Publications by authors named "Crandall P"

210 Publications

Antimicrobial properties of three lactic acid bacterial cultures and their cell free supernatants against Listeria monocytogenes.

J Environ Sci Health B 2013 ;48(1):63-8

Center for Food Safety, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA.

Control of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) food products is a significant challenge and improved means for control are needed. In this study, the anti-listerial effects of three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were investigated. Spot-on-lawn assays demonstrated the largest zones of inhibition against L. monocytogenes were produced by the Pediococcus acidilactici strain, with zone diameters ranging from 13 to 18 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) experiments using cell free supernatant (CFS) from the LAB revealed that while two of the strains were effective at inhibiting L. monocytogenes growth only up to a 1:4 dilution, P. acidilactici was able to inhibit growth up to a 1:256 dilution. Survival assays performed at 7°C determined that the P. acidilactici strain was capable of producing a 4.5 log reduction in L. monocytogenes counts and maintaining the reduction for 21 days. The effectiveness of P. acidilactici was reduced under log phase growth, autoclaving for longer than 15 min (121°C and 15 psi), and treatment with proteinase K (25 mg/mL).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2012.716732DOI Listing
February 2013

Companies' opinions and acceptance of global food safety initiative benchmarks after implementation.

J Food Prot 2012 Sep;75(9):1660-72

Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72704, USA.

International attention has been focused on minimizing costs that may unnecessarily raise food prices. One important aspect to consider is the redundant and overlapping costs of food safety audits. The Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) has devised benchmarked schemes based on existing international food safety standards for use as a unifying standard accepted by many retailers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of the decision made by Walmart Stores (Bentonville, AR) to require their suppliers to become GFSI compliant. An online survey of 174 retail suppliers was conducted to assess food suppliers' opinions of this requirement and the benefits suppliers realized when they transitioned from their previous food safety systems. The most common reason for becoming GFSI compliant was to meet customers' requirements; thus, supplier implementation of the GFSI standards was not entirely voluntary. Other reasons given for compliance were enhancing food safety and remaining competitive. About 54 % of food processing plants using GFSI benchmarked schemes followed the guidelines of Safe Quality Food 2000 and 37 % followed those of the British Retail Consortium. At the supplier level, 58 % followed Safe Quality Food 2000 and 31 % followed the British Retail Consortium. Respondents reported that the certification process took about 10 months. The most common reason for selecting a certain GFSI benchmarked scheme was because it was widely accepted by customers (retailers). Four other common reasons were (i) the standard has a good reputation in the industry, (ii) the standard was recommended by others, (iii) the standard is most often used in the industry, and (iv) the standard was required by one of their customers. Most suppliers agreed that increased safety of their products was required to comply with GFSI benchmarked schemes. They also agreed that the GFSI required a more carefully documented food safety management system, which often required improved company food safety practices and increased employee training. Adoption of a GFSI benchmarked scheme resulted in fewer audits, i.e., one less per year. An educational opportunity exists to acquaint retailers and suppliers worldwide with the benefits of having an internationally recognized certification program such as that recognized by the GFSI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-550DOI Listing
September 2012

Application of orange essential oil as an antistaphylococcal agent in a dressing model.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2012 Aug 16;12:125. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen most often and prevalently involved in skin and soft tissue infections. In recent decades outbreaks of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have created major problems for skin therapy, and burn and wound care units. Topical antimicrobials are most important component of wound infection therapy. Alternative therapies are being sought for treatment of MRSA and one area of interest is the use of essential oils. With the increasing interest in the use and application of natural products, we screened the potential application of terpeneless cold pressed Valencia orange oil (CPV) for topical therapy against MRSA using an in vitro dressing model and skin keratinocyte cell culture model.

Methods: The inhibitory effect of CPV was determined by disc diffusion vapor assay for MRSA and vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) strains. Antistaphylococcal effect of CPV in an in vitro dressing model was tested on S. aureus inoculated tryptic soya agar plate. Bactericidal effect of CPV on MRSA and VISA infected keratinocyte cells was examined by enumeration of extra- and intra-cellular bacterial cells at different treatment time points. Cytotoxic effects on human skin cells was tested by adding CPV to the keratinocyte (HEK001) cells grown in serum free KSFM media, and observed by phase-contrast microscope.

