Publications by authors named "Cristian Fiori"

195 Publications

Diagnostic performance of fusion (US/MRI guided) prostate biopsy: propensity score matched comparison of elastic versus rigid fusion system.

World J Urol 2022 Jan 17. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Urology, "Regina Elena" National Cancer Institute, Via Elio Chianesi 53, 00144, Rome, RM, Italy.

Purpose: Many software for US/MRI guided fusion prostate biopsy (FPB), have been developed in the last years. However, there are few data comparing diagnostic accuracy of different fusion systems. We assessed diagnostic performance of elastic (EF) versus rigid fusion (RF) PB in a propensity score matched (PSM) analysis.

Methods: A total of 314 FPB were prospectively collected from two different centers. All patients were biopsy naïve and all mpMRI reported a single suspicious area. Overall, 211 PB were performed using a RF system and 103 using an EF software. The two groups were compared for the main clinical features. A 1:1 PSM analysis was employed to reduce covariate imbalance to < 10%. Detection rate (DR) for any prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant (cs) PCa were compared and stratified for PI-RADS Score. A per target univariable and multivariable regression analyses were applied to identity predictors of anyPCa and csPCa.

Results: After applying the PSM, two cohorts of 83 cases were selected. DR of any PCa cancer and csPCa were comparable between the two cohorts (all p > 0.077) as well as DR of csPCa for every PIRADS score. At univariable regression analysis lesion size, PI-RADS Score, PSA Density and EF system were predictors of any PCa (all p < 0.001); however, at multivariable analysis only PI-RADS Score was independent predictor of any PCa (p = 0.027). At multivariable analysis only PI-RADS score was independent predictor of csPCa.

Conclusions: Fusion PB guarantees high diagnostic accuracy for csPCa, regardless of the fusion technology. Prospective randomized study is needed to confirm these data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03921-0DOI Listing
January 2022

Contemporary Trends of Systemic Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Intravesical Chemotherapy in Patients With Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas Undergoing Minimally Invasive or Open Radical Nephroureterectomy: Analysis of US Claims on Perioperative Outcomes and Health Care Costs.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2021 Dec 24. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Department of Urology, Stanford Medical Center, Stanford, CA.

Introduction: New evidence indicates that minimally invasive surgery (MIS) (laparoscopic or robotic-assisted [LNU, RANU]) reaches oncologic equivalence compared with Open Radical Nephroureterectomy (ORNU) for high-risk upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Recently, European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines suggested implementing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to standard treatment to improve oncologic outcomes of high-risk UTUC. We aimed (1) To explore contemporary trends of MIS for RNU in the United States and to compare perioperative outcomes and costs with that of ORNU. (2) To determine the trends of NAC and postoperative intravesical chemotherapy (PIC) administration for high-risk UTUC and to assess their contribution to perioperative outcomes and costs.

Patients And Methods: The Optum Clinformatics Data Mart de-identified database was queried from 2003 to 2018 to retrospectively examine patients who had undergone LNU/RANU or ORNU with or without NAC and PIC. We evaluated temporal adoption trends, complications, and health care cost analyses. We obtained descriptive statistics and utilized multivariable regression modeling to assess outcomes.

Results: A total of n = 492 ORNU and n = 1618 LNU/RANU procedures were reviewed. The MIS approach was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of intraoperative complications (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR], 0.48, 95% CI:0.24-0.96), risk of hospitalization costs (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI:0.49-0.78), and shorter hospital stay (aOR: 0.20, 95% CI:0.15-0.26) when compared to ORNU. Overall, adoption of NAC and PIC accounted for only n = 81 and n < 37 cases respectively. The implementation of NAC and higher number of cycles were associated with an increased probability of any complication rate (aOR: 2.06, 95% CI:1.26-3.36) and hospital costs (aOR: 2.12, 95% CI:1.33-3.38).

Conclusion: MIS has become the approach of choice for RNU in the US. Although recommended by guidelines, neither NAC nor postoperative bladder instillation of chemotherapy has been routinely incorporated into the clinical practice of patients with UTUC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2021.11.016DOI Listing
December 2021

Robot-assisted-radical-cystectomy with total intracorporeal Y neobladder: Analysis of postoperative complications and functional outcomes with urodynamics findings.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2021 Dec 16. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano (Turin), Italy.

Objectives: To describe our robotic Y intracorporeal neobladder (ICNB) technique and to report its post-operative complications and urodynamics (UD) findings.

Subjects: and Methods: In this prospective study we enrolled patients affected by MIBC (T1-T4N0-N1M0) from 01/2017 to 06/2021 at our Centers. All the patients underwent robotic radical cystectomy (RARC) with Y-ICNB reconfiguration. Early and late complications were collected and classified according to Clavien-Dindo. Continence and potency at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months were evaluated. At the 3rd month of follow-up patients underwent UD. Finally, in a retrospective match paired analysis the functional outcomes of Y RARC patients were compared with a cohort of open Y radical cystectomy.

Results: 45 patients were enrolled. Overall 30-day complications were observed in 25 (55,5%) patients and 30 to 90-days complications in 4 (8,9%). 9 patients (20%) had Clavien ≥3 complications. UDs revealed median neobladder capacity of 268 cc, with a median compliance of 13 ml/cm H20; the voiding phase showed a voiding volume and a post void residual (PVR) of 154 cc and 105 cc respectively. At 12 months of follow-up 4.4%, 15.5% and 4.4% of the patients experienced urge, stress and mix urinary incontinence respectively. The comparison between Y RARC and Y open RC revealed a higher neobladder capacity with open approach (p = 0.049) with subsequent better findings during the voiding phase in terms of maximum flow (p = 0.002), voiding volume (p = 0.001) and PVR (p = 0.01). Focusing on continence recovery, a slight trend in favor of RARC was shown without reaching the statistical significance.

