Publications by authors named "Cristóbal Espinosa Ruiz"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Immunity and inflammatory responses in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) exposed to sub-lethal mixture of carbamazepine, cadmium chloride and polybrominated diphenyl ether.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Apr 23;111:25-35. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

University of Palermo, Dept. of Earth and Marine Science DISTEM, Laboratory of Marine Biochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Via Barlotta 4, 91100, Trapani, Italy; Istituto per lo studio degli impatti Antropici e Sostenibilità in ambiente marino (IAS), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Capo Granitola, Trapani, Italy; Consorzio Universitario della Provincia di Trapani, Marine Biology Institute, Via Barlotta 4, 91100, Trapani, Italy.

Chemical contaminants such as industrial and urban by-products, pharmaceuticals, drugs metabolites and, plastics, are continuously found in the oceans, affecting its quality and organism's welfare. Although these compounds are found at concentrations ranged ng L, there is an increasing concern about the potential adverse effects of the interactions among those substances present, simultaneously, in a mixture. In the present study, specimens of sea bream (Sparus aurata) were exposed, by food, to rising concentrations of a mixture of carbamazepine, polybrominated diphenyl ether-47 and cadmium chloride, for 15 days and then, maintained, with the same control diet, without contaminants, for other 15 days. Samples of skin mucus, serum, head-kidney, liver and intestine were sampled at 0, 15 and 30 days. Cellular immune parameters were evaluated on head-kidney, as well as humoral parameters were determined on skin mucus and serum. In addition, the expression of some genes, related to immunity, was analysed on liver and intestine. Both cellular and humoral response were affected at 15 days, showing slightly signs of recovery at 30 days. Besides, the expression of immune-related genes was highly affected, suggesting the development of inflammatory processes, as well as a reduction of immune parameters. Overall, the mixture of compounds severally affected the immune system of sea bream, suggesting a lower degree of recovery. The prolonged exposure to a mixture of these compounds could entail serious change on population immunity and, eventually, promote changes on marine biota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.12.013DOI Listing
April 2021

BDE-47 exposure modulates cellular responses, oxidative stress and biotransformation related-genes in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Dec 18;107(Pt B):537-546. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

University of Palermo, Dept. of Earth and Marine Science DISTEM, Laboratory of Marine Biochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Via Barlotta 4, 91100, Trapani, Italy; Istituto per lo studio degli impatti Antropici e Sostenibilità in ambiente marino (IAS), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. Capo Granitola, Trapani, Italy; Consorzio Universitario della Provincia di Trapani, Marine Biology Institute. Via Barlotta 4, 91100, Trapani, Italy.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants, characterized by elevated stability in the marine environment, where are accumulated by organisms, inducing a wide panel of negative effects. In this study, some biochemical patterns related to toxicity, biotransformation and oxidative stress, were studied in the marine model system, Mytilus galloprovincialis, exposed to BDE-47. Mussels were fed with microalgae, previously treated with increasing concentrations of PBDEs (maximum dose 100 ng L-1 of BDE-47 per day). After 15 days of treatment, mussels were fed with the same diet without BDE-47, for additional 15 days. Gills and digestive glands were analyzed at T 0, at 15 and 30 days. Histopathological lesions were assessed in digestive glands of contaminated mussels, while expression of genes, related to cell cycle, multidrug resistance, oxidative stress and detoxification was evaluated on both gills and digestive glands. After 15 days, BDE-47 exposure significantly affected the cell activity in digestive gland and, at 30 days, only mussels exposed to the lower doses showed a certain recovery. Regarding the gene expression, both gills and digestive glands showed a significant down-regulation of the target genes at 15 days, although most of them were up-regulated at 30 days in digestive gland. The results on BDE-47 accumulation in mussels revealed a dose-dependent concentration in tissues, which remained elevated after further 15 days of depuration. This trend supports the responses of the biomarkers, indicating that exposure, at environmentally realistic concentrations of BDE-47, strongly modulates oxidative stress and related patterns of gene expression, suggesting concerns for long-term effect in the biota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.11.015DOI Listing
December 2020

Dietary administration effects of exopolysaccharide from potential probiotic strains on immune and antioxidant status and nutritional value of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