Results: CPV vapour effectively inhibited the MRSA and VISA strains in both disc diffusion vapour assay and in vitro dressing model. Compared to untreated control addition of 0.1% CPV to MRSA infected keratinocyte decreased the viable MRSA cells by 2 log CFU/mL in 1 h and in VISA strain 3 log CFU/mL reduction was observed in 1 h. After 3 h viable S. aureus cells were not detected in the 0.2% CPV treatment. Bactericidal concentration of CPV did not show any cytotoxic effect on the human skin keratinocyte cells in vitro.

Conclusions: At lower concentration addition of CPV to keratinocytes infected with MRSA and VISA rapidly killed the bacterial cells without causing any toxic effect to the keratinocytes. Therefore, the results of this study warrant further in vivo study to evaluate the potential of CPV as a topical antistaphylococcal agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-12-125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3522527PMC
August 2012

Role of lactic acid bacteria as a biosanitizer to prevent attachment of Listeria monocytogenes F6900 on deli slicer contact surfaces.

J Food Prot 2012 Aug;75(8):1429-36

Center for Food Safety, Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA.

The study was conducted to evaluate the attachment of three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains and their combination in a cocktail, to stainless steel coupons from a deli slicer, and their ability to inhibit the attachment of Listeria monocytogenes. In a previous study, three LAB strains, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus amylovorus, and Lactobacillus animalis, were isolated from ready-to-eat meat and exhibited antilisterial effect. In the study reported here, hydrophobicity tests were determined according to the method of microbial adhesion to solvent. The attachment of the cells was evaluated on stainless steel coupons from deli slicers. Extracellular carbohydrates were determined with a colorimetric method. Based on these tests, L. animalis exhibited the greatest hydrophobicity (26.3%), and its adherence increased sharply from 24 to 72 h, whereas L. amylovorus yielded the lowest hydrophobicity (3.86%) and was weakly adherent. Although P. acidilactici had moderate hydrophobicity (10.1%), it adhered strongly. The attached LAB strains produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher total carbohydrates than their planktonic counterparts did, which is an important characteristic for attachment. Three conditions were simulated to evaluate the ability of the LAB cocktail (10(8) CFU/ml) to competitively exclude L. monocytogenes (10(3) CFU/ml) on the surface of the coupons. The coupons were pretreated with the LAB cocktail for 24 h prior to the addition of L. monocytogenes, simultaneously treated with the LAB cocktail and L. monocytogenes, or pretreated with L. monocytogenes 24 h prior to the addition of the LAB cocktail. The LAB cocktail was able to reduce the attachment L. monocytogenes significantly (P < 0.05). The LAB cocktail indicated potential attachment on stainless steel and bacteriostatic activity toward L. monocytogenes attached on stainless steel, which indicates a possible role for LAB as a biosanitizer in the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-12-072DOI Listing
August 2012

Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters formulated with and without lactate/diacetate.

Meat Sci 2012 Dec 28;92(4):533-7. Epub 2012 May 28.

Center for Food Safety, Dept. of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA.

Contamination by Listeria monocytogenes has been a constant public health threat for the ready-to-eat (RTE) meat industry due to the potential for high mortalities from listeriosis. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have shown protective action against various pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antilisterial activity of a combination of three LAB strains (Lactiguard®) on L. monocytogenes. The combination of the LAB was inhibitory to L. monocytogenes inoculated onto frankfurters not containing lactate/diacetate after 8weeks of refrigerated storage (0.6 log reduction compared to L. monocytogenes only control), and when a cell free extract (CFS) of the LAB was added with LAB even more inhibition was obtained (1.2 log reduction compared with L. monocytogenes only). In frankfurters containing lactate/diacetate the LAB and the LAB plus CFS were more effective in reducing growth of L. monocytogenes after 8 weeks of refrigerated storage (2 and 3.3 log reductions respectively).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.05.023DOI Listing
December 2012

Screening of commercial and pecan shell-extracted liquid smoke agents as natural antimicrobials against foodborne pathogens.

J Food Prot 2012 Jun;75(6):1148-52

Department of Food Science and Center for Food Safety, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72704, USA.

