Publications by authors named "Cristina Diaz-de-Heredia"

68 Publications

Ruxolitinib for steroid-refractory graft versus host disease in pediatric HSCT: high response rate and manageable toxicity.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 Mar 4:1-16. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Translational Research in Pediatric Oncology, Hematopoietic Transplantation & Cell Therapy, Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research (INGEMM-IdiPAZ), Institute of Medical and Molecular Genetics (INGEMM), La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Ruxolitinib, a selective Janus Kinase (JAK) 1/2 inhibitor, is a promising treatment for the steroid-refractory graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Most studies have been performed in the adult population showing efficacy against GvHD. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the outcomes of 19 children who received ruxolitinib for refractory acute or chronic GvHD (cGvHD) after HSCT from two Pediatric Hemato-Oncology Departments in Spain between March 2017 and December 2018. Patients received a median number of 4 (IQR 2) previous lines of treatment before starting ruxolitinib. The overall response rate in acute GvHD (aGvHD) and cGvHD was 87% and 91%, respectively. Complete response (CR) was observed in 37% of aGvHD and 8.3% of cGvHD. Remarkably, 43% and 40% of patients with steroid-refractory gastrointestinal aGvHD and lung cGvHD achieved CR. During ruxolitinib treatment, there were 36%, 31%, and 10% infections caused by viruses, bacteria, and fungi, respectively. Overall, four patients interrupted ruxolitinib due to infectious complications, hematological, and liver toxicity. The 2-year overall survival was 71.9% (CI 95% 58.6-85.2). Our experience supports the use of ruxolitinib as an effective treatment for steroid-refractory acute and cGvHD in children with a moderate toxicity profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08880018.2020.1868637DOI Listing
March 2021

Measurable Residual Disease Assessed by Flow-Cytometry Is a Stable Prognostic Factor for Pediatric T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Consecutive SEHOP Protocols Whereas the Impact of Oncogenetics Depends on Treatment.

Front Pediatr 2020 5;8:614521. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Haematology Laboratory, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Robust and applicable risk-stratifying genetic factors at diagnosis in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) are still lacking, and most protocols rely on measurable residual disease (MRD) assessment. In our study, we aimed to analyze the impact of , and mutations, the measurable residual disease (MRD) levels assessed by flow cytometry (FCM-MRD) and other reported risk factors in a Spanish cohort of pediatric T-ALL patients. We included 199 patients treated with SEHOP and PETHEMA consecutive protocols from 1998 to 2019. We observed a better outcome of patients included in the newest SEHOP-PETHEMA-2013 protocol compared to the previous SHOP-2005 cohort. FCM-MRD significantly predicted outcome in both protocols, but the impact at early and late time points differed between protocols. The impact of FCM-MRD at late time points was more evident in SEHOP-PETHEMA 2013, whereas in SHOP-2005 FCM-MRD was predictive of outcome at early time points. Genetics impact was different in SHOP-2005 and SEHOP-PETHEMA-2013 cohorts: mutations impacted on overall survival only in the SEHOP-PETHEMA-2013 cohort, whereas homozygous deletions of / had a significantly higher CIR in SHOP-2005 patients. We applied the clinical classification combining oncogenetics, WBC count and MRD levels at the end of induction as previously reported by the FRALLE group. Using this score, we identified different subgroups of patients with statistically different outcome in both Spanish cohorts. In SHOP-2005, the FRALLE classifier identified a subgroup of high-risk patients with poorer survival. In the newest protocol SEHOP-PETHEMA-2013, a very low-risk group of patients with excellent outcome and no relapses was detected, with borderline significance. Overall, FCM-MRD, WBC count and oncogenetics may refine the risk-stratification, helping to design tailored approaches for pediatric T-ALL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.614521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892614PMC
February 2021

Usefulness of NGS for Diagnosis of Dominant Beta-Thalassemia and Unstable Hemoglobinopathies in Five Clinical Cases.

Front Physiol 2021 5;12:628236. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Translational Research in Child and Adolescent Cancer - Rare Anemia Disorders Research Laboratory, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute, ERN-EuroBloodNet Member, Barcelona, Spain.