Res Vet Sci 2020 Aug 6;131:51-58. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Immunobiology for aquaculture Group, Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional "Campus Mare Nostrum", University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

The use of biological immunostimulants is considered a valuable practice to improve culture conditions in aquaculture sector that may help to increase production and maintain healthy environment. We undertook this study in order to evaluate the potential effect of the administration of two exopolysaccharides (EPS) "EPLB" and "EPB" derived from potential probiotic strains on immune and antioxidant status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae. In order to find out if the EPSs have an effect on the biochemical composition during the trial period, the nutritional value has been evaluated. The results revealed that expression levels of immune-relevant genes (infg, Il1b, Il8, Il6 and tcr-β) in the gut and head kidney and the scavenging enzymes (cat, sod, gr) genes in the liver were modulated. In fact, the dietary supplementation with the tested EPSs, significantly enhances the expression of immune-associated genes in the head-kidney, particularly infg and tcrβ, as well as catalase gene in liver. During the period of study, EPSs administration did not affect the fatty acid profiles of larvae, which is balanced. This is confirmed by the Docosahexaenoic acid / Eicosapentaenoic acid ratio and demonstrates that EPLB and EPB can be administrated without any negative effect on biochemical composition of European sea bass. The present findings provided evidence that the tested EPSs with antibacterial and antioxidant activities can enhance immune response without negative effect on the biochemical composition. The used EPSs can be considered as a good source of natural functional aquafeed ingredients for European sea bass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2020.04.008DOI Listing
August 2020

The Inclusion of a Supercritical Fluid Extract, Obtained From Honey Bee Pollen, in the Diet of Gilthead Sea Bream (), Improves Fish Immune Response by Enhancing Anti-oxidant, and Anti-bacterial Activities.

Front Vet Sci 2020 25;7:95. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

In the present study, the immune-stimulatory effect of two levels of honey bee pollen (5 and 10%, P5 and P10 treatment, respectively) and its supercritical fluid extract (0. 5 and 1%, E0.5 and E1, respectively) included in the diet, was tested in gilthead seabream . The trial was preceded by the evaluation of antioxidant properties of three different bee pollen extracts obtained by water, ethanol 80%, and Supercritic Fluids Extraction (SFE). The preliminary evaluation attested that the SFE showed the lowest extraction yield (10.47%) compared to ethanol 80% (48.61%) and water (45.99%). SFE extract showed good antioxidant properties with high polyphenol content (13.06 mg GAE/g), radical scavenging activity (3.12 mg/ml), reducing power (38.68 mg/mL EC50). On the contrary, the water extract showed the significantly lowest polyphenol content (2 mg GAE/g; < 0.05). The results of trial demonstrate that the diets supplemented with SFE bee pollen extract had a stimulatory effect on fish serum immunity, respect to the inclusion of raw pollen, this latter revealing some inhibitory effects in the immune response, such a decrease of serum peroxidase and lysozyme activities, particularly in P10 group significantly different ( < 0.05) from the control group. On the contrary, serum peroxidase, protease, antiprotease, were significantly increased in fish fed the diets supplemented with supercritical fluid extract, respect to the fish fed on control and on diets supplemented with 5 and 10% of raw pollen. For what concerns the bactericidal activity against , all the treatments containing bee pollen regardless of the type showed their serum bactericidal activity significantly increased with respect to the control groups ( < 0.05). Given its high antioxidant properties, the absence of toxic solvents and the positive action carried out on improving the humoral response in gilthead seam bream, honey bee pollen SFE extract can be taken into account in the formulation of fish feeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053408PMC
February 2020

Effects of dietary Origanum vulgare on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) immune and antioxidant status.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Apr 19;99:452-461. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Fish Innate Immune System Group, Department of Cell Biology and Histology. Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional "Campus Mare Nostrum", University of Murcia, 30100, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Origanum sp. is a very common genus of aromatic plants worldwide distributed around the Mediterranean area and O. vulgare (oregano) is the most important species of this genus throughout the world. Due the known medicinal properties of oregano, the effect of diets enriched with 0% (control), 0.5% and 1% oregano leaves powder was studied on the growth, immune and antioxidant status of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Fish fed with oregano 0.5% and 1% enriched diets improved both humoral (IgM and bactericidal activity in skin mucus and protease activity in serum) and cellular (head kidney leucocytes phagocytic ability) immunity at 15 and 30 days. Furthermore, the addition of oregano did not provoke any significant effect neither in the growth promotion nor in the liver antioxidant enzymes activity studied in the serum and skin mucus. The possibility of using O. vulgare as a functional additive to fish diet is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.02.040DOI Listing
April 2020