Liquid smoke extracts have traditionally been used as flavoring agents, are known to possess antioxidant properties, and serve as natural alternatives to conventional antimicrobials. The antimicrobial efficacies of commercial liquid smoke samples may vary depending on their source and composition and the methods used to extract and concentrate the smoke. We investigated the MICs of eight commercial liquid smoke samples against Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli . The commercial liquid smoke samples purchased were supplied by the manufacturer as water-based or concentrated extracts of smoke from different wood sources. The MICs of the commercial smokes to inhibit the growth of foodborne pathogens ranged from 0.5 to 6.0% for E. coli, 0.5 to 8.0% for Salmonella, and 0.38 to 6% for S. aureus. The MIC for each liquid smoke sample was similar in its effect on both E. coli and Salmonella. Solvent-extracted antimicrobials prepared using pecan shells displayed significant differences between their inhibitory concentrations depending on the type of solvent used for extraction. The results indicated that the liquid smoke samples tested in this study could serve as effective natural antimicrobials and that their inhibitory effects depended more on the solvents used for extraction than the wood source.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-543DOI Listing
June 2012

Dried plum products as a substitute for phosphate in chicken marinade.

J Food Sci 2012 Jun;77(6):S253-7

Dept. of Food Science and Center for Food Safety, Univ of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA.

Unlabelled: In order to address the growing demand for more natural poultry products, alkaline phosphates commonly used in chicken breast meat marinades were replaced with plum ingredients and evaluated. For initial sensory evaluation, 200 consumers of chicken were served a small portion of the chicken breast on a plate and were asked to evaluate the product for overall impression, flavor, and texture on a 9-point hedonic scale with 1 = "dislike extremely" and 9 = "like extremely." Also, a 5-point just-about-right (JAR) scale was used on questions about tenderness, juiciness, overall flavor, and saltiness. Both hedonic and JAR demonstrated that the marinades of plum concentrate and the blend of plum fiber and powder were not distinguishable from the control (P > 0.05). Using two different percentages of fiber/powder blend, two different percentages of concentrate, sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), and no marinade, measurements were made for marinade per cent pickup, thaw loss, and cook loss. Plum concentrate at 1.1% was most similar to STPP in marinade per cent pickup, thaw loss, drip loss, and cook loss. These results show that plum ingredients can potentially be used as a substitute in standard phosphate marinades.

Practical Application: Consumers are increasingly demanding more natural foods with less artificial additives. This research presents the results of experiments using dried plum ingredients as a substitute for phosphates commonly used in marinades for chicken. Results indicate that dried plum ingredients may be a suitable substitute for phosphates in marinades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02737.xDOI Listing
June 2012

A review of the ecology, genomics, and stress response of Listeria innocua and Listeria monocytogenes.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2012 ;52(8):712-25

Center for Food Safety IFSE and Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA.

Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive foodborne pathogen responsible for a severe disease occurring in immuno-compromised populations. Foodborne illness caused by L. monocytogenes is a serious public health concern because of the high associated mortality. Study of the closely related, but nonpathogenic Listeria innocua has accounted for a better understanding of the behavior of L. monocytogenes in environments beyond the laboratory. Traditionally, the ecological co-habitation, genomic synteny, and physiological similarity of the two species have supported use of L. innocua for predicting the behavior of L. monocytogenes in farm and food processing environments. However, a careful review of the current literature indicates that in a given situation it may not be prudent to use L. innocua as a surrogate for L. monocytogenes without prior confirmation of their similar phenotypes, as an increasing number of studies have arisen demonstrating differences in L. monocytogenes and L. innocua stress response, and furthermore, there are differences among the L. monocytogenes subgroups. Future research should take into consideration that multiple surrogates might be required to accurately model even a single condition depending on the L. monocytogenes subgroup of interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2010.507909DOI Listing
September 2012

Inhibition of beef isolates of E. coli O157:H7 by orange oil at various temperatures.

J Food Sci 2012 Jun 14;77(6):M308-11. Epub 2012 May 14.

Center for Food Safety-IFSE and Food Science Dept, 2650 Young Ave, Univ of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA.

Unlabelled: Plant essential oils have previously been shown to exhibit antimicrobial activities against various microorganisms. In this study, cold pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (CPTVO) was examined at various temperatures (37, 10, and 4 °C) to determine its antimicrobial activity against 3 strains of E. coli O157:H7 recovered from beef products. A micro broth dilution method using 96 well microtiter plates was used with trypticase soy broth with 0.15% agar and 2,3,5 tetrazolium chloride as a growth indicator as the medium. Serial dilutions of CPTVO were made, resulting in final concentrations of oil ranging from 0.2% to 25% or 0.1% to 10%. Plates were incubated statically at 4, 10, or 37 °C, and sampled hourly. After 6 h at 37 °C, all strains were inhibited at concentrations ranging from 0.2% to 0.6%, with a mean of 0.4 ± 0.01%. At 10 °C, all strains were inhibited at concentrations ranging from 0.8% to 6.3%, with a mean of 1.1% ± 0.2%, after 6 h. At 4 °C, all strains were inhibited after 6 h at concentrations ranging from 2.3% to 4.6%, with a mean of 3.5% ± 2.1%. After 24 h at 4 °C the strains were inhibited at concentrations ranging from 0.7% to 1% with a mean of 0.8% ± 0.3%. The ranges appear to be the result of effects from the variable nature of a complex media and an antimicrobial that presents potential multiple mechanisms for inhibition. It appears CPTVO is a viable option to inhibit E. coli O157:H7 growth at refrigeration temperatures.