Unstable hemoglobinopathies (UHs) are rare anemia disorders (RADs) characterized by abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) variants with decreased stability. UHs are therefore easily precipitating, causing hemolysis and, in some cases, leading to dominant beta-thalassemia (dBTHAL). The clinical picture of UHs is highly heterogeneous, inheritance pattern is dominant, instead of recessive as in more prevalent major Hb syndromes, and may occur . Most cases of UHs are not detected by conventional testing, therefore diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion of the treating physician. Here, we highlight the importance of next generation sequencing (NGS) methodologies for the diagnosis of patients with dBTHAL and other less severe UH variants. We present five unrelated clinical cases referred with chronic hemolytic anemia, three of them with severe blood transfusion dependent anemia. Targeted NGS analysis was performed in three cases while whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis was performed in two cases. Five different UH variants were identified correlating with patients' clinical manifestations. Four variants were related to the beta-globin gene (Hb Bristol-Alesha, Hb Debrousse, Hb Zunyi, and the novel Hb Mokum) meanwhile one case was caused by a mutation in the alpha-globin gene leading to Hb Evans. Inclusion of alpha and beta-globin genes in routine NGS approaches for RADs has to be considered to improve diagnosis' efficiency of RAD due to UHs. Reducing misdiagnoses and underdiagnoses of UH variants, especially of the severe forms leading to dBTHAL would also facilitate the early start of intensive or curative treatments for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.628236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893112PMC
February 2021

Failure of Viral-Specific T Cells Administered in Pre-transplant Settings in Children with Inborn Errors of Immunity.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Paediatric Hemato-Oncology Department, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: Use of adoptive immunotherapy with virus-specific T cells (VST) in patients with inborn errors of immunity prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been reported in few patients. We report our experience, reviewing all the cases previously reported.

Methods: We report four children with inborn errors of immunity who received VST infusion in a pre-HSCT setting in two reference centers in Spain and review all inborn errors of immunity cases previously reported.

Results: Taking into account our four cases, nine children have been reported to receive VST prior to HSCT to date: 3 severe combined immunodeficiency, 2 CTPS1 deficiency, 1 dyskeratosis congenital, 1 ORAI1 deficiency, 1 Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, and 1 combined immunodeficiency without confirmed genetic defect. In four patients, immunotherapy resulted in clinical improvement, allowing to proceed to HSCT. In these cases, the infusion was started closely to viral diagnosis [mean time 28 days (IQR; 17-52 days)], and the VST was followed shortly thereafter by HSCT [mean time 28 days (IQR; 10-99 days)]. Viremia was controlled after HSCT in two cases (performed 7 and 36 days after the infusion). Multiple infusions were required in many cases. Five out of nine patients died before receiving HSCT. These patients presented with a prolonged and uncontrolled infection before VST administration [mean time from viral diagnosis to VST infusion was 176 days (IQR; 54-1687)].

Conclusions: In patients with inborn errors of immunity, the efficacy of VST for treating disseminated viral infections in pre-transplant settings seems to have a limited efficacy. However, this therapy could be used in a pre-emptive setting before severe viral disease occurs or closely to HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00961-wDOI Listing
January 2021

Total Body Irradiation or Chemotherapy Conditioning in Childhood ALL: A Multinational, Randomized, Noninferiority Phase III Study.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Feb 17;39(4):295-307. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Goethe University, University Hospital Frankfurt, Department for Children and Adolescents, Division for Stem Cell Transplantation, Immunology and Intensive Care Medicine, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is efficacious, but long-term side effects are concerning. We investigated whether preparative combination chemotherapy could replace TBI in such patients.

Patients And Methods: FORUM is a randomized, controlled, open-label, international, multicenter, phase III, noninferiority study. Patients ≤ 18 years at diagnosis, 4-21 years at HSCT, in complete remission pre-HSCT, and with an HLA-compatible related or unrelated donor were randomly assigned to myeloablative conditioning with fractionated 12 Gy TBI and etoposide versus fludarabine, thiotepa, and either busulfan or treosulfan. The noninferiority margin was 8%. With 1,000 patients randomly assigned in 5 years, 2-year minimum follow-up, and one-sided alpha of 5%, 80% power was calculated. A futility stopping rule would halt random assignment if chemoconditioning was significantly inferior to TBI (EudraCT: 2012-003032-22; ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01949129).

