Publications by authors named "Cristina M Rosell"

46 Publications

Mastication of crisp bread: Role of bread texture and structure on texture perception.

Food Res Int 2021 09 31;147:110477. Epub 2021 May 31.

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), C/Agustin Escardino, 7, 46980 Paterna, Spain. Electronic address:

Texture and structure of breads have been related to oral processing (FOP) performance and sensory perceptions, but moisture content might play a significant role. To evaluate the real impact of breads texture and structure, eliminating the possible role of moisture content, different toasted breads were investigated. Four commercial toasted sliced breads (white bread -WHB-, whole wheat bread -WWB-, non-added sugar bread -NSU-, non-added salt bread -NSA-) with similar ingredients but different texture and structure were selected. Texture and structure were instrumentally and sensory evaluated, besides FOP (total chewing time, number of chews until swallowing, chewing frequency, and mouthful) and bolus properties (moisture, saliva to bread ratio, hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness). Toasted breads showed significant differences in hardness, cutting strength, and porosity, but panelists did not discriminate among them. FOP results indicated that harder samples (NSU) required longer mastication and a number of chews, and open crumb structures (WWB, WHB) with higher cell areas required less mastication. Also, bolus characteristics were affected by bread types, and bread with lower crumb hardness (WHB) produced more cohesive bolus. Having toasted breads allowed to eliminate possible influence of moisture content differences on sensory perception, mouthful and bolus water incorporation during mastication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110477DOI Listing
September 2021

Aroids as underexplored tubers with potential health benefits.

Adv Food Nutr Res 2021 8;97:319-359. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), Paterna, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott are the most popular tubers among the Araceas family. Their chemical composition related to their nutritional benefits could make these rhizomes a valid option for the nutritional and technological improvement of food products. This chapter provide a clarification about the correct nomenclature of both tubers giving an insight around the principle components and their health effects. The scientific literature review has primarily highlighted several in vitro and animal studies where the consumption (leaves and whole tuber) of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott was related with certain antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic and prebiotic effects. Owing to their functional properties, different component from these rhizomes, specially starch, mucilage and powders are being used by the food industry. Their ability to behave as thickener and gelling agent has allowed their incorporation in baked food, food paste and beverages. This chapter suggests the development of more research around these rhizomes since they could potentially play, with other crops, an important role in the future sustainable strategies to feed the planet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.afnr.2021.02.018DOI Listing
April 2021

Benefits and Challenges in the Incorporation of Insects in Food Products.

Front Nutr 2021 30;8:687712. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Departamento de Bioingeniería, Puebla, Mexico.

Edible insects are being accepted by a growing number of consumers in recent years not only as a snack but also as a side dish or an ingredient to produce other foods. Most of the edible insects belong to one of these groups of insects such as caterpillars, butterflies, moths, wasps, beetles, crickets, grasshoppers, bees, and ants. Insect properties are analyzed and reported in the articles reviewed here, and one common feature is nutrimental content, which is one of the most important characteristics mentioned, especially proteins, lipids, fiber, and minerals. On the other hand, insects can be used as a substitute for flour of cereals for the enrichment of snacks because of their high content of proteins, lipids, and fiber. Technological properties are not altered when these insects-derived ingredients are added and sensorial analysis is satisfactory, and only in some cases, change in color takes place. Insects can be used as substitute ingredients in meat products; the products obtained have higher mineral content than traditional ones, and some texture properties (like elasticity) can be improved. In extruded products, insects are an alternative source of proteins to feed livestock, showing desirable characteristics. Isolates of proteins of insects have demonstrated bioactive activity, and these can be used to improve food formulations. Bioactive compounds, as antioxidant agents, insulin regulators, and anti-inflammatory peptides, are high-value products that can be obtained from insects. Fatty acids that play a significant role in human health and lipids from insects have showed positive impacts on coronary disease, inflammation, and cancer. Insects can be a vector for foodborne microbial contamination, but the application of good manufacturing practices and effective preservation techniques jointly with the development of appropriate safety regulations will decrease the appearance of such risks. However, allergens presented in some insects are a hazard that must be analyzed and taken into account. Despite all the favorable health-promoting characteristics present in insects and insects-derived ingredients, willingness to consume them has yet to be generalized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.687712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277915PMC
June 2021

Non-animal proteins as cutting-edge ingredients to reformulate animal-free foodstuffs: Present status and future perspectives.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Mar 27:1-31. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institute of Agriculture and Food Research and Technology (IRTA), Food Safety and Functionality Programme, Monells, Catalonia, Spain.