Carbamazepine, cadmium chloride and polybrominated diphenyl ether-47, synergistically modulate the expression of antioxidants and cell cycle biomarkers, in the marine fish cell line SAF-1.

Mar Environ Res 2020 Feb 21;154:104844. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

University of Palermo, Dept. of Earth and Sea Science DISTEM, Laboratory of Marine Biochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Via Barlotta 4, 91100, Trapani, Italy. Electronic address:

A wide range of contaminants, industrial by-products, plastics, and pharmaceutics belonging to various categories, have been found in sea water. Although these compounds are detected at concentrations that might be considered as sub-lethal, under certain conditions they could act synergistically producing unexpected effects in term of toxicity or perturbation of biochemical markers leading to standard pathway. In this study, the Sparus aurata fibroblast cell line SAF-1, was exposed to increasing concentrations of carbamazepine (CBZ), polybrominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE-47) and cadmium chloride (CdCl) until 72 h, to evaluate the cytotoxicity and the expression of genes related to antioxidant defense, cell cycle and energetic balance. In general, both vitality and gene expression were affected by the exposure to the different toxicants, in terms of antioxidant defense and cell cycle control, showing the most significant effects in cells exposed to the mixture of the three compounds, respect to the single compounds separately. The synergic effect of the compounds on the analyzed biomarkers, underlie the potential negative impact of the contaminants on health of marine organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2019.104844DOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of BDE-47 exposure on immune-related parameters of Mytilus galloprovincialis.

Aquat Toxicol 2019 Oct 2;215:105266. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

University of Palermo, Dept. of Earth and Sea Science, Laboratory of Marine Biochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Via Barlotta 4, 91100, Trapani, Italy. Electronic address:

The persistent pollutants polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been demonstrated to produce several negative effects on marine organisms. Although Mytilus galloprovincialis was extensively studied as model system, the effects of PBDEs on the innate immune system of mussels remains unclear. In this study, except for the control treatment, specimens of M. galloprovincialis were fed with microalgae treated with increasing concentrations of PBDEs (maximum level 100 ng L of BDE-47 per day). BDE-47 treatment was maintained for 15 days and then the animals were fed with the same control diet, without contaminants, for 15 days. Samples of haemolymph (HL) were obtained at T0, T15 and T30 days of the experiment to evaluate different parameters related to immunity, such as neutral red retention time, and peroxidase, protease, antiprotease, lysozyme and bactericidal activities. BDE-47 exposure for 15 days affected both the stability of haemocytes and humoral parameters. In addition, the obtained results indicated that, at 30 days, after 15 days of culture without contaminant, the immune parameters were still affected, as some of them did not return to the basal levels, and others remained stimulated. Overall the results indicate that BDE-47 exposures at environmentally realistic levels may affect various aspects of immune function in M. galloprovincialis, acting as stressor that can compromise the general welfare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.105266DOI Listing
October 2019

Coping with exposure to hypoxia: modifications in stress parameters in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fed spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

Fish Physiol Biochem 2019 Dec 4;45(6):1801-1812. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Laboratory of Fish Nutrition and Feeding Behavior, Faculty of Fishing Engineering, Center of Agricultural Science, Environmental and Biological, University of Bahia, Cruz das Almas, BA, 44380-000, Brazil.

