign and low-grade end of the spectrum, have been characterized by recurrent gene fusions. As a result, the detection of these molecular markers have improved the classification of diagnostically challenging cases. However, despite the significant progress, there are occasional lesions that do not fit in known histologic or molecular groups. Herein, we present five such unclassified epithelioid vascular lesions, which occurred in the bone and showed a distinct morphology composed of alternating vasoformative and solid growth and mild to moderate nuclear pleomorphism. The variegated morphologic appearance resembled that of composite hemangioendothelioma, being distinct from both epithelioid hemangioma and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, and consistently showed cytologic atypia. Due to their unusual morphologic appearance and negative molecular work-up, targeted transcriptome sequencing was performed in two cases showing the presence of NFATC2 fusions with either EWSR1 or FUS genes. Three additional bone tumors with EWSR1 gene rearrangements were identified by FISH screening of a large cohort of 45 fusion-negative epithelioid vascular neoplasms, one fused to NFATC2 while two others to NFATC1. There were three females and two males, with a wide age range at presentation, mean of 44 years. The lesions occurred in the pelvis, maxillary sinus, and humerus. Two patients presented with polyostotic disease, both located in the pelvic bones. Two patients had available follow-up, one developed two local recurrences in the humerus over a 15-year period, while the other showed no recurrence 4 years subsequent to an en-bloc resection. Tumors were positive for CD31 and ERG, while negative for EMA, CK, synaptophysin, and chromogranin. FISH confirmed this abnormality in all cases, none of them being associated with gene amplifications. Further studies are needed to establish the pathogenetic relationship of this rare molecular subset with other epithelioid vascular tumors and to determine its clinical behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22984DOI Listing
November 2021

Generation of human embryonic stem cell models to exploit the EWSR1-CREB fusion promiscuity as a common pathway of transformation in human tumors.

Oncogene 2021 Aug 30;40(32):5095-5104. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Chromosomal translocations constitute driver mutations in solid tumors and leukemias. The mechanisms of how related or even identical gene fusions drive the pathogenesis of various tumor types remain elusive. One remarkable example is the presence of EWSR1 fusions with CREB1 and ATF1, members of the CREB family of transcription factors, in a variety of sarcomas, carcinomas and mesotheliomas. To address this, we have developed in vitro models of oncogenic fusions, in particular, EWSR1-CREB1 and EWSR1-ATF1, in human embryonic stem (hES) cells, which are capable of multipotent differentiation, using CRISPR-Cas9 technology and HDR together with conditional fusion gene expression that allows investigation into the early steps of cellular transformation. We show that expression of EWSR1-CREB1/ATF1 fusion in hES cells recapitulates the core gene signatures, respectively, of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) and gastrointestinal clear cell sarcoma (GI-CCS), although both fusions lead to cell lethality. Conversely, expression of the fusions in hES cells differentiated to mesenchymal progenitors is compatible with prolonged viability while maintaining the core gene signatures. Moreover, in the context of a mesenchymal lineage, the proliferation of cells expressing the EWSR1-CREB1 fusion is further extended by deletion of the tumor suppressor TP53. We expect the generation of isogenic lines carrying oncogenic fusions in various cell lineages to expand our general understanding of how those single genetic events drive tumorigenesis while providing valuable resources for drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01843-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364490PMC
August 2021

PLAG1-rearrangment in a uterine leiomyosarcoma with myxoid stroma and heterologous differentiation.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 Oct 8;60(10):713-717. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

A variety of molecular alterations have been reported in uterine leiomyosarcomas, but most are considered nondiagnostic. There are, however, rare exceptions including PLAG1 rearrangement which has recently been identified in a subset of myxoid leiomyosarcomas. A 41-year-old woman presented with symptoms of a fibroid. She underwent a myomectomy which revealed a high-grade uterine sarcoma with areas of myxoid stroma and heterologous elements. The tumor expressed desmin, smooth muscle actin, H-caldesmon, and estrogen and progesterone receptors. RNA sequencing revealed a novel TRIM13-PLAG1 fusion gene which was subsequently independently confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. On further evaluation the patient was found to have multiple pulmonary metastases and died due to disease progression shortly after diagnosis. This report describes a novel fusion partner of PLAG1 in a uterine leiomyosarcoma with myxoid leiomyosarcoma and heterologous elements, thereby broadening the spectrum of morphologic and genetic findings within this rare group of neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22980DOI Listing
October 2021