Consumer interest in protein rich diets is increasing, with more attention being paid to the protein source. Despite the occurrence of animal proteins in the human diet, non-animal proteins are gaining popularity around the world due to their health benefits, environmental sustainability, and ethical merit. These sources of protein qualify for vegan, vegetarian, and flexitarian diets. Non-animal proteins are versatile, derived mainly from cereals, vegetables, pulses, algae (seaweed and microalgae), fungi, and bacteria. This review's intent is to analyze the current and future direction of research and innovation in non-animal proteins, and to elucidate the extent (limitations and opportunities) of their applications in food and beverage industries. Prior knowledge provided relevant information on protein features (processing, structure, and techno-functionality) with particular focus on those derived from soy and wheat. In the current food landscape, beyond conventionally used plant sources, other plant proteins are gaining traction as alternative ingredients to formulate animal-free foodstuffs (e.g., meat alternatives, beverages, baked products, snack foods, and others). Microbial proteins derived from fungi and algae are also food ingredients of interest due to their high protein quantity and quality, however there is no commercial food application for bacterial protein yet. In the future, key points to consider are the importance of strain/variety selection, advances in extraction technologies, toxicity assessment, and how this source can be used to create food products for personalized nutrition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1901649DOI Listing
March 2021

Risk of in Relation to Rice and Derivatives.

Foods 2021 Feb 2;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Paterna, 46980 Valencia, Spain.

Rice is a very popular food throughout the world and the basis of the diet of the citizens of many countries. It is used as a raw material for the preparation of many complex dishes in which different ingredients are involved. Rice, as a consequence of their cultivation, harvesting, and handling, is often contaminated with spores of , a ubiquitous microorganism found mainly in the soil. can multiply under temperature conditions as low as 4 °C in foods that contain rice and have been cooked or subjected to treatments that do not produce commercial sterility. produces diarrhoeal or emetic foodborne toxin when the consumer eats food in which a sufficient number of cells have grown. These circumstances mean that every year many outbreaks of intoxication or intestinal problems related to this microorganism are reported. This work is a review from the perspective of risk assessment of the risk posed by to the health of consumers and of some control measures that can be used to mitigate such a risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10020302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913059PMC
February 2021

Interaction of dough acidity and microalga level on bread quality and antioxidant properties.

Food Chem 2021 May 24;344:128710. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), C/ Agustin Escardino, 7, Paterna 46980, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Microalgae nutritional and healthy dietary pattern might be affected by processes like breadmaking when used as ingredient. This study aims to determine the role of dough acidification on the nutritional pattern of Chlorella vulgaris enriched breads. Different levels of microalga (1%, 2% and 3%) were incorporated in the recipe in the presence of either 10% sourdough or chemically acidified doughs. Dough and bread characteristics were evaluated. Addition of microalga reduced the slice area and increased the crumb hardness, but it could be counteracted by increasing dough hydration and adapting proofing time. Doughs and breads enriched with microalga had green color. Dough acidification led to softer breads and enhanced the antioxidant activity of enriched breads. Microalgae incorporation increased the protein and ash content of the breads. Microalgae enriched breads made with chemically acidified doughs or sourdoughs had higher Total Phenolic Content and antioxidant activity as assessed by FRAP and ABTS methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128710DOI Listing
May 2021

Tiger Nut () as a Functional Ingredient in Gluten-Free Extruded Snacks.

Foods 2020 Nov 29;9(12). Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Western Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture Research Service, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710-1105, USA.

Tiger nut (TN) is a nutritious source of gluten-free flour, used generally in healthy beverages, but its incorporation in gluten-free extruded snacks has not been explored. TN flour was blended at different concentrations (up to 70%) with rice flour and soluble fiber, for the development of gluten-free snacks on a twin-screw extruder. The effect of TN inclusion in the formulations was evaluated on relevant physiochemical characteristics of the snacks. Viscoamylograph of the raw formulations showed that TN addition increased ( < 0.01) onset temperature and delayed peak viscosity. In the extruded flours, TN contributed to limit the starch degradation during extrusion. Diameter, expansion ratio, true density, and total pore volume of the extrudates were reduced ( < 0.01) by the increased TN content in the formulations, while bulk density rose. The surfaces of the extruded snacks were modified by the increasing inclusion of TN in substitution of rice in the formulations. Extrudates containing 10% TN showed the best overall texture profile. Moreover, TN addition enhanced the ash and protein content of the snacks and increased their total antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated that incorporation of 10% TN flour into rice-based formulation was suitable for making gluten-free snacks with acceptable physical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9121770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760251PMC
November 2020

High-Quality Gluten-Free Sponge Cakes without Sucrose: Inulin-Type Fructans as Sugar Alternatives.