Conclusions: Robotic Y-ICNB is feasible and safe as shown by the low rate of postoperative complications. Satisfying UD functional outcomes are achievable, both during filling and voiding phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2021.12.014DOI Listing
December 2021

The battle of mini-invasiveness in the treatment of large prostate glands.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Oct;73(5):689-690

VCU Health, Richmond, VA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04723-6DOI Listing
October 2021

European Association of Urology Section of Urolithiasis and International Alliance of Urolithiasis Joint Consensus on Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for the Management of Renal Stones.

Eur Urol Focus 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Urology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) has become the preferred treatment modality for nephrolithiasis. However, because of ongoing uncertainties regarding the optimal perioperative management, operative technique, and postoperative follow-up, as well as a lack of standardization for outcome reporting, consensus is needed to achieve more uniform clinical practice worldwide.

Objective: To develop recommendations for RIRS on the basis of existing data and expert consensus.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A protocol-driven, three-phase study was conducted by the European Association of Urology Section of Urolithiasis (EULIS) and the International Alliance of Urolithiasis (IAU). The process included: (1) a nonsystematic review of the literature to define domains for discussion; (2) a two-round modified Delphi survey involving experts in this field; and (3) an additional group meeting and third-round survey involving 64 senior representative members to formulate the final conclusions.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: The results from each previous round were returned to the participants for re-evaluation of their decisions during the next round. The agreement threshold was set at 70%.

Results And Limitations: The panel included 209 participants who developed 29 consensus statements on the following topics of interest: (1) perioperative infection management; (2) perioperative antithrombotic therapy; (3) fundamentals of the operative technique; and (4) standardized outcome reporting. Although this consensus can be considered as a useful reference for more clinically oriented daily practice, we also acknowledge that a higher level of evidence from further clinical trials is needed.

Conclusions: The consensus statements aim to guide and standardize clinical practice and research on RIRS and to recommend standardized outcome reporting.

Patient Summary: An international consensus on the best practice for minimally invasive surgery for kidney stones was organized and developed by two international societies. It is anticipated that this consensus will provide further guidance to urologists and may help to improve clinical outcomes for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2021.10.011DOI Listing
November 2021

Treatment of Ureteral Stent-Related Symptoms.

Urol Int 2021 Nov 2:1-16. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, San Luigi Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Background: The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the main classes of drugs used at reducing morbidity related to ureteric stents.

Summary: After establishing a priori protocol, a systematic electronic literature search was conducted in July 2019. The randomized clinical trials (RCTs) selection proceeded in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and was registered (PROSPERO ID 178130). The risk of bias and the quality assessment of the included RCTs were performed. Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and quality of life (QoL) were pooled for meta-analysis. Mean difference and risk difference were calculated as appropriate for each outcome to determine the cumulative effect size. Fourteen RCTs were included in the analysis accounting for 2,842 patients. Alpha antagonist, antimuscarinic, and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors significatively reduced all indexes of the USSQ, the IPSS and QoL scores relative to placebo. Conversely, combination therapy (alpha antagonist plus antimuscarinic) showed in all indexes of the USSQ, IPSS, and QoL over alpha antagonist or antimuscarinic alone. On comparison with alpha blockers, PDE inhibitors were found to be equally effective for urinary symptoms, general health, and body pain parameters, but sexual health parameters improved significantly with PDE inhibitors. Finally, antimuscarinic resulted in higher decrease in all indexes of the USSQ, the IPSS, and QoL relative to alpha antagonist. Key message: Relative to placebo, alpha antagonist alone, antimuscarinics alone, and PDE inhibitors alone have beneficial effect in reducing stent-related symptoms. Furthermore, there are significant advantages of combination therapy compared with monotherapy. Finally, PDE inhibitors are comparable to alpha antagonist, and antimuscarinic seems to be more effective than alpha antagonist alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000518387DOI Listing
November 2021

Percutaneous Kidney Puncture with Three-dimensional Mixed-reality Hologram Guidance: From Preoperative Planning to Intraoperative Navigation.

Eur Urol 2021 Nov 16. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Division of Urology, Department Of Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Turin, San Luigi Hospital, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: Despite technical and technological innovations, percutaneous puncture still represents the most challenging step when performing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. This maneuver is characterized by the steepest learning curve and a risk of injuring surrounding organs and kidney damage.

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of three-dimensional mixed reality (3D MR) holograms in establishing the access point and guiding the needle during percutaneous kidney puncture.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective study included ten patients who underwent 3D MR endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery (ECIRS) for kidney stones from July 2019 to January 2020. A retrospective series of patients who underwent a standard procedure were selected for matched pair analysis.

Surgical Procedure: For patients who underwent 3D MR ECIRS, holograms were overlapped on the real anatomy to guide the surgeon during percutaneous puncture. In the standard group, the procedures were only guided by ultrasound and fluoroscopy.

Measurements: Differences in preoperative and postoperative patient characteristics between the groups were tested using a χ test and a Kruskal-Wallis test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results are reported as the median and interquartile range for continuous variables and as the frequency and percentage for categorical variables.

Results And Limitations: Ten patients underwent 3D MR ECIRS. In all cases, the inferior calyx was punctured correctly, as planned using the overlapping hologram. The median puncture and radiation exposure times were 27 min and 120 s, respectively. No intraoperative or major postoperative complications occurred. Matched pair analysis with the standard ECIRS group revealed a significantly shorter radiation exposure time for the 3D MR group (p < 0.001) even though the puncture time was longer in comparison to the standard group (p < 0.001). Finally, use of 3D MR led to a higher success rate for renal puncture at the first attempt (100% vs 50%; p = 0.032). The main limitations of the study are the small sample size and manual overlapping of the rigid hologram models.

Conclusions: Our experience demonstrates that 3D MR guidance for renal puncture is feasible and safe. The procedure proved to be effective, with the inferior calyx correctly punctured in all cases, and was associated with a low intraoperative radiation exposure time because of the MR guidance.