Targeted RNA sequencing in the routine clinical detection of fusion genes in salivary gland tumors.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 Oct 8;60(10):695-708. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Salivary gland tumors represent a diverse group of neoplasms that occasionally pose a diagnostic challenge for pathologists, particularly with limited sampling. Gene fusions, which may reflect genetic drivers, are increasingly recognized in a subset of these neoplasms, and can be leveraged for diagnostic purposes. We performed a retrospective analysis on a cohort of 80 benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, enriched for subtypes known to harbor recurrent fusion events, to validate the diagnostic use of a targeted RNA sequencing assay to detect fusion transcripts. Testing identified fusion genes in 71% (24/34) of pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma-ex-pleomorphic adenoma, with 56% of cases showing rearrangement of PLAG1 and 15% HMGA2. In addition to confirming known partners for these genes, novel PLAG1 fusion partners were identified, including DSTN, NTF3, and MEG3; CNOT2 was identified as a novel fusion partner for HMGA2. In adenoid cystic carcinoma, 95% of cases (19/20) were positive for a fusion event. MYB was rearranged in 60% (12/20), MYBL1 in 30% (6/20), and NFIB in 5% (1/20); two tumors exhibited novel fusion products, including NFIB-TBPL1 and MYBL1-VCPIP1. Fusion genes were identified in 64% (9/14) of cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma; MAML2 was confirmed to partner with either CRTC1 (43%) or CRTC3 (21%). One salivary duct carcinoma was found to harbor a novel RAPGEF6-ACSL6 fusion gene. Finally, as anticipated, gene fusions were not detected in any of the five acinic cell carcinomas included in the cohort. In summary, targeted RNA sequencing represents a diagnostically useful ancillary technique for identifying a variety of existing, and novel, fusion transcripts in the classification of salivary gland neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22979DOI Listing
October 2021

The impact of MYC gene amplification on the clinicopathological features and prognosis of radiation-associated angiosarcomas of the breast.

Histopathology 2021 Nov 5;79(5):836-846. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, USA.

Aims: Radiation-associated angiosarcomas (RT-ASs) of the breast are rare tumours with a poor prognosis. MYC gene amplification is considered to be the hallmark of RT-AS, and is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool to distinguish it from other radiation-associated vascular lesions. However, a small subset of RT-ASs lacks MYC amplification, and this may be associated with better outcome. Loss of trimethylation at lysine 27 of histone 3 (H3K27me3) expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been recently postulated as an additional diagnostic marker for RT-AS. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impact of MYC amplification as detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation and/or next-generation sequencing on clinicopathological features and outcome in a large cohort of RT-ASs, compare outcome with those of radiation-associated sarcomas (RT-Ss) of the breast other than angiosarcoma, and evaluate expression of H3K27me3 IHC in these groups.

Methods And Results: Eighty-one RT-ASs were identified, including 73 that were MYC-amplified and 8 (10%) that were MYC-non-amplified. MYC-amplified RT-ASs were diagnosed in older patients (median age, 69 years versus 61 years). The 5-year disease-specific survival and 5-year overall survival rates were 56% and 47%, respectively. Older age, larger tumour size, positive margin and MYC amplification were associated with worse prognosis. None of the RT-ASs showed complete loss of H3K27me3 IHC expression. All 18 RT-Ss were MYC-non-amplified, and complete loss of H3K27me3 expression was seen in 2 cases. We found no difference in prognosis between RT-AS and RT-S.

Conclusions: RT-AS of the breast is associated with a poor prognosis. Older age at diagnosis, larger tumour size, positive margin at excision and MYC amplification are associated with worse prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14433DOI Listing
November 2021

Uterine PEComas: correlation between melanocytic marker expression and TSC alterations/TFE3 fusions.

Mod Pathol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Uterine PEComas often present a diagnostic challenge as they share morphological and immunohistochemical features with smooth muscle tumors. Herein we evaluated a series of 19 uterine PEComas to compare the degree of melanocytic marker expression with their molecular profile. Patients ranged from 32-77 (median 48) years, with six tumors classified as malignant based on the modified gynecologic-specific prognostic algorithm. All patients with malignant PEComas were alive with disease or dead  of disease at last follow-up, while all those of uncertain malignant potential were alive and well (median follow-up, 47 months).Seventeen of 19 (89%) PEComas harbored either a TSC1 or TSC2 alteration. One of the two remaining tumors showed a TFE3 rearrangement, but the other lacked alterations in all genes evaluated. All showed at least focal (usually strong) positivity for HMB-45, with 15/19 (79%) having >50% expression, while the tumor lacking TSC or TFE3 alterations was strongly positive in 10% of cells. Melan-A and MiTF were each positive in 15/19 (79%) tumors, but staining extent and intensity were much more variable than HMB-45. Five of six (83%) malignant PEComas also harbored alterations in TP53, ATRX, or RB1, findings not identified in any tumors of uncertain malignant potential. One malignant PEComa was microsatellite-unstable/mismatch repair protein-deficient.In summary, TSC alterations/TFE3 fusions and diffuse (>50%) HMB-45 expression are characteristic of uterine PEComas. In morphologically ambiguous mesenchymal neoplasms with myomelanocytic differentiation, especially those with metastatic or recurrent disease, next-generation sequencing is recommended to evaluate for TSC alterations; as such, patients can be eligible for targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00855-1DOI Listing
June 2021

A Novel NIPBL-NACC1 Gene Fusion Is Characteristic of the Cholangioblastic Variant of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 11;45(11):1550-1560