Foods 2020 Nov 25;9(12). Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Sensory Laboratory, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland.

Due to its structural and organoleptic functions, sucrose is one of the primary ingredients of many baked confectionery products. In turn, the growing awareness of the association between sugar overconsumption and the development of chronic diseases has prompted the urgent need to reduce the amount of refined sugar in foods. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of complete sucrose replacement with inulin-type fructans (ITFs), namely fructooligosaccharide (FOS), inulin (INU) or oligofructose-enriched inulin (SYN), with different degrees of polymerization on the technological parameters and sensory quality of gluten-free sponge cakes (GFSs). The use of ITFs as the sole sweetening ingredient resulted in the similar appearance of the experimental GFSs to that of the control sample. In addition, all GFSs containing ITFs had similar height, while their baking weight loss was significantly ( < 0.05) lower compared to the control products. The total sugar exchange for long-chain INU increased the crumb hardness, while the crumb of the GFS with FOS was as soft as of the control products. The sensory analysis showed that the GFS containing FOS obtained the highest scores for the overall quality assessment, similar to the sugar-containing control sponge cake. The results obtained prove that sucrose is not necessary to produce GFSs with appropriate technological parameters and a high sensory quality. Thus, it can be concluded that sucrose can be successfully replaced with ITF, especially with FOS, in this type of baked confectionery product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9121735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760795PMC
November 2020

Use of flour from cormels of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott and Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott to develop pastes foods: Physico-chemical, functional and nutritional characterization.

Food Chem 2021 May 20;344:128666. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), C/ Agustin Escardino, 7, Paterna 46980, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

The corms of cocoyams, specifically Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott are usually consumed as pastes. Nevertheless, the secondary corms, also named cormels, are not fully exploited. In this study, the chemical composition and functional properties of cormels from different botanical sources were evaluated, and the digestibility of the resulting pastes investigated. Colocasia spp. flour contained significantly higher protein (10.32% vs 9.65%), ash (5.65% vs 5.05%) and oxalates (0.32% vs 0.22%) content, and exhibited lower Amylab gel strength (773 g vs 1040 g) than Xanthosoma spp. flour. In the resulting pastes, micrographs revealed that starch gelatinization depended on cocoyam variety. Indeed, the very tight and closed microstructure of pastes containing Colocasia spp. flour led them to better stability during storage with lower syneresis. Lower protein digestibility was obtained in Colocasia spp. gels (67.56% vs 70.91%), but they showed faster (higher k) in vitro starch hydrolysis (0.0140 vs 0.0050) with lower estimated glycemic index (61.29 vs 65.84) than Xanthosoma spp. gels. The present findings offer ways to develop cocoyam based foods by using cormels, enhancing the applicability of cocoyams.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128666DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of particle size on functional properties of leaves powder. Starch interactions and processing impact.

Food Chem X 2020 Dec 26;8:100106. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), C/Agustin Escardino, 7, Paterna 46980, Spain.

The aim of this work was to determine the physicochemical and functional properties of a leaves powder sieved at three particle sizes. Moreover, in order to understand the potential interactions between the leaves powder and starch, the pasting properties were assessed and the effect of pH (4-9) and temperatures (70-90 °C) on the phenolic compounds and antiradical activities were also evaluated. Particle size had an effect on physicochemical and functional properties of the vegetable powder. Vegetable fractions affected the apparent viscosity of starch suspension along heating and cooling, with larger effect during heating. The effect of the processing conditions on the functional properties of starch suspensions was influenced by the powder particle sized and the type of starch used. Maize starch seemed to interact more with phenolic compounds than rice starch, which resulted in a protective effect against pH and temperature variations, leading to higher antiradical activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fochx.2020.100106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548296PMC
December 2020

Replacing Wheat Flour with Debittered and Fermented Lupin: Effects on Bread's Physical and Nutritional Features.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2020 Dec;75(4):569-575

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos. IATA, CSIC, Valencia, España.