This study aimed to investigate the stress response of Sparus aurata specimens fed with nutraceutical aquafeed brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and spirulina (Arthrospira platensis). For that purpose, 96 (169.0 ± 2.8 g) animals were distributed randomly in 12 tanks (8 fish per tank, 4 replicates) and divided in 3 groups (D1, casein/gelatin, control; D2, brewer's yeast; D3, spirulina) and fed for 30 days. At the end of this period, fish from two replicates of each experimental diet were submitted to air exposure for 60 s while the fish from the other two replicates were maintained undisturbed (control). Afterwards, samples of blood, skin mucus, and head kidney were collected. The results revealed that after air exposure, cortisol, and glucose levels increased in the groups fed D1 (18.5 ± 2.6 mg/mL; 7.3 ± 0.6 mmol/L, respectively) and D2 (20.0 ± 6.2 mg/mL; 7.7 ± 0.6 mmol/L), but glucose not increased in fish fed D3 (13.7 ± 2.6 mg/mL; 5.5 ± 0.3 mmol/L). Lactate levels increased in all stressed groups, but in D1, its levels were significantly higher. After stress procedure, immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels in mucus increased only in fish fed D3 (0.1901 ± 0.0126 U/mL). Furthermore, there was a reduction in the expression of some genes involved in stress response (coxIV, prdx3, csfl-r, ucp1, and sod in fish fed D2 and D3). csf1 decreased only in stressed fish fed D2. However, cat increased in fish fed with D3. In summary, these findings points to the beneficial effects of spirulina and brewer's yeast to improve stress resistance in aquaculture practices of gilthead seabream.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-019-00677-8DOI Listing
December 2019

Sub-lethal doses of polybrominated diphenyl ethers affect some biomarkers involved in energy balance and cell cycle, via oxidative stress in the marine fish cell line SAF-1.

Aquat Toxicol 2019 May 19;210:1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

University of Palermo, Dept of Earth and Marine Science DISTEM, Laboratory of Marine Biochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Via Barlotta 4, 91100, Trapani, Italy. Electronic address:

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of persistent contaminants which are found all over the world in the marine environment. Sparus aurata fibroblast cell line (SAF-1) was exposed to increasing concentrations of PBDEs 47 and 99, until 72 h to evaluate the cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the expression of some selected molecular markers related to cell cycle, cell signaling, energetic balance and oxidative stress (p53, erk-1, hif-1α and nrf-2), by real-time PCR. Furthermore, SAF-1 cells were exposed for 7 and 15 days to sub-lethal concentrations, in order to evaluate the response of some biomarkers by immunoblotting (p53, ERK-1, AMPK, HIF-1α and NRF-2). After 48 and 72 h, the cells showed a significant decrease of cell vitality as well as an increase of intracellular ROS production. Gene expression analysis showed that sub-lethal concentrations of BDE-99 and 47, after 72 h, up-regulated cell cycle and oxidative stress biomarkers, although exposure to 100 μmol L down-regulated the selected markers related to cell cycle, cell signaling, energetic balance. After 7 and 15 days of sub-lethal doses exposure, all the analyzed markers resulted affected by the contaminants. Our results suggest that PBDEs influence the cells homeostasis first of all via oxidative stress, reducing the cell response and defense capacity and affecting its energetic levels. This situation of stress and energy imbalance could represents a condition that, modifying some of the analyzed biochemical pathways, would predispose to cellular transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.02.014DOI Listing
May 2019

Sub-lethal Doses of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, in Vitro, Promote Oxidative Stress and Modulate Molecular Markers Related to Cell Cycle, Antioxidant Balance and Cellular Energy Management.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 02 18;16(4). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Earth and Sea Science, Laboratory of Marine Biochemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Palermo, Via Barlotta 4, 91100 Trapani, Italy.

In the present study, we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) BDE-209, BDE-47 and BDE-99, on the vitality and oxidative stress of a HS-68 human cell culture exposed to the compounds for three days. The results showed that for this exposure time, only the highest concentrations produced a significant vitality reduction and oxidative stress induction ( < 0.05), measured as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Subsequently, in order to verify the effects of sub-lethal doses, cells were exposed for a longer time and data collected, after 12 and 20 days, to study ROS production and some molecular markers related to cell cycle and stress (p53, pRB, PARP, c-Jun and c-Fos), antioxidant status and proliferation (ERK, c-Jun and c-Fos), energy balance (NRF2, AMPK, HIF). Most of the biomarkers were influenced by the treatments, indicating that sub-lethal doses of PBDEs, for longer time, can enhance the production of ROS, altering the energetic metabolism, cell cycle and antioxidant balance, determining possible negative effects on the cell proliferation equilibrium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406823PMC
February 2019

Oxidative Stress, Induced by Sub-Lethal Doses of BDE 209, Promotes Energy Management and Cell Cycle Modulation in the Marine Fish Cell Line SAF-1.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 02 6;16(3). Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Laboratory of Marine biochemistry and ecotoxicology, Department of Earth and Marine Science DISTEM, University of Palermo, Via Barlotta 4, 91100 Trapani, Italy.