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

We report a novel NIPBL-NACC1 gene fusion in a rare primary hepatic neoplasm previously described as the "cholangioblastic variant of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma." The 2 index cases were identified within our consultation files as morphologically distinctive primary hepatic neoplasms in a 24-year-old female and a 54-year-old male. The neoplasms each demonstrated varied architecture, including trabecular, organoid, microcystic/follicular, and infiltrative glandular patterns, and biphasic cytology with large, polygonal eosinophilic cells and smaller basophilic cells. The neoplasms had a distinctive immunoprofile characterized by diffuse labeling for inhibin, and patchy labeling for neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin and synaptophysin) and biliary marker cytokeratin 19. RNA sequencing of both cases demonstrated an identical fusion of NIBPL exon 8 to NACC1 exon 2, which was further confirmed by break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for each gene. Review of a tissue microarray including 123 cases originally diagnosed as well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm at one of our hospitals resulted in identification of a third case with similar morphology and immunophenotype in a 52-year-old male, and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization probes confirmed rearrangement of both NIPBL and NACC1. Review of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) sequencing data and digital images from 36 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (www.cbioportal.org) revealed one additional case with the same gene fusion and the same characteristic solid, trabecular, and follicular/microcystic architectures and biphasic cytology as seen in our genetically confirmed cases. The NIPBL-NACC1 fusion represents the third type of gene fusion identified in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and correlates with a distinctive morphology described herein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8516671PMC
November 2021

Sarcomas with sclerotic epithelioid phenotype harboring novel EWSR1-SSX1 fusions.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 Sep 18;60(9):616-622. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Undifferentiated sarcomas remain difficult to classify. Despite the remarkable advances in sarcoma classification made by the increased application of RNA sequencing in clinical practice, the unexpected result of a novel gene fusion raises further questions regarding the tumor histogenesis and subclassification. In this study, we present two high grade sarcomas with epithelioid phenotype occurring in the deep-soft tissues (shoulder, thigh) of young adults which based on the non-specific pathologic findings were deemed unclassified and subjected to targeted RNA sequencing for further diagnostic interpretation. The results showed an identical EWSR1 exon 7-SSX1 exon 5 fusion. The breakpoints in both genes represent similar hot spots as seen in Ewing sarcoma and synovial sarcoma, generating a fusion transcript predicted to be in frame, and to retain the same protein domains within the fusion oncoprotein. These results were further confirmed by FISH analysis for both break-apart and fusion come-together assays in both genes. Both tumors showed a round to epithelioid morphology associated with extensive stromal hyalinization and necrosis. One case showed scattered psammomatous calcifications. The tumors shared a similar immunoprofile, including reactivity for EMA, CK, TLE1, BCOR, and CD99, while negative for S100, SOX10, CD34, SMA, and desmin. Both cases showed MUC4 positivity (one diffuse, one patchy), while one case showed patchy ALK positivity. One patient developed lymph node metastases, while the other showed no evidence of disease at 6-month follow-up. Neither case fit in any known pathologic categories. Larger series are needed to interrogate if the presence of EWSR1-SSX1 fusion defines a novel pathologic entity of a sarcoma with epithelioid cytomorphology, sclerotic stroma, and epithelial differentiation immunohistochemically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266753PMC
September 2021

Recurrent YAP1-TFE3 Gene Fusions in Clear Cell Stromal Tumor of the Lung.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 11;45(11):1541-1549

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Clear cell (hemangioblastoma-like) stromal tumor of the lung (CCST-L) is a recently described distinctive rare pulmonary neoplasm of unknown histogenesis and molecular pathogenesis. Only 7 cases have been reported in 2 recent studies, although additional cases might have been reported under the heading of extraneural pulmonary hemangioblastoma. We herein describe 4 CCST-L cases, 3 of them harboring a YAP1-TFE3 fusion. The fusion-positive tumors occurred in 3 women, aged 29, 56, and 69 years. All presented with solitary lung nodules measuring 2.3 to 9.5 cm. Histologically, all tumors showed similar features being composed of relatively uniform medium-sized epithelioid to ovoid cells with clear cytoplasm and small round monomorphic nuclei. Scattered larger cells with enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei and marked pleomorphism were noted in 2 cases. The tumors were associated with a hypervascularized stroma with variable but essentially subtle resemblance to capillary hemangioblastoma and perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa). Immunohistochemistry was negative for all lineage-specific markers. Targeted RNA sequencing showed a YAP1-TFE3 fusion in 3 of 4 cases. All 3 tumors showed homogeneous nuclear TFE3 immunoreactivity. Two patients were disease free at 36 and 12 months. The third patient had biopsy-proven synchronous renal and hepatic metastases, but extended follow-up is not available (recent case). The fourth case lacking the fusion affected a 66-year-old woman and showed subtle histologic differences from the fusion-positive cases, but had comparable TFE3 immunoreactivity. CCST-L represents a distinctive entity unrelated to hemangioblastoma and likely driven by recurrent YAP1-TFE3 fusions in most cases. The relationship of our cases to the recently reported "hemangioblastoma-like" CCST-L remains to be determined. Analysis of larger series is paramount to delineate the morphologic spectrum and biological behavior of this poorly characterized entity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8516668PMC
November 2021

Unclassified low grade spindle cell sarcoma with storiform pattern characterized by recurrent novel EWSR1/FUS-NACC1 fusions.