In this study the breadmaking potential of lupin flour from L. mutabilis after being debittered (DLF) and solid state fermented (FLF) was evaluated in lupin-wheat breads. Different levels of substitution (10, 15, 20%) were tested on dough rheology and the technological and nutritional (composition and in vitro digestibility indexes) properties of breads, as well as acceptability. Lupin weakened the dough during mixing, having shorter development time and stability, especially FLF. Less relevant was the effect of lupin flours along heating-cooling of the doughs recorded with the Mixolab. DLF and FLF significantly affected technological properties of the lupin-wheat breads at higher substitution (> 10%), particularly reducing bread volume, crust luminosity, crumb cohesiveness and resilience. Detrimental effects observed at the highest substitutions (20%) were diminished when using FLF, although breads received lower score due to the acidic taste detected by panelists. Both lupin flours provided lupin-wheat breads with rather similar composition, rising the average content of proteins, fat and dietary fiber by 0.8, 2.4, 6.5 %, respectively, compared to wheat breads. Likewise, lupin-wheat breads had significantly lower hydrolytic and glycemic indexes. Overall, debittered and fermented lupin could be used for enriching wheat breads, although better technological properties were observed with FLF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-020-00844-wDOI Listing
December 2020

Effect of Bread Structure and In Vitro Oral Processing Methods in Bolus Disintegration and Glycemic Index.

Nutrients 2019 Sep 4;11(9). Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), C/Agustin Escardino, 7, Paterna 46980 Valencia, Spain.

The growing interest in controlling the glycemic index of starchy-rich food has encouraged research about the role of the physical structure of food. The aim of this research was to understand the impact of the structure and the in vitro oral processing methods on bolus behavior and starch hydrolysis of wheat bread. Two different bread structures (loaf bread and bread roll) were obtained using different shaping methods. Starch hydrolysis during in vitro oro-gastro-intestinal digestion using the INFOGEST protocol was analyzed and oral processing was simulated by applying two different disintegration processes (basic homogenizer, crystal balls). The bread structure, and thus the shaping method during breadmaking, significantly affected the bolus particle size during all digestion stages. The different in vitro oral processing methods affected the bolus particle sizes after the oral phase in both breads, but they affected the particle size distribution after the gastric and intestinal phase only in the case of loaf bread. Aggregates were observed in the gastric phase, which were significantly reduced in the intestinal phase. When simulated oral processing with crystal balls led to bigger particle size distribution, bread rolls presented the highest in vitro starch hydrolysis. The type of in vitro oral processing allowed discrimination of the performance of the structures of the two breads during starch hydrolysis. Overall, crumb structure significantly affected texture properties, but also had a significant impact on particle size during digestion and starch digestibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11092105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6769693PMC
September 2019

Evaluation of the physicochemical and nutritional changes in two amaranth species (Amaranthus quitensis and Amaranthus caudatus) after germination.

Food Res Int 2019 07 10;121:933-939. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), C/Agustin Escardino, 7, Paterna 46980, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.01.022DOI Listing
July 2019

Evaluation of Starch⁻Protein Interactions as A Function of pH.

Foods 2019 May 7;8(5). Epub 2019 May 7.

Food Technology Area. College of Agricultural Engineering. University of Valladolid, 34071 Palencia, Spain.

Protein-starch gels are becoming more common in food processing when looking for enriched foods. However, processing conditions scarcely are considered when producing those gels. The aim of this research was to study the effect of processing pH (4.5, 6.0, and 7.5) on the hydration and pasting properties, gel microstructure, and texture of corn starchy gels made with four different proteins (pea, rice, egg albumin, and whey) at a ratio of 1:1 starch/protein and a solid content of 12.28%. The water binding capacity of the starch-protein mixtures was positively influenced by low solubility of the protein used. Acidic pH decreased the apparent peak viscosity of both starch and starch-protein mixtures, with the exception of starch-albumin blends, which increased it. The gels' microstructure showed that the uniformity of the protein-enriched gels was dependent on protein type and pH, leading to diverse hardness. In general, the starchy gels containing animal proteins (albumin and whey) were more affected by pH than those obtained with vegetal proteins (pea and rice). Therefore, processing pH might be an advisable method to modify the functionality of starch-protein gels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8050155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6560411PMC
May 2019

Inulin enrichment of gluten free breads: Interaction between inulin and yeast.

Food Chem 2019 Apr 13;278:545-551. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), C/Agustin Escardino, 7, 46980 Paterna, Spain. Electronic address:

Inulin can improve the nutritional quality of gluten free (GF) bread and have a prebiotic activity. However, breadmaking might frustrate the enrichments efforts due to inulin loss. In this study we aimed at studying the inulin enrichment of GF bread. Two different yeasts [having normal (Y1) or reduced (Y2) invertase activity] were used to leaven the breads enriched with five marketed inulins, which differed for the degree of polymerization (DP) and the manufacturer. Inulin replaced 10% of the rice flour and had low, intermediate or high DP, which ranged from 2 to 20; ≈20; ≥20, respectively. Fructan hydrolysis occurred during leavening of Y1-GF breads, reaching losses up to 40% after baking, depending on the diverse DP of the inulin-forming fructans. Inulin loss was less relevant in Y2-GF breads (up to 5% after baking) than Y1-GF breads. Crumb texture was not negatively influenced by inulin presence, even if this was high (e.g., Y2-GF breads). Information collected within this study may provide further insight to better optimize a GF bread formulation in view of inulin enrichment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.11.066DOI Listing
April 2019

Quantifying the surface properties of enzymatically-made porous starches by using a surface energy analyzer.