Results: Between April 2013 and December 2018, 543 patients were screened, 417 were randomly assigned, 212 received TBI, and 201 received chemoconditioning. The stopping rule was applied on March 31, 2019. The median follow-up was 2.1 years. In the intention-to-treat population, 2-year overall survival (OS) was significantly higher following TBI (0.91; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.95; < .0001) versus chemoconditioning (0.75; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.81). Two-year cumulative incidence of relapse and treatment-related mortality were 0.12 (95% CI, 0.08 to 0.17; < .0001) and 0.02 (95% CI, < 0.01 to 0.05; = .0269) following TBI and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.25 to 0.40) and 0.09 (95% CI, 0.05 to 0.14) following chemoconditioning, respectively.

Conclusion: Improved OS and lower relapse risk were observed following TBI plus etoposide compared with chemoconditioning. We therefore recommend TBI plus etoposide for patients > 4 years old with high-risk ALL undergoing allogeneic HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02529DOI Listing
February 2021

Matched sibling donor stem cell transplantation for sickle cell disease: Results from the Spanish group for bone marrow transplantation in children.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Mar 4;106(3):408-416. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Hospital Universitari Vall d´Hebron, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Barcelona, Spain.

Objectives: The prevalence of sickle cell disease (SCD) in Spain is markedly inferior compared with other European and Mediterranean countries. However, the diagnosis of new patients with SCD is expected to increase. In this multicenter retrospective study, we analyze the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) results obtained in Spain.

Methods: Forty-five patients who underwent a matched sibling donor (MSD) HSCT between 1999 and 2018 were included. Primary endpoint was event-free survival (EFS), and secondary endpoints included acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and overall survival (OS).

Results: Bone marrow was the most frequent stem cell source (93.3%). Most patients received a conditioning regimen based on busulfan and cyclophosphamide (69%). Cumulative incidence of grade III-IV acute GvHD and chronic GvHD was 6.8% (95% CI: 2.3%-20.1%) and 5.4% (95% CI: 1.38%-19.9%), respectively. EFS and overall survival (OS) at 3 years post-HSCT were 89.4% (95% CI: 73.9%-95.9%) and 92.1% (95% CI: 77.2%-97.4%), respectively. All patients aged ≤ 5 presented 100% EFS and OS.

Conclusions: An early referral to HSCT centers should be proposed early in life, before severe complications occur. MSD HSCT should be considered a curative option for all patients aged ≤ 5 years and for older pediatric patients who present complications derived from the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13566DOI Listing
March 2021

TYK2 Variants in B-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia.

Genes (Basel) 2020 Nov 28;11(12). Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Molecular Biology Unit, University Hospital La Princesa and Research Institute (IIS-IP), Diego de León 62, 28006 Madrid, Spain.

B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) is a malignancy of lymphoid progenitor cells with altered genes including the Janus kinase (JAK) gene family. Among them, tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is involved in signal transduction of cytokines such as interferon (IFN) α/β through IFN-α/β receptor alpha chain (IFNAR1). To search for disease-associated TYK2 variants, bone marrow samples from 62 B-ALL patients at diagnosis were analysed by next-generation sequencing. TYK2 variants were found in 16 patients (25.8%): one patient had a novel mutation at the four-point-one, ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) domain (S431G) and two patients had the rare variants rs150601734 or rs55882956 (R425H or R832W). To functionally characterise them, they were generated by direct mutagenesis, cloned in expression vectors, and transfected in TYK2-deficient cells. Under high-IFNα doses, the three variants were competent to phosphorylate STAT1/2. While R425H and R832W induced STAT1/2-target genes measured by qPCR, S431G behaved as the kinase-dead form of the protein. None of these variants phosphorylated STAT3 in in vitro kinase assays. Molecular dynamics simulation showed that TYK2/IFNAR1 interaction is not affected by these variants. Finally, qPCR analysis revealed diminished expression of TYK2 in B-ALL patients at diagnosis compared to that in healthy donors, further stressing the tumour immune surveillance role of TYK2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11121434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761059PMC
November 2020

Kaposi sarcoma in a child after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Should pre-transplant HHV-8 screening be considered in recipients from high prevalence areas?