Patient Summary: Three-dimensional virtual models visualized as holograms and intraoperatively overlapped on the patient's real anatomy seem to be a valid new tool for guiding puncture of the kidney through the skin for minimally invasive treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2021.10.023DOI Listing
November 2021

Management of colovesical fistula: a systematic review.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Nov 18. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Surgical Oncology Unit, Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Introduction: Colovesical fistulas (CVFs) account for approximately 95% enterovesical fistulas (EVFs). About 2/3 CVF cases are diverticular in origin. It mainly presents with urological signs such as pneumaturia and fecaluria. Diagnostic investigations aim at confirming the presence of a fistula. Although conservative management can be chosen for selected individuals, most patients are mainly treated through surgical interventions. CVF represents a challenging condition, which records high rates of morbidity and mortality. Our systematic review aimed at achieving deeper knowledge of both indications, in addition to short- and long-term outcomes related to CVF management.

Evidence Acquisition: We performed a systematic literature review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) guidelines. Pubmed/MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases were used to search all related literature.

Evidence Synthesis: The 22 included articles covered an approximately 37 years-study period (1982-2019), with a total 1,365 patient population. CVF etiology was colonic diverticulitis in most cases (87.9%). Pneumaturia (50.1%), fecaluria (40.9%) and urinary tract infections (46.6%) were the most common symptoms. Abdomen computed tomography (CT) scan (80.5%), colonoscopy (74.5%) and cystoscopy (55.9%) were the most frequently performed diagnostic methods. Most CVF patients underwent surgery (97.1%) with open approach (63.3%). Almost all patients had colorectal resection with primary anastomosis with or without ostomy and 53.2% patients underwent primary repair or partial/total cystectomy. 4% anastomotic leak, 1.8% bladder leak and 3.1% reoperations rates were identified. In an average 5-68 month follow-up, overall morbidity, overall mortality and recurrences rates recorded were 8%-49%, 0%-63% and 1.2%, respectively.

Conclusions: CVF mainly affects males and has diverticular origin in almost all cases. Pneumaturia, fecaluria and urinary tract infections are the most characteristic symptoms. Endoscopic tests and imaging are critical tools for diagnostic completion. Management of CVFs depends on the underlying disease. Surgical treatment represents the final approach and consists of resection and re-anastomosis of offending intestinal segment, with or without bladder closure. In many cases, a single-stage surgical strategy is selected. Perioperative and long-term outcomes prove good.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04750-9DOI Listing
November 2021

The Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic on Time to Primary, Secondary Resection and Adjuvant Intravesical Therapy in Patients with High-Risk Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Retrospective Multi-Institutional Cohort Analysis.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Oct 21;13(21). Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Urology, University of Bologna, S-Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Background: To investigate the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on the diagnosis and treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using an Italian multi-institutional database of TURBT patients with high-risk urothelial NMIBC between January 2019 and February 2021, followed by Re-TURBT and/or adjuvant intravesical BCG.

Results: A total of 2591 patients from 27 institutions with primary TURBT were included. Of these, 1534 (59.2%) and 1056 (40.8%) underwent TURBT before and during the COVID-19 outbreak, respectively. Time between diagnosis and TURBT was significantly longer during the COVID-19 period (65 vs. 52 days, = 0.002). One thousand and sixty-six patients (41.1%) received Re-TURBT, 604 (56.7%) during the pre-COVID-19. The median time to secondary resection was significantly longer during the COVID-19 period (55 vs. 48 days, < 0.0001). A total of 977 patients underwent adjuvant intravesical therapy after primary or secondary resection, with a similar distribution across the two groups ( = 453, 86% vs. = 388, 86.2%). However, the proportion of the patients who underwent maintenance significantly differed (79.5% vs. 60.4%, < 0.0001).

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic represented an unprecedented challenge to our health system. Our study did not show significant differences in TURBT quality. However, a delay in treatment schedule and disease management was observed. Investigation of the oncological impacts of those differences should be advocated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8582553PMC
October 2021

Systematic review comparing Anterior vs Retzius-sparing robotic assisted radical prostatectomy: can the approach really make a difference?

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Oct 29. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Urology Department, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Retzius-Sparing Robotic Assisted Radical Prostatectomy (RS-RARP) is a novel surgical approach to radical prostatectomy. Its pioneers have suggested an improved recovery of urinary continence, while maintaining adequate cancer control. Aim of this systematic review is to explore available data on RS-RALP and compare functional, oncologic and perioperative results of RS-RARP compared to anterior RARP.

Evidence Acquisition: A search following PRISMA guidelines was performed including the combination of the following words: retzius AND sparing AND radical AND prostatectomy. 93 articles were identified and 13 were included in the systematic review, including 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT), 4 prospective studies and 6 retrospective studies.

Evidence Synthesis: All available randomized trials confirmed an improved immediate continence for RS-RARP, with rates ranging 51-71%, compared to 21-48% for anterior RARP. However, this advantage was progressively lost with no significant difference found after 6 months. Moreover, a prospective study found no discrepancy in terms of quality of life across the two techniques. Erectile function was difficult to compare, as patients had different baseline erectile function across studies and rate of neurovascular preservation was not comparable. Surgical approach remains controversial regarding positive margin rate, although related to the surgeon's experience and clinical stage. Biochemical recurrence-free survival appears similar between the two approaches.

Conclusions: RS-RARP improves early urinary continence recovery compared to anterior RARP, with this advantage being lost after 3 to 6 months. Erectile function and quality of life were however comparable between the two techniques. The results concerning the rate of positive margins remained controversial. Future studies with longer follow-up are needed to better assess oncologic outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04623-1DOI Listing
October 2021

New Ultra-minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Comparative Outcomes.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2021 Nov 22;33:28-41. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Context: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is diagnosed in up to 80% of men during their lifetime. Several novel ultra-minimally invasive surgical treatments (uMISTs) for BPH/benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) have become available over the past 5 yr.

Objective: To evaluate the perioperative and functional outcomes of recently introduced uMISTs for BPH/BPO, including Urolift, Rezūm, temporary implantable nitinol device, prostatic artery embolization (PAE), and intraprostatic injection.

Evidence Acquisition: A systematic literature search was conducted in December 2020 using Medline (via PubMed), Embase (via Ovid), Scopus, and Web of Science (registered on PROSPERO as CRD42021225014). The search strategy used PICO criteria and article selection was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The risk of bias and the quality of the articles included were assessed. A dedicated data extraction form was used to collect the data of interest. Pooled and cumulative analyses were performed to compare perioperative and functional outcomes between study groups. A random-effects model using the DerSimonian and Laird method was used to evaluate heterogeneity. Stata version 15.0 software was used for all statistical analyses.