Carbohydr Polym 2018 Nov 10;200:543-551. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research, Department of Food Science, Purdue University, 745 Agriculture Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA; School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada; Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address:

The behavior of starch during processing and its performance in products is influenced by the surface energetics/structure of the constituent particles. This work investigates the effect of enzymatically-produced porous maize starch particles on their energetic surface properties using inverse gas chromatography-based surface energy analysis (SEA). Three modified maize starch samples treated with amylase (AM), glucoamylase (AMG) and cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase (CGT), were used for the study. The dispersive surface energy varied from 36.71 (native) to 43.34 mJ/m (AMG < CGT < AM). Enzyme catalysis resulted in porous starches with a more acidic (AMG) and a more basic (AM) surfaces. CGT exhibited similar acid-base balance as native starch but with higher concentration of active sites on the surface. This is the first study on the surface energy of enzymatically-treated porous starch materials using SEA, revealing significant information regarding the surface interactions that can affect performance of food and pharmaceutical products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.08.035DOI Listing
November 2018

Thermal stabilization of probiotics by adsorption onto porous starches.

Carbohydr Polym 2018 Oct 11;197:558-564. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), C/ Agustin Escardino, 7, Paterna 46980, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Industrial processing factors, such as temperature, compromise the viability of probiotic cells. Objective was to develop a system to thermally stabilize probiotic bacteria based on porous starches and using biopolymers as coating materials (gelatinized starch, guar gum and xanthan gum). Porous starches from corn and rice starches, having controlled number and size of porous were used as supporting material. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the adsorption of the microorganism, leading microcapsules with corn starch but aggregates with rice starch. Surface pores of rice starch increased the encapsulation yield of rice starch around 10%, but that effect was not observed in porous corn starch. The highest encapsulation yield was obtained with porous starches coated with gelatinized starch, which ranged from 92 to 100%. Microencapsulates made with porous starches with small pores, like the ones obtained with α-amylase, and coated with gelatinized starch resulted in the highest thermal resistance at 55 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.06.044DOI Listing
October 2018

Starch and antioxidant compound release during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of gluten-free pasta.

Food Chem 2018 Oct 22;263:201-207. Epub 2018 Apr 22.

Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CEPROBI, Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico.

The microstructure of cooked gluten-free pasta depends on the ingredients used, and this microstructure affects the starch hydrolysis (SH), the release of phenolic compounds (PC) and their antioxidant capacity (AC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the SD and bioaccessibility of PC during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of gluten-free pasta and its relationship with the microstructure. The highest SH was during the intestinal phase (≈60%), but pasta with the highest content of unripe plantain and chickpea presented the lowest release of PC (≈60%). The insoluble dietary fibre could be responsible (≈12.5%) for these effects. The cooked pasta showed high AC in the intestinal phase. Regions with gelatinized starch granules in a less dense protein network and other regions with intact or swollen granules surrounded by a protein network were observed. The starch digestion and bioaccessibility of PC were related to the structure of the matrix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.04.075DOI Listing
October 2018

Understanding the effect of emulsifiers on bread aeration during breadmaking.

J Sci Food Agric 2018 Nov 9;98(14):5494-5502. Epub 2018 Jun 9.

Department Food Science, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), Paterna, Spain.

Background: Much research has been done to explain the action of emulsifiers during breadmaking, but there is still plenty unknown to elucidate their functionality despite their diverse chemical structure. The aim of the present study was to provide some light on the role of emulsifiers on air incorporation into the dough and gas bubbles progress during baking and their relationship with bread features. Emulsifiers like diacetyl tartaric acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL), distilled monoglyceride (DMG-45 and DMG-75), lecithin and polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (PGEF) were tested in very hydrated doughs.

Results: Emulsifiers increase the maximum dough volume during proofing. Emulsifiers increase the number of bubbles incorporated during mixing, observing higher number of bubbles, particularly with PGEF. Major changes in dough occurred at 70 K when bubble size augmented, becoming more heterogeneous. DMG-75 produced the biggest bubbles. As a consequence, emulsifiers tend to increase the number of gas cells with lower size in the bread crumb, but led to greater crumb firmness, which suggested different interactions between emulsifiers and gluten, affecting protein polymerization during baking.