Mod Pathol 2021 08 15;34(8):1541-1546. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Despite extraordinary advances in the molecular characterization of soft tissue tumors as a result of the widespread application of next generation sequencing in clinical practice, a subset of lesions remain difficult to diagnose. In this study we describe 3 unclassified spindle cell sarcomas with a monomorphic cytomorphology and distinctive storiform growth, characterized by novel fusions between EWSR1 or FUS1, and NACC1 genes. The tumors occurred in 3 young adult females (age range: 29-31) involving deep soft tissues, two located in the lower extremity and one in the abdominal wall. All three tumors showed patchy positivity for S100 protein, while being negative for SOX10 and retained H3K27me3 expression. All cases were negative for epithelial or muscle markers. As the findings were non-specific, molecular studies using targeted panels of RNA sequencing were performed, including one case tested by TruSight RNA Fusion Panel and 2 cases by Archer FusionPlex. The results showed 2 cases were positive for FUS-NACC1 and one for EWSR1-NACC1 fusions. These findings were further confirmed by FISH using custom BAC probes for a dual-color fusion assay. These results suggest the possibility of a previously undescribed soft tissue neoplasm characterized by a uniform spindle cell phenotype arranged in a storiform and fascicular pattern, expressing S100 protein and harboring NACC1-related fusions. The biologic behavior of this tumor remains to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00805-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298288PMC
August 2021

Anti-IL17 antibody Secukinumab therapy is associated with ossification in giant cell tumor of bone: a case report of pathologic similarities and therapeutic potential similar to Denosumab.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Apr 1;22(1):320. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave., New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Background: Giant cell tumor of bone is a benign, locally aggressive neoplasm. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment method. However, for cases in which resection poses an increased risk to the patient, denosumab (anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody) is considered. Secukinumab is an anti-IL-17 antibody that is used in psoriatic arthritis to reduce bone resorption and articular damage.

Case Presentation: One case of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) in a patient treated with secukinumab for psoriatic arthritis demonstrated findings significant for intra-lesional calcifications. Histologic examination showed ossification, new bone formation, and remodeling. A paucity of osteoclast type giant cells was noted. Real-time quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed decreased osteoclast function compared to treatment-naive GCTB.

Conclusions: Secukinumab may play a role in bone remodeling for GCTB. Radiologists, surgeons, and pathologists should be aware of this interaction, which can cause lesional ossification. Further research is required to define the therapeutic potential of this drug for GCTB and osteolytic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04182-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8015053PMC
April 2021

RREB1-MKL2 fusion in a spindle cell sinonasal sarcoma: biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma or ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor in an unusual site?

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 Aug 10;60(8):565-570. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma (BSNS) is a rare, low grade spindle cell sarcoma, recently recognized in the WHO classification of head and neck tumors, which is characterized by a dual myogenic and neural differentiation and recurrent gene fusions, often involving PAX3-MAML3, and less commonly PAX3 fusions with other partners such as NCOA1, NCOA2, or WWTR1. Yet, in about 4% of tumors no gene rearrangements are identified. Herein, we describe a RREB1-MKL2 fusion in a BSNS lesion occurring in a 73-year-old female patient with a right maxillo-ethmoidal angle lesion. The polypoid, moderately cellular tumor with infiltrative submucosal growth was composed of fascicles of relatively bland spindle cells embedded in a loose collagenous matrix. The tumor cells showed moderate amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm with indistinct borders and uniform, pale, ovoid to slender nuclei. The slowly proliferating neoplastic cells co-expressed smooth muscle actin and S100, and showed focal nuclear positivity for ß-catenin, while lacking staining for cytokeratins, desmin, myogenin, caldesmon, glial fibrillary acid protein, and SOX-10. Molecular analysis by targeted RNA-based next-generation sequencing identified an in-frame fusion between exon 8 of RREB1 and exon 11 of MKL2, a genetic event that was reported to be a molecular hallmark of ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor. Gene rearrangements in both genes were independently verified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). To evaluate its recurrent potential an additional group of 15 fusion negative BSNS were tested for abnormalities in RREB1 and MKL2 genes by FISH, but no additional positive cases were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22948DOI Listing
August 2021

Hybrid schwannoma-perineurioma frequently harbors VGLL3 rearrangement.

Mod Pathol 2021 06 1;34(6):1116-1124. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Benign peripheral nerve tumors include schwannoma, neurofibroma, and perineurioma, as well as a recently recognized group of tumors with dual patterns of differentiation. The molecular pathogenesis of these so-called "hybrid" tumors remains poorly understood. Following identification of a novel CHD7-VGLL3 fusion gene in a hybrid schwannoma-perineurioma, we evaluated an expanded cohort of this tumor-type-as well as tumors with VGLL3 rearrangement identified from a curated molecular database-to characterize the prevalence of fusion genes among these tumors. Eighteen tumors met the inclusion criteria for this study. RNA sequencing identified VGLL3 rearrangement in 14 of these cases; the partner genes included CHD7 (ten cases), CHD9 (two cases), and MAMLD1 (two cases). Two cases possessed altogether unrelated fusions, including: DST-BRAF and SQSTM1-CDX1 fusion genes. Finally, two cases lacked identifiable fusion products. These findings highlight the molecular diversity of these neoplasms, with frequent rearrangement of VGLL3. More importantly, despite their dual pattern of differentiation, our results reveal the pathogenesis of hybrid schwannoma-perineurioma is unrelated to conventional schwannoma and perineurioma, thereby implying this tumor represents an altogether pathologically distinct entity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00783-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154639PMC
June 2021

Recurrent MEIS1-NCOA2/1 fusions in a subset of low-grade spindle cell sarcomas frequently involving the genitourinary and gynecologic tracts.