Transpl Infect Dis 2020 Nov 24:e13525. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an angioproliferative disease associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). We report the case of a 10-year-old male from a high HHV-8 prevalence area, diagnosed with severe aplastic anemia who underwent an upfront hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Five months after transplant, the patient was diagnosed with KS with skin, mucosae, lymph nodes and lung involvement. After withdrawal of immunosuppression the patient achieved complete remission without requiring further treatments. KS may occur after HSCT in patients from high HHV-8 prevalence areas. Considering that, we propose that screening of HHV-8 by antibody testing could be considered in HSCT donors/recipients from these areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13525DOI Listing
November 2020

Haploidentical transplantation in pediatric non-malignant diseases: A retrospective analysis on behalf of the Spanish Group for Hematopoietic Transplantation (GETH).

Eur J Haematol 2021 Feb 17;106(2):196-204. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Objective: Describe the GETH haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) activity in non-malignant disease (NMDs).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from children with NMDs who underwent haplo-HSCT.

Results: From January 2001 to December 2016, 26 pediatric patients underwent 31 haplo-HSCT through ex vivo T cell-depleted (TCD) graft platforms or post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) at 7 Spanish centers. Five cases employed unmanipulated PT-Cy haplo-HSCT, 16 employed highly purified CD34 cells, and 10 employed ex vivo TCD grafts manipulated either with CD3 CD19 depletion, TCRαβ CD19 selection or naive CD45RA T-cell depletion. Peripheral blood stem cells were the sole source for patients following TCD haplo-HSCT, and bone marrow was the source for one PT-Cy haplo-HSCT. The most common indications for transplantation were primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs), severe aplastic anemia, osteopetrosis, and thalassemia. The 1-year cumulative incidence of graft failure was 27.4%. The 1-year III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and 1-year chronic GvHD rates were 34.6% and 16.7%, respectively. The 2-year overall survival was 44.9% for PIDs, and the 2-year graft-versus-host disease-free and relapse-free survival rate was 37.6% for the other NMDs. The transplantation-related mortality at day 100 was 30.8%.

Conclusion: Although these results are discouraging, improvements will come if procedures are centralized in centers of expertise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13536DOI Listing
February 2021

A Phase I study of inotuzumab ozogamicin in pediatric relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ITCC-059 study).

Blood 2020 Oct 16. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Erasmus MC Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; European Consortium for Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer (ITCC) and I-BFM Study Group, Netherlands.

This Phase I study investigated the recommended Phase II dose (RP2D) of inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO), a CD22-directed antibody-drug conjugate, in pediatric patients with multiple-relapsed/refractory (R/R) CD22-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients (≥1-<18 years) received three InO doses (Days 1, 8, 15) per course. Dose-escalation was based on dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) during Course 1 . Dose level 1 (DL1)=1.4 mg/m2 (0.6-0.4-0.4 mg/m2); DL2=1.8 mg/m2 (0.8-0.5-0.5 mg/m2). Secondary endpoints included safety, anti-leukemic activity, and pharmacokinetics. Twenty-five patients (23 evaluable for DLT) were enrolled. In Course 1, first cohort, 1/6 (DL1) and 2/5 (DL2) patients experienced DLTs; subsequent review considered DL2 DLTs to be non-dose-limiting. Dose was de-escalated to DL1 while awaiting protocol amendment to re-evaluate DL2 in a second cohort, where 0/6 (DL1) and 1/6 (DL2) patients had a DLT. Twenty-three patients experienced Grade 3-4 adverse events; hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome was reported in two patients after subsequent chemotherapy. Overall response rate after Course 1 was 80% [95% CI: 59-93%] (20/25 patients; DL1=75% [43-95%], DL2=85% [55-98%]); 84% [60-97%] of responders obtained minimal residual disease-negative CR; 12-month overall survival was 40% [95% CI: 25-66%]. Nine patients received hematopoietic stem cell transplant or chimeric-antigen receptor T-cells after InO. InO median maximum concentrations were comparable to simulated adult concentrations. InO was well tolerated, demonstrating anti-leukemic activity in heavily pre-treated children with CD22-positive R/R ALL. RP2D was established as 1.8 mg/m2/course, as in adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020007848DOI Listing
October 2020

Recommendations for screening, monitoring, prevention, and prophylaxis of infections in adult and pediatric patients receiving CAR T-cell therapy: a position paper.