Conclusion: The progress of the bubbles during baking allowed the differentiation of emulsifiers, which could explain their performance in breadmaking. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9094DOI Listing
November 2018

Physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of banana flour during ripening.

Food Chem 2018 Aug 21;256:11-17. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, ESPOL, Facultad de Ingeniería en Mecánica y Ciencias de la Producción, Campus Gustavo Galindo, Km 30.5 Vía Perimetral, P.O. Box 09-01-5863, Guayaquil, Ecuador. Electronic address:

Banana flour has been recognized as functional ingredient, owing to its healthy nutritional pattern. Nevertheless, unripe and ripe banana flours show different characteristics and scarce information is available about changes undergone during banana ripening. This study evaluates the changes on physiochemical (chemical composition, hydration properties, rheological properties and structural characteristic) and nutritional (resistant starch content, phenolic compound and antioxidant activity) characteristics of banana flour at the initial four ripening stages. The significant increase in protein content and decrease in carbohydrate and apparent amylose content, besides the reduction in pasting properties, between 2nd and 3rd stages suggested a climacteric peak during ripening. Between those stages, a significant decrease in total and resistant starch was produced together with an increase in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Therefore, the knowledge of the physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of banana flour at each ripening stage allows better selection depending on the industrial application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.02.113DOI Listing
August 2018

Mimicking gluten functionality with β-conglycinin concentrate: Evaluation in gluten free yeast-leavened breads.

Food Res Int 2018 04 20;106:64-70. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), C/ Agustin Escardino, 7, Paterna 46980, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Fractionation of soy proteins has proved to produce protein concentrates with viscoelastic properties. In the present study, a β-conglycinin concentrate (βCC) obtained by a pH fractionation of soy flour was tested as structuring agent in gluten-free yeast-leavened bread model. A lean formulation with βCC and corn starch was used to produce gluten-free breads with two hydration conditions and three levels of protein (5%, 10% and 15%). Vital gluten was used to compare the functionality of βCC protein and its performance for breadmaking. Breads were characterized in moisture, color, textural parameters and image analysis. βCC presented lower hydration properties and higher emulsifying activity compared to vital gluten. Blends βCC:starch had higher water binding capacity compared to vital gluten blends. The hydration conditions tested affected the moisture, color and cell density of breads. Breads produced with βCC presented higher 2D area and height and presented higher crumb softness and cohesiveness, and did not present significant differences in springiness and resilience compared to vital gluten breads. The image analysis of crumbs showed higher cell density but lower porosity and mean cell areas in βCC breads. Thus, βCC proved to have potential as a structuring agent in gluten-free breads.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.12.055DOI Listing
April 2018

Use of high hydrostatic pressure to inactivate natural contaminating microorganisms and inoculated E. coli O157:H7 on Hermetia illucens larvae.

PLoS One 2018 22;13(3):e0194477. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Catedrático Agustín Escardino 7, Paterna, Valencia, Spain.

A chemical and microbiological characterization on Hermetia illucens larvae was carried out as well as an inactivation study of natural contaminating microorganisms and inoculated E. coli O157:H7 in black soldier larvae by using High Hydrostatic Pressure (250 to 400 MPa, for 1.5 to 15 min). Hermetia illucens was mainly composed of proteins (46.49%, d.m.) followed by fat (37.88%, d.m.). Larvae had a high contamination load of Total Aerobic Mesophilic bacteria (AMB) (1.58x107 cfu/g) and Enterobacteriaceae (1.15x106cfu/g). The presence of pathogenic microorganism varied: no Listeria spp. were found, but Salmonella (1.15x106 cfu/g) and E. coli (7.08x105 cfu/g) were detected in the larvae extract. High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) was effective against natural contaminating yeasts and molds producing more than 5 log cycle reductions at 400 MPa for any of the times considered (2.5 to 7 min), but a low reduction of total microbial load was achieved. The inactivation level of larvae inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 varied. At 400 MPa for 7 min more than 5 log cycle reductions were achieved. Among the three inactivation models studied, the one that best described the inactivation pattern of the cells, according to the Akaike index, was the Biphasic model.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0194477PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5864016PMC
July 2018

Performance of Granular Starch with Controlled Pore Size during Hydrolysis with Digestive Enzymes.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2017 Dec;72(4):353-359

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), C/ Agustin Escardino, 7, 46980, Paterna, Valencia, Spain.