Mod Pathol 2021 06 11;34(6):1203-1212. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Sarcomas with MEIS1-NCOA2 fusions have been so far reported in 2 cases each of primitive renal sarcomas and intraosseous pelvic rhabdomyosarcomas. Their histologic spectrum, anatomic distribution, and clinical behavior remain poorly defined. In this study, we report 6 additional spindle cell sarcomas with MEIS1-NCOA2 or NCOA1 fusions that fall into the same disease spectrum with the previously reported renal sarcomas. The patients' age range was wide (20-76 years, mean 46) and all except one were female. The tumors arose in the kidney (n = 2), and one each in the uterine corpus, vagina, scrotum, and para-rectal region. The consistent morphology was that of monomorphic spindle to ovoid cells in a storiform, whorling, or solid pattern. Alternating cellularity, myxoid stroma, and microcystic changes were seen in some cases. Mitotic activity varied greatly (<1-33/10 high power fields). The immunophenotype was nonspecific, with most cases expressing variable degrees of TLE1, WT1, cyclin D1, CD56, and CD10. Using various platforms of RNA-based targeted sequencing, MEIS1-NCOA2 fusions were recurrently identified in 5 cases, and a novel MEIS1-NCOA1 fusion was found in one renal tumor. The gene fusions were validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom BAC probes. Of the 5 patients with available follow-up (5 months to 8 years), all experienced local recurrences, but no distant spread or death from disease. Our results expand the clinicopathologic spectrum of sarcomas with MEIS1-NCOA2/1 fusions, providing evidence of an undifferentiated spindle cell phenotype with nonspecific immunoprofile and low-grade clinical behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00744-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207504PMC
June 2021

Hyalinizing epithelioid tumors with OGT-FOXO fusions. A case report of a non-acral soft tissue mass harboring a novel FOXO4 gene rearrangement.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 Jul 2;60(7):498-503. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

Recurrent fusions between OGT and members of the Forkhead box (FOXO) family of genes have been recently described in three cases of hyalinizing epithelioid acral soft tissue tumors in young adults showing co-expression for EMA and CD34. Despite the lack of an established myoepithelial lineage by immunohistochemistry, these lesions have been labeled as myoepithelioma-like due to their epithelioid phenotype and sclerotic background. In this study, we report a novel FOXO4-OGT fusion identified by targeted RNA sequencing in an unclassified shoulder soft tissue mass in a 40-year-old male. The tumor showed nodular foci of increased cellularity in a uniformly hyalinized background. The neoplastic cells were mainly epithelioid and focally spindled, with eosinophilic cytoplasm and indented nuclei with mild atypia. The tumor lacked significant mitotic activity and necrosis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor showed variable positivity for EMA, pan-CK, CD34, ERG and FLI1, while it was negative for CD31, S100, SOX10, desmin, and MUC4. INI1 expression was retained. Due to its unusual histology and conflicting immunoprofile, TruSight RNA fusion panel sequencing was performed which revealed a fusion between FOXO4 exon 2 to OGT exon 2. This is the first example of a soft tissue lesion harboring OGT-related fusions occurring in a non-acral location and associated with FOXO4 gene. Its line of differentiation and biologic potential remain uncertain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243563PMC
July 2021

Pediatric Mesothelioma With ALK Fusions: A Molecular and Pathologic Study of 5 Cases.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 05;45(5):653-661

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Pediatric mesotheliomas are rare and their pathogenesis remains undefined. In this study, we report 5 cases of malignant mesothelioma in children, characterized by fusions involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. Four cases occurred in females involving the abdominal cavity and were characterized by a pure epithelioid morphology. The fifth arose in the tunica vaginalis of a 15-year-old male and displayed a biphasic epithelioid-sarcomatoid phenotype. All cases demonstrated the classic morphologic and immunohistochemical features of malignant mesothelioma, including tubulopapillary architecture and cuboidal epithelioid cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and uniform nuclei with vesicular chromatin. Immunohistochemically, all cases showed labeling for ALK, cytokeratins, WT1, and calretinin, while lacking expression of adenocarcinoma immunomarkers. Four cases demonstrated weak-moderate labeling for PAX8 protein, which resulted in diagnostic challenges with primary peritoneal serous carcinoma. The ALK genetic abnormalities were investigated by a combination of molecular methods. Archer FusionPlex was performed in 2 cases, showing fusions between ALK with either STRN or TPM1 genes, resulting in a transcript that retained the ALK kinase domain. One case was further studied by DNA targeted sequencing, but no additional genetic alterations were observed. In 1 case, cytogenetic analysis showed the presence of a t(2;15)(p23;q22) and fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the ALK gene break-apart. In the remaining 2 cases, ALK gene rearrangements were demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Unlike adult mesotheliomas, which are tightly linked to asbestos exposure, often show loss of BAP1 expression and have complex karyotypes, ALK-rearranged mesothelioma appears to be similar to other fusion-positive mesotheliomas, such as those harboring EWSR1/FUS-ATF1 fusions, sharing significant morphologic overlap, occurring in young patients and displaying a simple, translocation-driven genetic profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035308PMC
May 2021

A Poorly Differentiated Non-keratinizing Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with a Novel ETV6-TNFRSF8 Fusion Gene.