Infection 2020 Sep 26. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Universitari Vall D'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is one of the most promising emerging treatments for B-cell malignancies. Recently, two CAR T-cell products (axicabtagene ciloleucel and tisagenlecleucel) have been approved for patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia; many other CAR-T constructs are in research for both hematological and non-hematological diseases. Most of the patients receiving CAR-T therapy will develop fever at some point after infusion, mainly due to cytokine release syndrome (CRS). The onset of CRS is often indistinguishable from an infection, which makes management of these patients challenging. In addition to the lymphodepleting chemotherapy and CAR T cells, the treatment of complications with corticosteroids and/or tocilizumab increases the risk of infection in these patients. Data regarding incidence, risk factors and prevention of infections in patients receiving CAR-T cell therapy are scarce. To assist in patient care, a multidisciplinary team from hospitals designated by the Spanish Ministry of Health to perform CAR-T therapy prepared these recommendations. We reviewed the literature on the incidence, risk factors, and management of infections in adult and pediatric patients receiving CAR-T cell treatment. Recommendations cover different areas: monitoring and treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia, prevention, prophylaxis, and management of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections as well as vaccination prior and after CAR-T cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-020-01521-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518951PMC
September 2020

Tocilizumab in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and COVID-19-related cytokine release syndrome.

An Pediatr (Engl Ed) 2020 Aug 1;93(2):132-133. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Unidad de Patología Infecciosa e Inmunodeficiencias de Pediatría, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anpede.2020.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328534PMC
August 2020

[Tocilizumab in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and COVID-19-related cytokine release syndrome].

An Pediatr (Barc) 2020 08 9;93(2):132-133. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Unidad de Patología Infecciosa e Inmunodeficiencias de Pediatría, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, España.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anpedi.2020.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7280090PMC
August 2020

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Tisagenlecleucel in the Treatment of Relapsed or Refractory B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in Children and Young Adults in Spain.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2020 15;12:253-264. Epub 2020 May 15.

Paediatric Oncology and Hematology Department - Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: Tisagenlecleucel, a chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy, is a promising alternative for the management of children and young adults with relapsed and refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r ALL). The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with tisagenlecleucel is a cost-effective intervention compared with salvage chemotherapy in paediatric and young adult patients with r/r ALL in Spain.

Materials And Methods: A partitioned survival model of monthly cycles with three health states was used (event-free survival, progressive/relapsed disease and death). A lifetime time horizon and the Spanish National Health System perspective were adopted. During the first 5 years, permanence in the different health states was determined according to the results in the clinical studies. In successive years, mortality tables of the Spanish general population adjusted by standardized mortality rate for survivors of childhood cancer were used. Clinical, economic, and quality of life parameters were drawn from clinical trials and the literature. Only direct health costs (pharmacological costs and the costs derived from health resource use) were included. The robustness of the results was evaluated in a sensitivity analysis.

Results: This cost-effectiveness analysis showed a greater benefit (10.10 and 8.97 life-years gained [LYGs] and quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs] gained, respectively) and a higher cost (€ 258,378.40) for tisagenlecleucel compared to salvage chemotherapy. The resulting incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratios were € 25,576.80 per LYG and € 28,818.52 per QALY gained, respectively. In the sensitivity analysis, all the results were below € 50,000/QALY.

Conclusion: Tisagenlecleucel would represent a cost-effective intervention for the treatment of children and young adults with r/r ALL in Spain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEOR.S241880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237114PMC
May 2020

Low-dose liposomal amphotericin B for antifungal prophylaxis in paediatric allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2020 08;75(8):2264-2271

Vall d'Hebron Research Institute, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Primary antifungal prophylaxis in paediatric allogeneic HSCT recipients is mainly based on azoles, which can have related toxicity and drug interactions. Low-dose liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) is an attractive intravenous alternative because of its low toxicity and lower risk of interactions.

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of L-AmB (1 mg/kg/day) for primary antifungal prophylaxis in pre-engraftment paediatric HSCT patients.

Patients And Methods: Retrospective, observational study including all consecutive patients aged ≤18 years who underwent HSCT and received antifungal prophylaxis with intravenous L-AmB (1 mg/kg/day, from day -1 to 48 h before discharge) between January 2012 and December 2016.

Results: In total, 125 HSCT procedures in 118 patients were included, median age 7.2 years (IQR 4.2-11.5). Haematological malignancies were the main underlying condition (63.6%), and 109 (87.2%) were considered at high risk for invasive fungal infection (IFI). Ten patients (7.7%), all high risk, developed breakthrough IFI (three Candida spp., seven invasive mould infections) and tended to have higher overall mortality. The only statistically significant risk factor for IFI was cytomegalovirus co-infection. Adverse events, all grade I, occurred in 25 (20%), requiring L-AmB withdrawal in one case. Overall survival at 30 days was 99.2%. At study completion, one patient had died of IFI.