Practical Application: Beef products are often the source of foodborne illness from the organism E. coli O157:H7. Orange essential oils have been in the human diet for centuries, and the research reported here indicates that some of these oils may be used as surface applications during cold temperatures to inhibit the foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02689.xDOI Listing
June 2012

In vitro effects of citrus oils against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria of clinical importance.

J Environ Sci Health B 2012 ;47(7):736-41

Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA.

We evaluated the in vitro activity of citrus oils against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species. Citrus essential oils were tested against a variety of Mycobacterium species and strains using the BACTEC radiometric growth system. Cold pressed terpeneless Valencia oil (CPT) was further tested using the Wayne model of in vitro latency. Exposure of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG to 0.025 % cold pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (CPT) resulted in a 3-log decrease in viable counts versus corresponding controls. Inhibition of various clinical isolates of the M. avium complex and M. abscessus ranged from 2.5 to 5.2-logs. Some species/strains were completely inhibited in the presence of CPT including one isolate each of the following: the M. avium complex, M. chelonae and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. CPT also inhibited the growth of BCG more than 99 % in an in vitro model of latency which mimics anaerobic dormancy thought to occur in vivo. The activity of CPT against drug-resistant strains of the M. avium complex and M. abscessus suggest that the mechanism of action for CPT is different than that of currently available drugs. Inhibition of latently adapted bacilli offers promise for treatment of latent infections of MTB. These results suggest that the antimycobacterial properties of CPT warrant further study to elucidate the specific mechanism of action and clarify the spectrum of activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2012.669331DOI Listing
August 2012

Dietary fiber content influences soluble carbohydrate levels in ruminal fluids.

J Environ Sci Health B 2012 ;47(7):710-7

Animal Science Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.

The soluble carbohydrate concentration of ruminal fluid, as affected by dietary forage content (DFC) and/or ruminally undegradable intake protein content (UIPC), was determined. Four ruminally cannulated steers, in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, were offered diets containing high (75 % of DM) or low (25 % of DM) DFC and high (6 % of DM) or low (5 % of DM) UIPC, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Zinc-treated SBM was the primary UIP source. Soluble hexose concentration (145.1 μM) in ruminal fluid (RF) of steers fed low DFC diets exhibited a higher trend (P = 0.08) than that (124.5 μM) of steers fed high DFC diets. UIPC did not modulate (P = 0.54) ruminal soluble hexose concentrations. Regardless of diet, soluble hexose concentration declined immediately after feeding and did not rise until 3 h after feeding (P < 0.0001). Cellobiose (≈90 %) and glucose (≈10 %) were the major soluble hexoses present in RF. Maltose was not detected. Soluble glucose concentration (13.0 μM) was not modified by either UIPC (P = 0.40) nor DFC (P = 0.61). However, a DFC by post-prandial time interaction was detected (P = 0.02). Pentose concentrations were greater (P = 0.02) in RF of steers fed high DFC (100.2 μM) than steers fed low DFC (177.0 μM). UIPC did not influence (P = 0.35) soluble pentose concentration. The identity of soluble pentoses in ruminal fluid could not be determined. However, unsubstituted xylose and arabinose were excluded. These data indicate that: (i) soluble carbohydrate concentrations remain in ruminal fluid during digestion and fermentation; (ii) slight diurnal changes began after feeding; (iii) DFC influences the soluble carbohydrate concentration in RF; and (iv) UIPC of these diets does not affect the soluble carbohydrate concentration of RF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2012.669287DOI Listing
August 2012

Cleaning and decontamination efficacy of wiping cloths and silver dihydrogen citrate on food contact surfaces.

J Appl Microbiol 2012 Jul 10;113(1):89-95. Epub 2012 May 10.

Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.

Aims:   To test the efficacy of four wipe cloth types (cotton bar towel, nonwoven, microfibre and blended cellulose/cotton) with either quaternary ammonia cleaning solution or silver dihydrogen citrate (SDC) in cleaning food contact surfaces.