Evidence Synthesis: The initial electronic search identified 3978 papers, of which 48 ultimately met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Pooled analysis revealed a uMIST benefit in terms of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS; -9.81 points, 95% confidence interval [CI] -11.37 to -8.25 at 1 mo; -13.13 points, 95% CI -14.98 to -11.64 at 12 mo), maximum flow rate (from +3.66 ml/s, 95% CI 2.8-4.5 to +4.14 ml/s, 95% CI 0.72-7.56 at 12 mo), and postvoid residual volume (-10.10 ml, 95% CI -27.90 to 7.71 at 12 mo). No negative impact was observed on scores for the International Index of Erectile Function-5, Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculatory Dysfunction bother and function scales (overall postintervention change in pooled median score of 1.88, 95% CI 1.34-2.42 at the start of follow-up; and 1.04, 95% CI 0.28-1.8 after 1 yr), or the IPSS-Quality of Life questionnaire.

Conclusions: Novel uMISTs can yield fast and effective relief of LUTS without affecting patient quality of life. Only Rezūm, UroLift, and PAE had a minimal impact on patients' sexual function with respect to baseline, especially regarding preservation of ejaculation.

Patient Summary: We reviewed outcomes for recently introduced ultra-minimally invasive surgical treatments for patients with lower urinary tract symptoms caused by benign prostate enlargement or obstruction. The evidence suggests that these novel techniques are beneficial in terms of controlling symptoms while preserving sexual function.

Take Home  Message: Novel ultra-minimally invasive treatments can yield fast and effective relief of lower urinary tract symptoms without affecting a patient's quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2021.08.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473553PMC
November 2021

A Nomogram for the Prediction of Intermediate Significant Renal Function Loss After Robot-assisted Partial Nephrectomy for Localized Renal Tumors: A Prospective Multicenter Observational Study (RECORd2 Project).

Eur Urol Focus 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Urology, Unit of Oncologic Minimally-Invasive Urology and Andrology, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) is increasingly adopted for the treatment of localized renal tumors; however, rates and predictors of significant renal function (RF) loss after RAPN are still poorly investigated, especially at a long-term evaluation.

Objective: To analyze the predictive factors and develop a clinical nomogram for predicting the likelihood of ultimate RF loss after RAPN.

Design, Setting, And Participants: We prospectively evaluated all patients treated with RAPN in a multicenter series (RECORd2 project).

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Significant RF loss was defined as >25% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from preoperative assessment at 48th month follow-up after surgery. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses for RF loss were performed. The area under the receiving operator characteristic curve (AUC) was used to quantify predictive discrimination. A nomogram was created from the multivariable model.

Results And Limitations: A total of 981 patients were included. The median age at surgery was 64.2 (interquartile range [IQR] 54.3-71.4) yr, and 62.4% of patients were male. The median Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was 1 (IQR 0-2), 12.9% of patients suffered from diabetes mellitus, and 18.6% of patients showed peripheral vascular disease (PVD). The median Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical (PADUA) score was 7 (IQR 7-9). Imperative indications to partial nephrectomy were present in 3.6% of patients. Significant RF loss at 48th month postoperative evaluation was registered in 108 (11%) patients. At multivariable analysis, age (p = 0.04), female gender (p < 0.0001), CCI (p < 0.0001), CCI (p < 0.0001), diabetes (p < 0.0001), PVD (p < 0.0001), eGFR (p = 0.02), imperative (p = 0.001) surgical indication, and PADUA score (p < 0.0001) were found to be predictors of RF loss. The developed nomogram including these variables showed an AUC of 0.816.

Conclusions: We developed a clinical nomogram for the prediction of late RF loss after RAPN using preoperative and surgical variables from a large multicenter dataset.

Patient Summary: We developed a nomogram that could represent a clinical tool for early detection of patients at the highest risk of significant renal function impairment after robotic conservative surgery for renal tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2021.09.012DOI Listing
September 2021

Functional and sexual outcomes recovery after simple prostatectomy: the past, the present, the future of the surgical technique.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Aug;73(4):554-556

School of Medicine, Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04633-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Enzalutamide for castration resistant prostatic cancer: "real-life" matters!

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Aug;73(4):552-553

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy -

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04632-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Artificial intelligence for target prostate biopsy outcomes prediction the potential application of fuzzy logic.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: In current precision prostate cancer (PCa) surgery era the identification of the best patients candidate for prostate biopsy still remains an open issue. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the prostate target biopsy (TB) outcomes could be predicted by using artificial intelligence approach based on a set of clinical pre-biopsy.

Methods: Pre-biopsy characteristics in terms of PSA, PSA density, digital rectal examination (DRE), previous prostate biopsies, number of suspicious lesions at mp-MRI, lesion volume, lesion location, and Pi-Rads score were extracted from our prospectively maintained TB database from March 2014 to December 2019. Our approach is based on Fuzzy logic and associative rules mining, with the aim to predict TB outcomes.

Results: A total of 1448 patients were included. Using the Frequent-Pattern growth algorithm we extracted 875 rules and used to build the fuzzy classifier. 963 subjects were classified whereas for the remaining 484 subjects were not classified since no rules matched with their input variables. Analyzing the classified subjects we obtained a specificity of 59.2% and sensitivity of 90.8% with a negative and the positive predictive values of 81.3% and 76.6%, respectively. In particular, focusing on ISUP ≥ 3 PCa, our model is able to correctly predict the biopsy outcomes in 98.1% of the cases.