Head Neck Pathol 2021 Jan 4. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal tract is relatively rare and morphologically and genetically heterogeneous. We report the case of an adult male with a left sphenoid sinus mass. A biopsy revealed an undifferentiated carcinoma composed of sheets of epithelioid cells lacking keratinization and glandular formation. The tumor was associated with a prominent lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltrate. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated diffuse expression of pankeratin and p63; it was negative for p16. In addition, EBER was also negative. Morphologically the findings raised the possibility of non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. RNA sequencing was undertaken to exclude the possibility of NUT carcinoma; interestingly, this revealed a novel ETV6-TNFRSF8 fusion transcript, which was independently confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The current case is illustrative because it broadens our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and adds to the diversity of ETV6-rearranged malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12105-020-01249-6DOI Listing
January 2021

Head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma with TFCP2 fusions and ALK overexpression: a clinicopathological and molecular analysis of 11 cases.

Histopathology 2021 Sep 19;79(3):347-357. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Aims: Primary intraosseous rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare entity defined by EWSR1/FUS-TFCP2 or, less commonly, MEIS1-NCOA2 fusions. The lesions often show a hybrid spindle and epithelioid phenotype, frequently coexpress myogenic markers, ALK, and cytokeratin, and show a striking propensity for the pelvic and craniofacial bones. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological and molecular features of 11 head and neck RMSs (HNRMSs) characterised by the genetic alterations described in intraosseous RMS.

Methods And Results: The molecular abnormalities were analysed with fluorescence in-situ hybridisation and/or targeted RNA/DNA sequencing. Seven cases had FUS-TFCP2 fusions, four had EWSR1-TFCP2 fusions, and none had MEIS1-NCOA2 fusions. All except one case were intraosseous, affecting the mandible (n = 4), maxilla (n = 3), and skull (n = 3). One case occurred in the superficial soft tissue of the neck. The median age was 29 years (range, 16-74 years), with an equal sex distribution. All tumours showed mixed epithelioid and spindle morphology. Immunohistochemical coexpression of desmin, myogenin, MyoD1, ALK, and cytokeratin was seen in most cases. An intragenic ALK deletion was seen in 43% of cases. Regional and distant spread were seen in three and four patients, respectively. Two patients died of their disease.

Conclusions: We herein present the largest series of HNRMSs with TFCP2 fusions to date. The findings show a strong predilection for the skeleton in young adults, although we also report an extraosseous case. The tumours are characterised by a distinctive spindle and epithelioid phenotype and a peculiar immunoprofile, with coexpression of myogenic markers, epithelial markers, and ALK. They are associated with a poor prognosis, including regional or distant spread and disease-related death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243398PMC
September 2021

Cover page-"Advances in the molecular characterization of mesenchymal neoplasms of the gynecologic tract".

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 03 30;60(3):127-128. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Sinai Health System, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22930DOI Listing
March 2021

Novel GATA6-FOXO1 fusions in a subset of epithelioid hemangioma.

Mod Pathol 2021 05 14;34(5):934-941. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

The genetic hallmark of epithelioid hemangioma (EH) is the presence of recurrent gene fusions involving FOS and FOSB transcription factors, which occur in one-third of the cases. Certain clinical, pathologic, and genotypic correlations have been described, with FOS-related fusions being more often detected in skeletal and cellular variants of EH, while FOSB gene rearrangements are more commonly associated with atypical histologic features and penile location. These fusions are infrequently detected in the cutaneous or head and neck EH. Overall, two-thirds of EH lack these canonical fusions and remain difficult to classify, especially when associated with atypical features and/or clinical presentations. Triggered by an index case of an intravascular soft tissue EH with a novel GATA6-FOXO1 gene fusion by targeted RNA sequencing (Archer® FusionPlex® Sarcoma Panel), we have investigated 27 additional EH cases negative for FOS and FOSB gene rearrangements for this novel abnormality to determine its recurrent potential, and its association with clinical and pathologic features. Four additional EH cases were found to display GATA6-FOXO1 fusions (18%). There were three females and two males, with a mean age of 32 years old. Three lesions occurred in the head and neck (dura, nasopharyngeal, and cheek), one in the back and one in the leg. Two of these lesions were cutaneous and one was intravascular in the subcutis of the leg. Microscopically, the tumors showed a variegated morphology, with alternating vasoformative and solid components, extravasated red blood cells and mild to moderate cytologic atypia. None showed brisk mitotic activity or necrosis. Tumors were negative for FOS and FOSB by immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, we report a new GATA6-FOXO1 fusion in a subset of EH, with a predilection for skin, and head and neck location. The relationship of this novel molecular subset with the more common FOS/FOSB fusion-positive EH remains to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-00723-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076054PMC
May 2021

Pediatric fibromyxoid soft tissue tumor with PLAG1 fusion: A novel entity?