Studies on porous starch have been directed to explore different industrial applications as bio-adsorbents of a variety of compounds. However, the analysis of starch digestibility is essential for food application. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of porous structure on in vitro starch digestibility. Porous starches were obtained using a range of concentrations of amyloglucosidase (AMG), α-amylase (AM), cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase (CGTase) or branching enzyme (BE). Porous starches exhibited major content of digestible starch (DS) that increased with the intensity of the enzymatic treatment, and very low amount of resistant starch (RS). Porous starches behaved differently during in vitro hydrolysis depending on their enzymatic treatment. AMG was the unique treatment that increased the digestive amylolysis and estimated glycemic index, whereas AM, CGTase and BE reduced them. A significant relationship was found between the pore size and the severity of the amylolysis, suggesting that a specific pore size is required for the accessibility of the digestive amylase. Therefore, pore size in the starch surface was a limiting factor for digestion of starch granules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-017-0635-0DOI Listing
December 2017

Enzymatic Modification of Corn Starch Influences Human Fecal Fermentation Profiles.

J Agric Food Chem 2017 Jun 5;65(23):4651-4657. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) , Avenida Agustin Escardino, 7, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain.

Enzymatically modified starches have been widely used in food applications to develop new products, but information regarding digestion and fecal fermentation of these products is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine the fermentation properties of corn starch modified with α-amylase, amyloglucosidase, or cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and the possible role of hydrolysis products. Samples differed in their digestibility and availability to be fermented by the microbiota, resulting in differences in microbial metabolites produced during in vitro fermentation. The presence or absence of hydrolysis products and gelatinization affected starch composition and subsequent metabolite production by the microbiota. Amyloglucosidase-treated starch led to the greatest production of short- and branched-chain fatty acid production by the microbiota. Results from this study could be taken into consideration to confirm the possible nutritional claims and potential health benefits of these starches as raw ingredients for food development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b01634DOI Listing
June 2017

Morphological and physicochemical characterization of porous starches obtained from different botanical sources and amylolytic enzymes.

Int J Biol Macromol 2017 Oct 19;103:587-595. Epub 2017 May 19.

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), C/ Agustin Escardino, 7, Paterna 46980, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Porous starches might offer an attractive alternative as bio-adsorbents of a variety of compounds. However, morphology and physicochemical properties of starches must be understood before exploring their applications. Objective was to study the action of different amylolytic enzymes for producing porous starches. Wheat, rice, potato and cassava starches were treated with Amyloglucosidase (AMG), α-amylase (AM) and cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase (CGTase). Morphological characteristics, chemical composition, adsorptive capacity and pasting/thermal properties were assessed. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed porous structures with diverse pore size distribution, which was dependent on the enzyme type and starch source, but no differences were observed in the total granule surface occupied by pores. The adsorptive capacity analysis revealed that modified starches had high water absorptive capacity and showed different oil adsorptive capacity depending on the enzyme type. Amylose content analysis revealed different hydrolysis pattern of the amylases, suggesting that AMG mainly affected crystalline region meanwhile AM and CGTase attacked amorphous area. A heatmap illustrated the diverse pasting properties of the different porous starches, which also showed significant different thermal properties, with different behavior between cereal and tuber starches. Therefore, it is possible to modulate the properties of starches through the use of different enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.05.089DOI Listing
October 2017

Changes in physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestion of native and extruded maize flours subjected to branching enzyme and maltogenic α-amylase treatment.

Int J Biol Macromol 2017 Aug 21;101:326-333. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

Food Technology Area, College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Valladolid, 34004 Palencia, Spain.

Extrusion is an increasingly used type of processing which combined with enzymatic action could open extended possibilities for obtaining clean label modified flours. In this study, native and extruded maize flours were modified using branching enzyme (B) and a combination of branching enzyme and maltogenic α-amylase (BMA) in order to modulate their hydrolysis properties. The microstructure, pasting properties, in vitro starch hydrolysis and resistant starch content of the flours were investigated. Whereas BMA treatment led to greater number of holes on the granule surface in native samples, B and BMA extruded samples showed rougher surfaces with cavities. A reduction in the retrogradation trend was observed for B and BMA native flours, in opposition to the flat pasting profile of their extruded counterparts. The glucose release increased gradually for native flours as the time of reaction did, whereas for extruded flours a fast increase of glucose release was observed during the first minutes of reaction, and kept till the end, indicating a greater accessibility to their porous structure. These results suggested that, in enzymatically treated extruded samples, changes produced at larger hierarchical levels in their starch structure could have masked a slowdown in the starch digestion properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.03.109DOI Listing
August 2017

Comparison of porous starches obtained from different enzyme types and levels.