Conclusions: In this study we demonstrated that the possibility to look at several pre-biopsy variables simultaneously with artificial intelligence algorithms can improve the prediction of TB outcomes, outclassing the performance of PSA, its derivates and MRI alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-021-00441-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413110PMC
September 2021

Urology Residency Training at the Time of COVID-19 in Italy: 1 Year After the Beginning.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2021 Sep 17;31:37-40. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

European Society of Residents in Urology (ESRU), Arnhem, The Netherlands.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant changes in urology practice and residency programs. One year ago, the first nationwide survey on this topic showed a dramatic impact of the acute phase of the pandemic on residents' training activities. Aiming to assess for the first time how the COVID-19 scenario reshaped the pattern of urology training over a whole pandemic year, a cross-sectional, 38-item, web-based survey was developed. Residents scored the percentage decrease of their involvement in various clinical and surgical activities during the period of March 2020-March 2021 (as compared with the pre-COVID period). Overall, 312/585 (53.3%) residents from 27 schools of urology were included. The proportions of those experiencing a significant decrease of training exposure were 13.6%, 28.8%, 26.7%, 46.9%, 37.6%, and 33.3% (as compared with 40.2%, 85.8%. 82.3%, 69.7%, 59.7%, and 50.2% in the previous survey) for on-call activities, outpatient visits, diagnostic procedures, endoscopic surgery, open surgery, and minimally invasive surgery, respectively. The most impactful reductions in training activities were reached by final-year residents. Our findings highlight that, even if less burdensome than expected, urology residency training (especially in endoscopic surgery) was highly affected throughout the whole past year. This critical gap of skills may jeopardize residents' training even beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.

Patient Summary: In this study, we assessed whether the training activities of Italian urology residents were impacted negatively by a whole year of COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020-March 2021). We also compared our results with those reported in a previous survey evaluating how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic changed the training pattern of urology residents during the peak of the outbreak in March 2020. We found a critical decrease in residents' activities (especially for those in their final years of residency and for surgical procedures) that, even if lower than expected, might negatively impact their education and training in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2021.07.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342892PMC
September 2021

Emerging minimally invasive transurethral treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review with meta-analysis of functional outcomes and description of complications.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Urology, Hospital Universitario 12 Octubre, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital 12 de Octubre (imas12), Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Several minimally invasive surgical procedures have been proposed as alternative therapies for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The present systematic review aimed to describe the functional outcomes and complications of emerging minimally invasive transurethral treatments for BPH.

Evidence Acquisition: A comprehensive bibliographic search on the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases was conducted. No chronological restriction was applied. Retrospective and prospective primary studies were included. A meta-analysis of IPSS, IPSS-QoL, Qmax, and PVR was performed. Data on adverse events were presented narratively.

Evidence Synthesis: A total of 18 studies were included. Thirteen papers were eligible for the meta-analysis. iTIND, Rezūm, and Aquablation were associated with a significant improvement in IPSS (p<0.001), IPSS-QoL (p<0.001), and Qmax (p<0.001) compared to baseline. A significant reduction of PVR from baseline was found with Rezūm (p<0.001) and Aquablation (p<0.001) but not iTIND (p=0.22). A significant difference in IPSS, IPSS-QoL, and Qmax was shown in favor of Aquablation compared to Rezūm and iTIND (p<0.001). Rezūm and iTIND were mainly associated with mild to moderate adverse effects. Hematuria or bleeding was reported in all studies regarding Aquablation (0.8%-26%), the need for transfusion or intervention for bleeding varied between 1.8% and 9%.

Conclusions: Aquablation, Rezūm, and iTIND significantly improve urinary functional outcomes compared to baseline; however, Aquablation would seem to lead to better functional results compared to the other procedures. Rezūm and iTIND appear to have an excellent safety profile, while Aquablation would seem to expose patients to a nonnegligible risk of bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04530-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Contemporary management of benign uretero-enteric strictures after cystectomy: a systematic review.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Urology Department, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Uretero-enteric stricture (UES) is a common post-operative complication after radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. The aim of this systematic review is to discuss the contemporary management of benign UES after cystectomy and to compare the different surgical approaches.

Evidence Acquisition: A systematic review was performed from January 2000 through January 2021. Search engines used included PubMed, Embase and Medline databases. Search query was: ((ureteroileal OR uretero-ileal OR ureteroenteric OR ureteroenteric) AND (stricture OR stenosis)) AND (management OR treatment). Study selection followed the PRISMA statement. Studies tackling management of UES, either through open, endoscopic, laparoscopic or robot-assisted approaches, were included in our systematic review.

Evidence Synthesis: Forty-one studies were finally included in this systematic review. No prospective studies were found; all included studies were retrospective. Open surgical repair had a 78-100% success rate, a significant rate of complications, and a low recurrence rate (6-8%). Endourological management decreased complication rate, length-of-stay, and blood loss, with however lower success (15-50%) and higher recurrence rates (62%-91%) compared to open surgery. Robotic assisted surgery showed comparable success rates to open surgery (80-100%), while limiting the number of major complications and hospital length-of-stay.

Conclusions: Surgical management of UES remains challenging. Open surgery maintains a role given its high success rate, at the cost however of a significant morbidity. On the other hand, endourological procedures offer a favorable and low complication risk, but a low long-term success rate. Robotic-assisted surgery is emerging with a valid resolution of UES as it offers comparable success rates to an open approach, while reducing surgical morbidity. Head-to-head comparisons are awaited to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04463-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Androgen receptor axis-targeted agents for non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer impact on overall survival and safety profile: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Introduction: The management of non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC) has undergone a paradigm shift with the development of androgen receptor axis-targeted (ARAT) agents. The updated results with final overall survival (OS) data of the phase III PROSPER, SPARTAN, and ARAMIS trials have recently been reported. Therefore, we performed an updated meta-analysis and network meta-analysis to indirectly compare the efficacy and safety of currently available treatments.

Evidence Acquisition: Multiple databases were searched for articles published before January 2021. Studies that compared OS and adverse events (AEs) in patients with nmCRPC were considered eligible.