Conclusions: The incidence of breakthrough IFI was comparable to that of previous reports, with a very low rate of significant toxicity. Thus, prophylactic L-AmB may be a safe, effective option for antifungal prophylaxis in the pre-engraftment phase for children undergoing HSCT, even those at high risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkaa149DOI Listing
August 2020

Long-term outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: a retrospective analysis and a review of the literature by the Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (SAAWP-EBMT).

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 09 19;55(9):1796-1809. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

G. Gaslini Research Institute (IRRCS), Genova, Italy.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative procedure in patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) with bone marrow abnormalities. The results of 74 patients with SDS (6 acute myeloid leukemia, 7 myelodysplastic syndrome, and 61 bone marrow failure) treated with HSCT between 1988 and 2016 are reported. The donor source was: 24% sibling, 8% parent, and 68% unrelated donor. The stem cell source was: 70% bone marrow, 19% peripheral blood stem cells, and 11% cord blood. The conditioning regimen was myeloablative in 54% and reduced intensity in 46%. Neutrophil engraftment was achieved in 84% of patients after a median time of 17.5 days. Graft failure occurred in 15% of HSCTs. Grades I-IV acute and chronic GVHD were observed in 55% and 20% of patients, respectively. After a median follow-up of 7.3 years (95% CI 4.8-10.2), 28 patients died for progression/relapse (7) or toxicity (21). The 5-year overall survival and nonrelapse mortality were 63.3% (95% CI 50.8-73.4) and 19.8% (95% CI 10.8-30.8), respectively. In conclusion, this is the largest series so far reported and confirms that HSCT is a suitable option for patients with SDS. Further efforts are needed to lower transplant-related toxicity and reduce graft failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0863-zDOI Listing
September 2020

Myeloablative conditioning for allo-HSCT in pediatric ALL: FTBI or chemotherapy?-A multicenter EBMT-PDWP study.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 08 17;55(8):1540-1551. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Division for Stem Cell Transplantation and Immunology, Department for Children and Adolescents, University Hospital, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receive fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), it is an important matter of debate if chemotherapy can effectively replace FTBI. To compare outcomes after FTBI versus chemotherapy-based conditioning (CC), we performed a retrospective EBMT registry study. Children aged 2-18 years after MAC for first allo-HSCT of bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from matched-related (MRD) or unrelated donors (UD) in first (CR1) or second remission (CR2) between 2000 and 2012 were included. Propensity score weighting was used to control pretreatment imbalances of the observed variables. 3.054 patients were analyzed. CR1 (1.498): median follow-up (FU) after FTBI (1.285) and CC (213) was 6.8 and 6.1 years. Survivals were not significantly different. CR2 (1.556): median FU after FTBI (1.345) and CC (211) was 6.2 years. Outcomes after FTBI were superior as compared with CC with regard to overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), relapse incidence (RI), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). However, we must emphasize the preliminary character of the results of this retrospective "real-world-practice" study. These findings will be prospectively assessed in the ALL SCTped 2012 FORUM trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0854-0DOI Listing
August 2020

Pediatric acute graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis and treatment: surveyed real-life approach reveals dissimilarities compared to published recommendations.

Transpl Int 2020 Jul 2;33(7):762-772. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) practices differ from those of adults, particularly the heterogeneity of transplantable nonmalignant diseases and the lower incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Several guidelines regarding the management of acute (a) GVHD in adult HCT have been published. We aimed to capture the real-life approaches for pediatric aGVHD prophylaxis/treatment, and data from 75/193 (response rate 39%) EBMT centers (26 countries) were included, representing half (48%) of the pediatric EBMT-HCT activity. Results with ≥75% approval from respondents (74/75) for GVHD prophylaxis after myeloablative HCT for malignancies partially contradict published guidelines: Single-agent cyclosporine A (CsA) was used for matched sibling donor HCT in 47%; blood CsA levels were reported lower; the relapse risk in malignant diseases influenced GVHD prophylaxis with early withdrawal of CsA; distinct longer duration of CsA was employed in nonmalignant diseases. Most centers used additional anti-thymocyte globulin for matched unrelated and mismatched donor HCT, but not for matched siblings. Regarding prophylaxis in nonmyeloablative conditioning (mainly for nonmalignant diseases), responses showed broad heterogeneity. High conformity was found for first-line treatment; however, results regarding steroid-refractory aGVHD indicate an earlier diagnosis in children. Our findings highlight the need for standardized pediatric approaches toward aGVHD prophylaxis/treatment differentiated for malignant and nonmalignant underlying diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tri.13601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7384018PMC
July 2020