Methods:   Swab samples collected from untreated, cloth-treated and cloth disinfectant-treated surfaces were subjected to hygiene monitoring using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence and aerobic total plate counting (TPC) assays.

Results:   Adenosine triphosphate measurements taken after wiping the surfaces showed poor cleaning by nonwoven cloths (2·89 RLU 100 cm(-2) ) than the microfibre (2·30 RLU 100 cm(-2) ), cotton terry bar (2·26 RLU 100 cm(-2) ) and blended cellulose/cotton cloth types (2·20 RLU 100 cm(-2) ). The cellulose/cotton cloth showed highest log reduction in ATP-B RLU values (95%) and CFU values (98·03%) when used in combination with SDC disinfectant.

Conclusions:   Cleaning effect of wiping cloths on food contact surfaces can be enhanced by dipping them in SDC disinfectant. ATP-B measurements can be used for real-time hygiene monitoring in public sector, and testing microbial contamination provides more reliable measure of cleanliness.

Significance And Impact Of The Study:   Contaminated food contact surfaces need regular hygiene monitoring. This study could help to estimate and establish contamination thresholds for surfaces at public sector facilities and to base the effectiveness of cleaning methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05318.xDOI Listing
July 2012

Comparison of nitroethane, 2-nitro-1-propanol, lauric acid, Lauricidin® and the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros, for potential broad-spectrum control of anaerobically grown lactic acid bacteria.

J Environ Sci Health B 2012 ;47(4):269-74

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia.

The gastrointestinal tract of bovines often contains bacteria that contribute to disorders of the rumen, and may also contain foodborne or opportunistic human pathogens as well as bacteria capable of causing mastitis in cows. Thus there is a need to develop broad-spectrum therapies that are effective while not leading to unacceptably long antibiotic withdrawal times. The effects of the CH(4)-inhibitors nitroethane (2 mg/mL), 2-nitro-1-propanol (2 mg/mL), lauric acid (5 mg/mL), the commercial product Lauricidin® (5 mg/mL), and a finely ground product of the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros (10 mg/mL), were compared in pure cultures of Streptococcus agalactia, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus bovis, and in a mixed lactic acid rumen bacterial culture. Lauricidin® and lauric acid exhibited the most bactericidal acidity against all bacteria. These results suggest potential animal health benefits from supplementing cattle diets with lauric acid or Lauricidin® to improve the health of the rumen and help prevent shedding of human pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2012.638883DOI Listing
July 2012

Activity of citrus essential oils against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. and effects on beef subprimal cuts under refrigeration.

J Food Sci 2011 Aug 5;76(6):M433-8. Epub 2011 Jul 5.

Dept. of Animal Sciences, Center for Meat Safety and Quality, Food Safety Cluster, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

Unlabelled: Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. are bacterial pathogens often associated with beef, and cause many cases of foodborne illness each year in the United States. During beef slaughter and processing, these bacteria may spread from the hide or intestines to the carcass. The objective of this research was to investigate the use of naturally occurring compounds citrus essential oils (CEOs) extracted from orange peel to reduce or eliminate these pathogens at the chilling stage of processing, or during fabrication. Brisket flats (used to simulate beef subprimals) were spot inoculated with approximately 6 log of surrogate generic E. coli cocktail (previously shown to be identical in growth and survival parameters to E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp.). Following drying, CEOs were applied by spraying at concentrations of 3% and 6% to the surface of different pieces of meat. Treatments were applied using a custom built spray cabinet at 2.07 bar and applied at a rate of 3.79 L/min to replicate commercial practices. The CEOs significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the concentration of E. coli on the brisket flats in comparison to inoculated no spray or water sprayed controls over a period of 90 d, while causing an initial reduction of approximately 1.4 log units. Total aerobic bacteria and psychrotrophic counts were also reduced on uninoculated briskets following treatment. These results indicate that 3% cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil could be used as an additional intervention against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. at the refrigerated storage stage of processing.

Practical Application: CEOs are natural compounds that have been designated as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS). They can be used to control Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 on beef carcasses at the chilling stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02253.xDOI Listing
August 2011

Enhanced inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by a combination of cold pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil and antibiotics.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2012 Apr 6;9(4):370-2. Epub 2012 Mar 6.

Center for Food Safety, Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, 2650 North Young Avenue, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA.