Evidence Synthesis: Three studies (n=4,117) met our eligibility criteria. Formal network meta-analyses were conducted. ARAT agent is associated with significantly longer OS compared to placebo (pooled hazard ratio (HR): 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.83, P<0.001), with similar results shown for patients with both N1 and N0 disease (pooled HR 0.61 and pooled HR 0.76, respectively). In the network meta-analysis, apalutamide, darolutamide, and enzalutamide were more effective than placebo, with similar efficacies in terms of OS. For AEs (including any AEs, grade 3 or grade 4 AEs, grade 5 AEs, serious AEs, and AEs leading to treatment discontinuation), darolutamide was shown to be likely well tolerated. Quality-of-life was preserved in treatment arms irrespective of the drug.

Conclusions: All three ARAT agents are efficacious options for the treatment of nmCRPC, whereas darolutamide appears to have the most favorable tolerability profile. These findings may facilitate individualized treatment strategies and inform future direct comparative trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04431-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Bioethical implications of robotic surgery in urology: a narrative review.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Urology, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Robotic technologies are being increasingly implemented in healthcare, including urology, holding promises for improving medicine worldwide. However, these new approaches raise ethical concerns for professionals, patients, researchers and institutions that need to be addressed. The aim of this review is to investigate the existing literature related to bioethical issues associated with robotic surgery in urology, in order to identify current challenges and make preliminary suggestions to ensure an ethical implementation of these technologies.

Methods: We performed a narrative review of the pertaining literature through a systematic search of two databases (PubMed and Web of Science) in August 2020.

Results: Our search yielded 76 articles for full-text evaluation and 48 articles were included in the narrative review. Several bioethical issues were identified and can be categorized into five main subjects: 1) robotic surgery accessibility; 2) safety; 3) gender gap; 4) costs and 5) learning curve. 1) Robotic surgery is expensive, and in some health systems may lead to inequality in healthcare access. In more affluent countries the national distribution of several robotic platforms may influence the centralization of robotic surgery, therefore potentially affecting oncological and functional outcomes in low-volume centers. 2) There is a considerable gap between surgical skills and patients' perception of competence, leading to ethical consequences on modern healthcare. Published incidence of adverse events during robotic surgery in large series is between 2% and 15%, which does not significantly differ amongst open or laparoscopic approaches. 3) No data about gap differences in accessibility to robotic platforms were retrieved from our search. 4) Robotic platforms are expensive but a key reason why hospitals are willing to absorb the high upfront costs is patient demand. It is possible to achieve cost-equivalence between open and robotic prostatectomy if the volume of centers is higher than 10 cases per week. 5) A validated, structured curriculum and accreditation has been created for robotic surgery. This allows acquisition and development of basic and complex robotic skills focusing on patient safety and short learning curve.

Conclusions: Tech-medicine is rapidly moving forward. Robotic approach to urology seems to be accessible in more affluent countries, safe, economically sustainable, and easy to learn with an appropriate learning curve for both sex. It is mandatory to keep maintaining a critical rational approach with constant control of the available evidence regarding efficacy, efficiency and safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04240-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Beyond the Learning Curve of Prostate MRI/TRUS Target Fusion Biopsy after More than 1000 Procedures.

Urology 2021 09 2;155:39-45. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Turin, 10043.

Objective: To evaluate the learning curve (LC) of two urology residents in the execution of fusion biopsy (FB) in terms of overall prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant (cs) PCa detection rate (DR) and according to different characteristics of the lesions on MRI MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from our prospective maintained FB database between January 2015 and December 2019. FB was performed using the BioJet fusion system (D&K Technologies, Barum, Germany) with a transrectal or transperineal approach. An ANOVA test was used to evaluate the homogeneity of our cohort. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the relationship between operator experience and DR for PCa and csPCa. Then, the postprocedural complication rate trend was evaluated.

Results: 1005 patients were included. The overall DR of PCa was 61.2% (615/1005) [IC 0.58 - 0.64]; whilst DR for csPCA was 54.6% (549/1005) [IC 0.51 - 0.57]. Operator experience does not seem to influence the DR of overall PCa and csPCa; whilst for lesions <8 mm in diameter, PCa and csPCa DR increased significantly with operator experience (P = 0.048 and P = 0.038, respectively). Postprocedural complications remained stable during the whole study period (P = 0.75).

Conclusion: A standardized FB approach turned out to be feasible, safe, and effective since the beginning of the residents' LC. PCa and csPCa DR remained stable, at 60% and 55% respectively, after more than 1,000 biopsies. However, for lesions smaller than 8 mm, at least 100 FB of experience is needed to correctly sample the area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2021.06.021DOI Listing
September 2021

Risk factors for progression of chronic kidney disease after robotic partial nephrectomy in elderly patients: results from a multi-institutional collaborative series.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Urology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.

Background: Robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) in patients ≥75 years is certainly underused with concerns regarding surgical quality and a negligible impact on renal function. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of progression of chronic kidney disease for purely off-clamp (ocRPN) and on-clamp RPN (onRPN) in elderly patients on a multi-institutional series.

Methods: A collaborative minimally-invasive renal surgery dataset was queried for "RPN" performed between July 2007 and March 2021 and "age≥75 years". A total of 205 patients matched the inclusion criteria. Descriptive analyses were used. Frequencies and proportions were reported for categorical variables while medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) were reported for continuous variables. Baseline, perioperative and functional data were compared between groups. New-onset of stages 3b,4,5 CKD in onRPN and ocRPN cohorts was computed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of progression to severe CKD (sCKD [stages ≥3b]). For all statistical analyses, a two-sided p < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Mean age of the cohort considered was 78 years (IQR 76-80). At a median follow-up of 29 months (IQR 14.5-44.5), new onset CKD-3b and CKD-4,5 stages was observed in 16.6% and 2.4% of patients, respectively. At Kaplan-Meier analysis, onRPN was associated with a significantly higher risk of developing sCKD (p=0.002). On multivariable analysis, hypertension (HR 2.64; 95% CI 1.14-6.11; p=0.023), on-clamp approach (HR 3.41; 95% CI 1.50-7.74; p=0.003) non-achievement of trifecta (HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.17-0.78; p=0.01) were independent predictors of sCKD.

Conclusions: RPN in patients≥75 years is a safe surgical option. On-clamp approach, hypertension and non-achievement of trifecta were independent predictors of sCKD in the elderly after RPN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04469-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Retroperitoneal versus transepritoneal robot-assisted partial nephrectomy for postero-lateral renal masses: an international multicenter analysis.