Haploidentical transplantation in high-risk pediatric leukemia: A retrospective comparative analysis on behalf of the Spanish working Group for bone marrow transplantation in children (GETMON) and the Spanish Grupo for hematopoietic transplantation (GETH).

Am J Hematol 2020 01 5;95(1):28-37. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Hospital Niño Jesus, Madrid, Spain.

A total of 192 pediatric patients, median age 8.6 years, with high-risk hematological malignancies, underwent haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) using post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy), or ex vivo T cell-depleted (TCD) graft platforms, from January 1999 to December 2016 in 10 centers in Spain. Some 41 patients received an unmanipulated graft followed by PT-Cy for graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis. A total of 151 patients were transplanted with CD3-depleted peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) by either CD34 selection, CD3 CD19 depletion, TCRαβ CD19 depletion or CD45RA depletion, added to CD34 selection for GvHD prophylaxis. The PBSCs were the only source in patients following ex vivo TCD haplo-HSCT; bone marrow was the source in 9 of 41 patients following PT-CY haplo-HSCT. Engraftment was achieved in 91.3% of cases. A donor younger than 30 years, and the development of chronic GvHD were positive factors influencing survival, whereas positive minimal residual disease (MRD) before transplant and lymphoid disease were negative factors. The probability of relapse increased with lymphoid malignancies, a donor killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) haplotype A and positive MRD pretransplant. No difference was found in overall survival, disease-free survival or relapse incidence between the two platforms. Relapse is still of concern in both platforms, and it should be the focus of future efforts. In conclusion, both platforms for haplo-HSCT were effective and could be utilized depending on the comfort level of the center.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25661DOI Listing
January 2020

Successful treatment of post-transplant CMV meningoencephalitis with third-party CMV virus-specific T cells: Lessons learned.

Pediatr Transplant 2019 12 26;23(8):e13584. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Cytomegalovirus encephalitis is a challenging life-threatening complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for which medical treatment is usually ineffective or toxic. However, in recent years, adoptive T-cell therapy has been reported to provide a significant chance of cure for patients with viral infections. Herein, two cases of pediatric patients successfully treated with third-party donor-derived virus-specific T cells for CMV meningoencephalitis are reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13584DOI Listing
December 2019

Successful engraftment of gene-corrected hematopoietic stem cells in non-conditioned patients with Fanconi anemia.

Nat Med 2019 09 9;25(9):1396-1401. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Hematopoietic Innovative Therapies Division, Centro de investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, Madrid, Spain.

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a DNA repair syndrome generated by mutations in any of the 22 FA genes discovered to date. Mutations in FANCA account for more than 60% of FA cases worldwide. Clinically, FA is associated with congenital abnormalities and cancer predisposition. However, bone marrow failure is the primary pathological feature of FA that becomes evident in 70-80% of patients with FA during the first decade of life. In this clinical study (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03157804 ; European Clinical Trials Database, 2011-006100-12), we demonstrate that lentiviral-mediated hematopoietic gene therapy reproducibly confers engraftment and proliferation advantages of gene-corrected hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in non-conditioned patients with FA subtype A. Insertion-site analyses revealed the multipotent nature of corrected HSCs and showed that the repopulation advantage of these cells was not due to genotoxic integrations of the therapeutic provirus. Phenotypic correction of blood and bone marrow cells was shown by the acquired resistance of hematopoietic progenitors and T lymphocytes to DNA cross-linking agents. Additionally, an arrest of bone marrow failure progression was observed in patients with the highest levels of gene marking. The progressive engraftment of corrected HSCs in non-conditioned patients with FA supports that gene therapy should constitute an innovative low-toxicity therapeutic option for this life-threatening disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-019-0550-zDOI Listing
September 2019

Multidisciplinary, evidence-based consensus guidelines for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in high-risk populations, Spain, 2016.