Carbohydr Polym 2017 Feb 17;157:533-540. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), C/Agustin Escardino, 7, Paterna 46980, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

The objective was to compare the action of different hydrolases for producing porous corn starches. Amyloglucosidase (AMG), α-amylase (AM), cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase (CGTase) and branching enzyme (BE) were tested using a range of concentrations. Microstructure, adsorptive capacity, pasting and thermal properties were assessed on the porous starches. SEM micrographs showed porous structures with diverse pore size distribution and pore area depending on the enzyme type and its level; AMG promoted the largest holes. Adsorptive capacity was significantly affected by enzymatic modification being greater influenced by AMG activity. Unexpectedly, amylose content increased in the starch treated with AMG and BE, and the opposite trend was observed in AM and CGTase treated samples, suggesting different mode of action. A heatmap illustrated the diverse pasting properties of the different porous starches, which also showed significant different thermal properties, with lower To and Tp. Porous starch properties could be modulated by using different enzymes and concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.10.047DOI Listing
February 2017

Germinated, toasted and cooked chickpea as ingredients for breadmaking.

J Food Sci Technol 2016 Jun 1;53(6):2664-72. Epub 2016 Jun 1.

Food Science Department, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), C/ Agustin Escardino, 7, 46980 Paterna, Valencia Spain.

The effect of processing (germination, toasting and cooking) of chickpea beans was investigated on the resulting flours characteristics and their potential for obtaining gluten free breads. Rheological properties of dough were recorded using Mixolab(®) and breads were analyzed for their instrumental quality, nutritional and sensory properties. Chickpea based doughs showed low consistency and their rheological behavior was defined by the starch gelatinization and gelification. The bread made with cooked chickpea flour exhibited the lowest specific volume (0.58 mL/g), brightest crumb (L* = 76.20) and the softest texture, but cooking decreased the content of carbohydrates, ash and protein, although increased the protein digestibility. The highest specific volume was obtained in bread made with toasted chickpea flour, although crumb hardness was higher. Overall, processing of chickpea beans, concretely toasting and cooking led to flours that could be used for obtaining gluten free breads with the nutritional characteristics of the legumes and acceptable sensory characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-016-2238-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4951419PMC
June 2016

Physico-chemical properties of corn starch modified with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase.

Int J Biol Macromol 2016 Jun 9;87:466-72. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), Avenida Agustin Escardino, 7, Paterna 46980, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) has been used to produce cyclodextrins (CDs) from starches, but their ability to modify starches has been barely explored. The effect of CGTase on corn starch at sub-gelatinization temperature (50°C) and at different pH conditions, pH 4.0 and pH 6.0, was evaluated. Biochemical features, thermal and structural analysis, oligosaccharides and CDs content were studied. Microscopic analysis of the granules confirmed the enzymatic modification of the starches obtaining structures with irregular surface and small pinholes. The extent of the starch modification was largely dependent on the pHs, being higher at pH 6.0. This was also confirmed by the low viscosity of the resulting pastes during a heating and cooling cycle. Thermal parameters were not affected due to enzymatic treatment. Modified starches were less susceptible to undergo α-amylase hydrolysis. CDs released were higher for samples treated at pH 4.0. Therefore, CGTase modification of corn starches at sub-gelatinization temperature offers an attractive alternative for obtaining porous starches with different properties depending on the pH conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.03.012DOI Listing
June 2016

Jet milling effect on wheat flour characteristics and starch hydrolysis.

J Food Sci Technol 2016 Jan 9;53(1):784-91. Epub 2015 Aug 9.

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA/CSIC), Avenida Agustin Escardino 7, Paterna, 46980 Valencia Spain.

The interest for producing wheat flour with health promoting effect and improved functionality has led to investigate new milling techniques that can provide finer flours. In this study, jet milling treatment was used to understand the effect of ultrafine size reduction onto microstructure and physicochemical properties of wheat flour. Three different conditions of jet milling, regarding air pressure (4 or 8 bars) feed rate and recirculation, were applied to obtain wheat flours with different particle size (control, F1, F2 and F3 with d50 127.45, 62.30, 22.94 and 11.4 μm, respectively). Large aggregates were gradually reduced in size, depending on the intensity of the process, and starch granules were separated from the protein matrix. Damaged starch increased while moisture content decreased because of milling intensity. Notable changes were observed in starch hydrolysis kinetics, which shifted to higher values with milling. Viscosity of all micronized samples was reduced and gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp, Tc) for F2 and F3 flours increased. Controlling jet milling conditions allow obtaining flours with different functionality, with greater changes at higher treatment severity that induces large particle reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1990-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4711426PMC
January 2016
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