World J Urol 2021 Nov 29;39(11):4175-4182. Epub 2021 May 29.

Division of Urology, VCU Health, Richmond, VA, 23298-0118, USA.

Purpose: To assess the outcomes of retroperitoneal robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (r-RAPN) in a large cohort of patients with postero-lateral renal masses comparing to those of transperitoneal RAPN (t-RAPN).

Methods: Patients with posterior (R.E.N.A.L. score grading P) or lateral (grading X) renal mass who underwent RAPN in six high-volume US and European centers were identified and stratified into two groups according to surgical approach: r-RAPN ("study group") and t-RAPN ("control group"). Baseline characteristics, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected and compared.

Results: Overall, 447 patients were identified for the analysis. 231 (51.7%) and 216 (48.3%) patients underwent r-RAPN and t-RAPN, respectively. Baseline characteristics were not statistically significantly different between the groups. r-RAPN group reported lower median operative time (140 vs. 170 min, p < 0.001). No difference was found in ischemia time, estimated blood loss, and intraoperative complications. Overall, 47 and 54 postoperative complications were observed in r-RAPN and t-RAPN groups, respectively (20.3 vs. 25.1%, p = 0.9). 1 and 2 patients reported major complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥ III grade) in the retroperitoneal and transperitoneal groups (0.4 vs. 0.9%, p = 0.9). There was no difference in hospital re-admission rate, median length of stay, and PSM rate. Trifecta criteria were achieved in 90.3 and 89.2% of r-RAPN and t-RAPN, respectively (p = 0.7).

Conclusion: r-RAPN and t-RAPN offer similar postoperative, functional, and oncological outcomes for patients with postero-lateral renal tumors. Our analysis suggests an advantage for r-RAPN in terms of shorter operative time, whereas it does not confirm a difference in terms of length of stay, as suggested by previous reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03741-2DOI Listing
November 2021

The real-time intraoperative guidance of the new HIFU Focal-One platform allows to minimize the perioperative adverse events in salvage setting.

J Ultrasound 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Purpose: To assess the use of the new Focal-One HIFU platform in salvage setting to evaluate the occurrence of postoperative complications.

Methods: Patients who underwent salvage HIFU (sHIFU) with Focal-One platform were enrolled prospectively (Candiolo cancer institute-FPO IRCCS; registry number: 258/2018). Perioperative and postoperative outcomes (in terms of oncological and functional ones) were recorded during the first year of follow-up. In particular postoperative complications were classified according to Clavien-Dindo system.

Results: 20 patients were enrolled. No grade 3 complications were recorded. Referring to grade 2 complications, eight patients reported urgency after 3 months of follow-up, and in 4 cases, a low urinary tract infection occurred. Evaluating the impact of sHIFU on patients' sexual potency, micturition and quality of life, no significant deterioration was recorded during the follow-up as proven using the ANOVA analysis for repeated measurements. Only two patient had a biochemical failure after 12 months of follow-up.

Conclusions: The real-time intraoperative guidance with Focal-One platform, allows a continuous monitoring and tailoring of the treatment, with a minimization of the adverse events even in a salvage setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40477-021-00594-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Three-dimensional Virtual Models' Assistance During Minimally Invasive Partial Nephrectomy Minimizes the Impairment of Kidney Function.

Eur Urol Oncol 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Turin, San Luigi Hospital, Orbassano (Turin), Italy.

Three-dimensional virtual models (3DVMs) are nowadays under scrutiny to improve partial nephrectomy (PN) outcomes. This report aims to analyze their impact on renal function preservation after minimally invasive PN. A total of 100 patients treated with minimally invasive PN with contrast-enhanced computed tomography from which a 3DVM was obtained, and having undergone baseline and 3rd month postoperative renal scans were prospectively enrolled and compared with a control group of 251 patients without 3DVMs. Weighted differential of pre- and postoperative renal scan-based effective renal plasmatic flow (b-WD ERPF) was calculated, according to the availability of 3DVMs and PADUA risk category. Multivariable logistic regression (MLR) models predicting a significant loss of renal function (LORF; ERPF drop >20%) were performed, overall and according to PADUA risk categories. The b-WD ERPF of the 3DVM group showed significantly lower LORF (-10%) than that of the control group (-19.6%, p =  0.02). In MLR, the availability of a 3DVM was found to be the only protective factor against a significant LORF (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3, p =  0.002). Moreover, after stratification as per tumor surgical complexity, this protective role was observed in both PADUA 8-9 and ≥10 category risk patients (OR = 0.3, p =  0.03 and OR = 0.1, p =  0.01). PATIENT SUMMARY: The drop in operated kidney function was significantly lower in surgeries assisted by three-dimensional virtual models (3VDMs), indicating that the availability of a 3VDM is the only protective factor against a significant functional damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euo.2021.04.001DOI Listing
April 2021

Comparison between minimally-invasive partial and radical nephrectomy for the treatment of clinical T2 renal masses: results of a 10-year study in a tertiary care center.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Aug 22;73(4):509-517. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: Even if partial nephrectomy (PN) is nowadays considered the standard for managing cT1 renal masses, its role in the management of cT2 kidney tumors is controversial. We aimed to compare oncologic and functional outcomes of minimally invasive radical nephrectomy (RN) and PN in cT2 renal masses.

Methods: Patients with cT2 renal masses underwent minimally-invasive PN or RN performed by a highly experienced single surgeon from 2009 to 2019 were considered. Demographic, perioperative and functional variables were compared. Cumulative incidence plot and competing risks regression (CRR) models were used to test differences in 5-year cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and 5-year other-cause mortality (OCM) rates. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression model was used to test differences in 5-year progression free survival (PFS) rates.