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 Apr 30;60(4):263-271. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

The classification of undifferentiated soft tissue tumors continues to evolve with the expanded application of molecular analysis in clinical practice. We report three cases of a unique soft tissue tumor in young children (5 months to 2 years old) displaying a purely fibromyxoid histology, with positive staining for desmin and CD34. In two cases, RNA sequencing detected a YWHAZ-PLAG1 gene fusion, while in the third case, a previously unreported EEF1A1-PLAG1 fusion was identified. PLAG1 fusions have been reported in several pathologic entities including pleomorphic adenoma, myoepithelial tumors of skin and soft tissue, and lipoblastoma, the latter occurring preferentially in young children. In these tumors, expression of a full length PLAG1 protein comes under the control of the constitutively active promoter of the partner gene in the fusion, and the current cases conform to that model. Overexpression of PLAG1 was confirmed by diffusely positive immunostaining for PLAG1 in all three cases. Our findings raise the possibility of a novel fibromyxoid neoplasm in childhood associated with these rare PLAG1 fusion variants. The only other report of a PLAG1-YWHAZ fusion occurred in a pediatric tumor diagnosed as a "fibroblastic lipoblastoma." This finding raises the possibility of a relationship with our three cases, even though our cases lacked any fat component. Further studies with regard to a shared pathogenesis are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358975PMC
April 2021

Clinical Outcome of Leiomyosarcomas With Somatic Alteration in Homologous Recombination Pathway Genes.

JCO Precis Oncol 2020 6;4. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: To detect alterations in DNA damage repair (DDR) genes, measure homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), and correlate these findings with clinical outcome in patients with leiomyosarcoma (LMS).

Patients And Methods: Patients with LMS treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) Cancer Center who consented to prospective targeted next-generation sequencing with MSK-IMPACT were screened for oncogenic somatic variants in one of 33 DDR genes; where feasible, an experimental HRD score was calculated from IMPACT data. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated after stratifying patients by DDR gene alteration status and HRD score.

Results: Of 211 patients with LMS, 20% had an oncogenic DDR gene alteration. Univariable analysis of PFS in 117 patients who received standard frontline chemotherapy in the metastatic setting found that an altered homologous recombination pathway gene was significantly associated with shorter PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.79; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.07; = .035). Non- homologous recombination gene alteration was associated with shorter PFS (HR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.35 to 5.04; = .004) compared with -altered and wild-type homologous recombination genes. Univariable analysis of OS from diagnosis in the entire cohort of 211 patients found that age, tumor size, number of metastatic sites, localized disease, and non- homologous recombination gene alteration were significantly associated with OS. On multivariable analysis, non- homologous recombination pathway gene alteration remained significant (HR, 4.91; 95% CI, 2.47 to 9.76; < .001). High HRD score was not associated with a different PFS or OS.

Conclusion: Patients with LMS with homologous recombination pathway gene alterations have poor clinical outcomes, particularly those with non- gene alterations. HRD score calculated from a targeted exome panel did not discern disparate clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.20.00122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713532PMC
November 2020

Prognostic Factors After Neoadjuvant Imatinib for Newly Diagnosed Primary Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor.

J Gastrointest Surg 2021 07 9;25(7):1828-1836. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction: Neoadjuvant imatinib (Neo-IM) therapy may facilitate R0 resection in primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) that are large or in difficult anatomic locations. While response to preoperative tyrosine kinase inhibitors is associated with better outcome in metastatic GIST, little is known about prognostic factors after Neo-IM in primary GIST.

Study Design: Patients with primary GIST with or without synchronous metastases who underwent Neo-IM were retrospectively analyzed from a prospective maintained institutional database for Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), tumor viability, and mitotic rate. Overall survival (OS) was estimated by Kaplan-Meier and compared by log-rank test. Cox proportionate hazard models were used for univariate and multivariate analysis.

Results: One hundred and fifty patients were treated for a median of 7.1 months (range 0.2-160). By RECIST, partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease were seen in 40%, 51%, and 9%, respectively. By pathologic analysis, ≤ 50% of the tumor was viable in 72%, and the mitotic rate was ≤ 5/50HPF in 74%. On multivariate analysis, RECIST response and tumor viability were not associated with OS, while post-treatment high mitotic rate (hazard ratio (HR) for death 5.3, CI 2.3-12.4), R2 margins (HR 6.0, CI 2.3-15.5), and adjuvant imatinib (HR 0.4, CI 0.2-0.9) were (p < 0.05). Five-year OS was 81 vs. 38% for low vs. high mitotic rate; 81, 59, and 39% for R0, R1, and R2 margins; and 75 vs 61% for adjuvant vs. no adjuvant imatinib therapy (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: In primary GIST undergoing Neo-IM therapy, progression was uncommon, but substantial down-sizing occurred in the minority. High tumor mitotic rate and incomplete resection following Neo-IM were associated with poor outcome, while adjuvant imatinib was associated with prolonged survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-020-04843-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8386278PMC
July 2021

Targeted RNA expression profiling identifies high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma as a clinically relevant molecular subtype of uterine sarcoma.