The effects of sub-lethal doses of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-209 in terms of toxicity, oxidative stress, and biomarkers were evaluated in the fibroblast cell line (SAF-1). Vitality and oxidative stress status were studied after incubation with PBDE for 72 h. Concomitantly, the quantification of proteins related to cell cycle and DNA repair (p53), cell proliferation (extracellular signal⁻regulated kinase 1 (ERK1)), energetic restriction (hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1)), and redox status (Nuclear factor erythroid 2⁻related factor 2 (NRF2)) was also determined after prolonged exposure (7⁻15 days) by immunoblotting. Our results demonstrated that rising concentrations of PBDEs exposure-induced oxidative stress, and that this event modulates different cell pathways related to cell cycle, cell signaling, and energetic balance in the long term, indicating the negative impact of sub-lethal dose exposure to cell homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388118PMC
February 2019

Effects of long-term ingestion of white tea on oxidation produced by aging and acute oxidative damage in rats.

J Physiol Biochem 2018 Feb 19;74(1):171-177. Epub 2017 Sep 19.

Nutrition Lab, Physiology Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100, Murcia, Spain.

The infusion tea extracted from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis can be used in the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and aging, while adriamycin (ADR) is an anticancer drug that increases oxidative stress in cells. The present study evaluated the protective effect of the long-term consumption of white tea used at two different doses against the oxidative stress produced by aging and acute oxidation caused ADR treatment. At wearing, rats received distilled water (control), or 0.15 (dose 1) or 0.45 mg (dose 2) of solid tea extract/kilogram body weight in their drink. At 12 months, about half of the rats of each group were injected with a bolus of ADR, and six rats of the control group with an injection of saline solution and sacrificed. The rest of the animals continued in their cages until 24 months of age, when they were sacrificed. Lipid and protein oxidation of liver and brain microsomes was analyzed by measuring hydroperoxide and carbonyl levels. White tea consumption for 12 months at a non-pharmacological dose was seen to reverse the oxidative damage caused by ADR in both liver and brain, while the consumption of white tea for 20 months at a non-pharmacological dose had no effect on carbonyl or hydroperoxides in these tissues. The long-term ingestion of white tea protected tissues from acute oxidative stress but did not affect chronic oxidative agents such aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13105-017-0591-zDOI Listing
February 2018

Local and systemic humoral immune response in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) under a natural amoebic gill disease outbreak.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Jul 10;66:207-216. Epub 2017 May 10.

Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional "Campus Mare Nostrum", University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

Amoebic gill disease (AGD), caused by the protozoan parasite Neoparamoeba perurans, is one of the most significant infectious diseases for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) mariculture. The present study investigated the humoral immune response (both local in gill mucus and systemic in serum) of farmed Atlantic salmon naturally infected with N. perurans in commercial sea pens, at two different stages of the disease and after freshwater treatment. Parameters analysed included activity of immune related enzymes (i.e. lysozyme, peroxidase, protease, anti-protease, esterase, alkaline phosphatase), IgM levels, and the terminal carbohydrate profile in the gill mucus. Overall, greater variations between groups were noted in the immune parameters determined in gill mucus than the equivalent in the serum. In gill mucus, IgM levels and peroxidase, lysozyme, esterase and protease activities were decreased in fish showing longer exposure time to the infection and higher disease severity, then showed a sequential increase after treatment. Results obtained highlight the capacity of gills to elicit a local response to the infection, indicate an impaired immune response at the later stages of the disease, and show partial reestablishment of the host immune status after freshwater treatment. In addition to providing data on the humoral response to AGD, this study increases knowledge on gill mucosal humoral immunity, since some of the parameters were analysed for the first time in gill mucus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2017.05.029DOI Listing
July 2017