Results: Overall, 52 PN vs. 64 RN patients were identified. Relative to RN, PN patients recorded higher rates of complications (25% vs. 7.8%, P=0.02) but lower upstaging rate (≥pT3a 64.1% vs. 19.2%, P<0.0001). Functional outcomes were in favor of PN (all P<0.001). No differences were recorded between 5-year CSM and OCM according to nephrectomy type. At CRR models, older age and upstaging were independent predictors of 5-year OCM and CSM, respectively (all P<0.01). Finally, only upstaging, high grade tumors and presence of positive surgical margins were identified as independent predictors of 5-year PFS (all P<0.01).

Conclusions: In experienced hands the treatment of cT2 renal neoplasms with minimally-invasive PN is feasible, providing perioperative and oncological safety profiles comparable to RN, with advantages in terms of functional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04390-1DOI Listing
August 2021

Intraoperative and postoperative surgical complications after ureteroscopy, retrograde intrarenal surgery, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a systematic review.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Jun 22;73(3):309-332. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Introduction: Retrograde ureteroscopy (URS), intra-renal surgery (RIRS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) represent routine interventions for the treatment of ureteral and renal stones, although at times associated with serious adverse events. Of note, the evidence on perioperative complications after these procedures remains sparse and controversial. Moreover, there is a lack of standardized reporting of adverse events using uniform systems. The aim of the present study was to systematically review of the available evidence on URS/RIRS and PCNL for the surgical treatment of urinary stone, assessing the incidence of intra- and postoperative events, classified according to the modified Clavien-Dindo scale.

Evidence Acquisition: A systematic review of the literature was performed according to PRISMA recommendations and was conducted on intra- and postoperative complications, as well as on their management, following URS, RIRS and PCNL procedures, particularly focusing on major events.

Evidence Synthesis: Overall, 26 studies (13 on URS/RIRS and 11 on PCNL) met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. The highest intraoperative complication rate was 11.5% and 8.5% for RIRS and PCNL, respectively. Major complication rate following URS/RIRS and PCNL ranged between 0.3-31.7% and 2-17.1%, respectively. The most frequent adverse events were obstructive pyelonephritis or urinary leakage requiring the placement of a double J stent or a drainage. Among PCNLs series, life-threatening adverse events have also been reported, including bleeding requiring renal angioembolization and urothorax.

Conclusions: Despite the inclusion of series using a standardized reporting system, the complication rate after URS/RIRS/PCNL remains extensively heterogeneous in the literature; in addition, a non-negligible proportion of studies did not characterize the adverse events nor report the actual management strategy to solve them. Future research is needed to standardize the classification and reporting of surgical complications after endourological procedures (taking into consideration the surgeon's experience and skills), aiming to improve patient counseling and potentially the strategy for their prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04294-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Flexible ureteroscopy using a 120-w holmium laser: The low-energy/high-frequency approach.

Arch Esp Urol 2021 Apr;74(3):343-349

ASO S. Croce e Carle Cuneo. Cuneo. Italy.

Objectives: With the spread of more powerful lasers and the advent of new technologies, endoscopic interventions for urolithiasis are continuously evolving. The aim of this study is to present our experience and technique regarding Low Energy (LE)/High Frequency (HF) lithotripsy by using a 120-W Holmium laser (Lumenis®). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed our prospectively maintained Retrograde Intra Renal Surgery (RIRS) database. Lithotripsy was performed using LE/HF settings with a Long Pulse Width (LPW) and consisted of the following steps: 1) contact Laser lithotripsy (LE/HF/LPW dusting - 0,5 J/50 Hz or 02 J/70 Hz); 2) extraction ofmain fragments; 3) non-contact Laser lithotripsy (LE/HF/Short Pulse Width Pop Dusting - 0,5 J /80Hz). Pre-operativeand peri-operative outcomes were collected. Post-operative complications were recorded according to Clavien-Dindo Grading System. Finally, all patients under went a CT scan at three months after RIRS to assess the success of procedure, defined as stone-free or presence of ≤4 mm fragments (Clinical Insignificant Residual Fragments - CIRF). RESULTS: Overall, 104 LE/HF/LPW RIRS from December 2017 to January 2019 were performed. Mean operative time was 59 (SD ±23) minutes, median post-operative stay was two days (IQR 2-3). The post-operative complication rate was 4,8%: one patient had nausea and vomiting (Clavien-Dindo I) and four patients developed urosepsis (Clavien-Dindo II). The success rate was 88,5% (71,2% stone-free and 17,3% CIRF). CONCLUSIONS: LE/HF/LPW RIRS seems to be safe and effective in terms of positive success rate, safety and standard operative time. However, randomized clinical trials are needed to compare this technique to standard RIRS.
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April 2021

3D imaging technologies in minimally-invasive kidney and prostate cancer surgery: which is the urologists' perception?

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Urology, Departmet of Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Turin, San Luigi Hospital, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: Many specific 3D imaging technologies are currently available for the practising urologists. Aim of the study was to assess their perception about different 3D imaging tools in the field of prostate and kidney cancer surgery.

Methods: All the attendees of the 8th Techno-Urology-Meeting were asked to fill a questionnaire regarding the role of 3D virtual reconstruction PDFs, 3D printing models, Augmented-Reality (AR) and mixed reality technology in the setting of surgical planning, patient counselling, intraoperative guidance and training for kidney and prostate cancer surgery; Moreover the different materials used for 3D printing were compared to assess the most suitable in reproducing the organ and tumor features, as well as their estimated cost and production time.

Results: The population consisted of 180 attendees. Overall, AR was the preferred option for intraoperative guidance and training, in both prostate (55% and 38.3%) and kidney cancer surgery (58.3% and 40%). HoloLens was perceived as the best imaging technology for the surgical planning (50% for prostate and 60% for kidney), whereas printed models for patients counselling (66.7% for prostate and 61.7% for kidney). Fused deposition models were deemed as the best printing technology in representing kidney anatomy and renal tumor location (40%), while silicon (46.7%) and Polyjet (36.7%) models for prostate anatomy and cancer location. Finally, attendees demonstrated poor knowledge of 3D printing costs and production times.

Conclusions: Our study shows the perceptions of a heterogeneous surrogate of practising urologists about the role and potential applications of 3D imaging technologies in daily surgical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04131-XDOI Listing
March 2021
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