Euro Surveill 2019 Feb;24(7)

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, España.

Introduction: Although human papillomavirus (HPV) routine vaccination programmes have been implemented around the world and recommendations have been expanded to include other high-risk individuals, current recommendations often differ between countries in Europe, as well as worldwide.

Aim: To find and summarise the best available evidence of HPV vaccination in high-risk patients aiding clinicians and public health workers in the day-to-day vaccine decisions relating to HPV in Spain.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the immunogenicity, safety and efficacy/effectiveness of HPV vaccination in high-risk populations between January 2006 and June 2016. HPV vaccination recommendations were established with levels of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system.

Results: A strong recommendation about HPV vaccination was made in the following groups: HIV infected patients aged 9-26 years; men who have sex with men aged 9-26 years; women with precancerous cervical lesions; patients with congenital bone marrow failure syndrome; women who have received a solid organ transplant or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation aged 9-26 years; and patients diagnosed with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

Conclusions: Data concerning non-routine HPV vaccination in populations with a high risk of HPV infection and associated lesions were scarce. We have developed a document to evaluate and establish evidence-based guidelines on HPV vaccination in high-risk populations in Spain, based on best available scientific evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.7.1700857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381660PMC
February 2019

Author Correction: Donor lymphocyte infusions for B-cell malignancies relapse after T-cell replete allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 Jul;54(7):1176

Hematology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d´Hebron, Departament de Medicina, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

In the original version of this article, author 'Lucia López-Corral' was incorrectly listed as 'Lucia López'. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the article to 'Lucia López-Corral'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0471-yDOI Listing
July 2019

Solid organ transplantation after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in childhood: A multicentric retrospective survey.

Am J Transplant 2019 06 25;19(6):1798-1805. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department for Children and Adolescents, Division for Stem Cell Transplantation and Immunology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

We report data obtained from a retrospective multicenter pediatric survey on behalf of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Information on solid organ transplantation (SOT) performed in pediatric recipients of either autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between 1984 and 2016 was collected in 20 pediatric EBMT Centers (25.6%). Overall, we evaluated data on 44 SOTs following HSCT including 20 liver (LTx), 12 lung (LuTx), 6 heart (HTx), and 6 kidney (KTx) transplantations. The indication for SOT was organ failure related to intractable graft-vs-host disease in 16 children (36.3%), acute or chronic HSCT-related toxicity in 18 (40.9%), and organ dysfunction related to the underlying disease in 10 (22.8%). The median follow-up was 10.9 years (95% confidence interval: 1.7-29.5). The overall survival rate at 1 and 5 years after SOT was 85.7% and 80.4%, respectively: it was 74% and 63.2% after LTx, 83.2% after HTx, and 100% equally after LuTx and KTx. This multicenter survey confirms that SOT represents a promising option in children with severe organ failure occurring after HSCT. Additional studies are needed to further establish the effectiveness of SOT after HSCT and to better understand the mechanism underlying this encouraging success.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15240DOI Listing
June 2019

Use of inotuzumab-ozogamicin in a child with Down syndrome and refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2019 04 28;66(4):e27562. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Servicio de Oncología y Hematología Pediátricas, Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27562DOI Listing
April 2019

Unexpected High Incidence of Human Herpesvirus-6 Encephalitis after Naive T Cell-Depleted Graft of Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Patients.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 11 19;24(11):2316-2323. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

The CD45RA T cell depletion (TCD) method has been used to deplete naive T cells, preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) but preserving memory cells, providing immediate functional T cells with anti-infection, antileukemia, and antirejection effects. We describe a series of 25 consecutive high-risk patients with leukemia who received haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) with CD45RA TCD. Each patient received 2 cell products: 1 created by CD34 positive selection and the other through CD45RA depletion from the CD34 negative fraction by a CliniMACS device. CD45RA-depleted haplo-HSCT was well tolerated, with rapid engraftment and low risk of severe acute GVHD and chronic GVHD. Although this treatment achieved a good control of viral reactivations, such as cytomegalovirus and adenovirus, we observed an unexpectedly high rate of limbic encephalitis due to human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6; 8 cases). Characteristically, the infection appeared early in almost all patients, just after the engraftment. Although no patient died from encephalitis, 1 patient showed neuropsychological sequelae, and another experienced secondary graft failure just after the HHV-6 reactivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.07.016DOI Listing
November 2018