Mod Pathol 2021 05 19;34(5):1008-1016. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

High-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (HGESS) may harbor YWHAE-NUTM2A/B fusion, ZC3H7B-BCOR fusion, and BCOR internal tandem duplication (ITD). NTRK3 upregulation and pan-Trk expression were reported in soft tissue lesions that share similar morphology and genetic abnormalities. To confirm these findings in HGESS, differential expression analysis was performed at gene level comparing 11 HGESS with 48 other uterine sarcomas, including 9 low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, 23 undifferentiated uterine sarcomas, and 16 leiomyosarcomas, using targeted RNA sequencing data. Pan-Trk immunohistochemistry was performed on 35 HGESS, including 10 tumors with RNA expression data, with genotypes previously confirmed by targeted RNA sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and/or genomic PCR. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the top 25% of differentially expressed probes identified three molecular groups: (1) high NTRK3, FGFR3, RET, BCOR, GLI1, and PTCH1 and low ESR1 expression; (2) low NTRK3, FGFR3, RET, BCOR, GLI1, and PTCH1 and high ESR1 expression; and (3) low NTRK3, FGFR3, RET, BCOR, GLI1, PTCH1, and ESR1 expression. Among HGESS, 64% of tumors clustered in group 1, while 27% clustered in group 2. Cytoplasmic and/or nuclear pan-Trk staining of variable extent and intensity was seen in 91% of HGESS regardless of cyclin D1 and/or BCOR positivity. ER and PR expression was seen in 44% of HGESS despite ESR1 downregulation. Two patients with ER and PR positive but ESR1 downregulated stage I HGESS were treated with endocrine therapy, and both recurred at 12 and 36 months after primary resection. By RNA expression, HGESS appear homogenous and distinct from other uterine sarcomas by activation of kinases, including NTRK3, and sonic hedgehog pathway genes along with downregulation of ESR1. Most HGESS demonstrate pan-Trk staining which may serve as a diagnostic biomarker. ESR1 downregulation is seen in some HGESS that express ER and PR which raises implications in the utility of endocrine therapy in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-00705-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Epithelioid hemangioma of bone harboring FOS and FOSB gene rearrangements: A clinicopathologic and molecular study.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 01 9;60(1):17-25. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Departments of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

The diagnosis of epithelioid hemangioma (EH) remains challenging due to its rarity, worrisome histologic features, and locally aggressive clinical and radiographic presentation. Especially in the bone, EH can be misdiagnosed as a malignant vascular neoplasm due its lytic, often destructive or multifocal growth, as well as atypical morphology. The discovery of recurrent FOS and FOSB gene fusions in the pathogenesis of most EH has strengthened its stand-alone classification, distinct from other malignant epithelioid vascular lesions, such as epithelioid hemangioendothelioma or angiosarcoma. In this study we investigate a group of molecularly confirmed skeletal EH by the presence of FOS or FOSB gene rearrangements to better define its clinical and pathologic characteristics within a homogenous molecular subset. The cohort included 38 patients (25 males, 13 females), with a mean age at diagnosis of 38 years (range, 4-75). Regional, multifocal presentation was noted in 10 cases. Only six cases were correctly recognized as EH by the referring institutions, while most were misdiagnosed as other vascular tumors. Of the 17 patients with follow-up data available, five patients (29%) developed local recurrence after marginal en bloc excision (n = 3) or curettage (n = 2). Local recurrence-free survival rates were 84% at 3 years and 38% at 5 years. No metastasis or disease-related death was identified. Imaging studies exhibited no specific features, showing cortical bone destruction and soft-tissue extension in 14 (38%) cases. FOS gene rearrangements were detected in 28 (74%) of cases, while FOSB rearrangements in 10 (26%) cases. Our results highlight the significant challenges encountered in establishing a correct diagnosis exclusive of the molecular testing, mainly due to its overlap to other malignant epithelioid vascular tumors. Skeletal EH emerges as a genetically defined locally aggressive vascular neoplasm, with a high rate of local recurrence, but lacking the propensity for distant spread.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7739373PMC
January 2021

The V654A second-site KIT mutation increases tumor oncogenesis and STAT activation in a mouse model of gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

Oncogene 2020 12 6;39(49):7153-7165. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common human sarcoma and arises in the gastrointestinal tract. Most GISTs are caused by activating mutations in the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase, such as the exon 11 KIT V559Δ mutation. The small molecule imatinib inhibits KIT and has been a mainstay of therapy in GIST. Unfortunately, imatinib-treated patients typically relapse, most often due to clonal emergence of the resistance-associated KIT V654A mutation. To determine the biologic impact of this second-site mutation in vivo, we created a mouse model with the corresponding V558Δ;V653A Kit double mutation restricted (a) spatially to ETV1 cells, which include the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) from which GISTs presumably originate, and (b) temporally through tamoxifen treatment after birth. This resulted in the first in vivo model of the most common second-site mutation associated with imatinib resistance in GIST and the first in vivo demonstration that cell-autonomous expression of mutant KIT in the ICC lineage leads to GIST. GISTs driven by the V558Δ;V653A Kit double mutation were resistant to imatinib, while cabozantinib was more effective in overcoming resistance than sunitinib. Compared to control mice with a single V558Δ Kit mutation, mice with a double V558Δ; V653A Kit mutation had increased tumor oncogenesis and associated KIT-dependent STAT activation. Our findings demonstrate that the biologic consequences of a second-site mutation in an oncogenic driver may include not only a mechanism for drug resistance, but changes in tumor oncogenic potential and differential activation of signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01489-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7718339PMC
December 2020
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