This study was designed to evaluate the ability of cold pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (CPTVO) to enhance the effectiveness of antibiotics against 10 strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Disc diffusion assays were performed to determine the effects of CPTVO and two antibiotics with different mechanisms of action (i.e., penicillin and chloramphenicol) individually and in combination with CPTVO. CPTVO alone produced zones ranging from 16.5 to 19.9 mm. Penicillin at 2 or 10 units produced zones ranging from <6 to 13.4 mm, and from 16 to 19.5 mm, respectively. Chloramphenicol at 5 or 30 μg had zones ranging from <6 to 6.9 mm, and from 10.8 to 15.9 mm, respectively. Penicillin (2 and 10 units) plus CPTVO produced zones ranging from 20.2 to 25.3 mm, and from 21.9 to 28 mm, respectively. Chloramphenicol (5 or 30 μg) plus CPTVO produced zones of from 20.1 to 26.6 mm, and from 19.5 to 23.9 mm, respectively. In conclusion, the combination of antibiotics with CPTVO increases their ability to inhibit L. monocytogenes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2011.0946DOI Listing
April 2012

Antimicrobial effect and mode of action of terpeneless cold-pressed Valencia orange essential oil on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

J Appl Microbiol 2012 May 20;112(5):1020-33. Epub 2012 Mar 20.

Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA.

Aims: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antistaphylococcal effect and elucidate the mechanism of action of orange essential oil against antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains.

Methods And Results: The inhibitory effect of commercial orange essential oil (EO) against six Staph. aureus strains was tested using disc diffusion and agar dilution methods. The mechanism of EO action on MRSA was analysed by transcriptional profiling. Morphological changes of EO-treated Staph. aureus were examined using transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that 0·1% of terpeneless cold-pressed Valencia orange oil (CPV) induced the cell wall stress stimulon consistent with the inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Transmission electron microscopic observation revealed cell lysis and suggested a cell wall lysis-related mechanism of CPV.

Conclusions: CPV inhibits the growth of Staph. aureus, causes gene expression changes consistent with the inhibition of cell wall synthesis, and triggers cell lysis.

Significance And Impact Of The Study: Multiple antibiotics resistance is becoming a serious problem in the management of Staph. aureus infections. In this study, the altered expression of cell wall-associated genes and subsequent cell lysis in MRSA caused by CPV suggest that it may be a potential antimicrobial agent to control antibiotic-resistant Staph. aureus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05270.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3324624PMC
May 2012

Removal and transfer of viruses on food contact surfaces by cleaning cloths.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2012 May 10;78(9):3037-44. Epub 2012 Feb 10.

University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture, Department of Food Science, and Center for Food Safety, Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA.

Contamination of food contact surfaces with pathogens is considered an important vehicle for the indirect transmission of food-borne diseases. Five different cleaning cloths were assessed for the ability to remove viruses from food contact surfaces (stainless steel surface and nonporous solid surface) and to transfer viruses back to these surfaces. Cleaning cloths evaluated include two different cellulose/cotton cloths, one microfiber cloth, one nonwoven cloth, and one cotton terry bar towel. Four viral surrogates (murine norovirus [MNV], feline calicivirus [FCV], bacteriophages PRD1 and MS2) were included. Removal of FCV from stainless steel was significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) than that from nonporous solid surface, and overall removal of MNV from both surfaces was significantly less (P ≤ 0.05) than that of FCV and PRD1. Additionally, the terry towel removed significantly fewer total viruses (P ≤ 0.05) than the microfiber and one of the cotton/cellulose cloths. The cleaning cloth experiments were repeated with human norovirus. For transfer of viruses from cloth to surface, both cellulose/cotton cloths and microfiber transferred an average of 3.4 and 8.5 total PFU, respectively, to both surfaces, and the amounts transferred were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from those for the nonwoven cloth and terry towel (309 and 331 total PFU, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the amount of virus transfer between surfaces. These data indicate that while the cleaning cloths assessed here can remove viruses from surfaces, some cloths may also transfer a significant amount of viruses back to food contact surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00027-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3346440PMC
May 2012

Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in ruminants can be reduced by orange peel product feeding.

J Food Prot 2011 Nov;74(11):1917-21

Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, College Station, Texas 77845, USA.

Foodborne pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 are threats to the safety of beef. Citrus peel and dried orange pulp are by-products from citrus juice production that have natural antimicrobial effects and are often incorporated into least-cost ration formulations for beef and dairy cattle. This study was designed to determine if orange peel and pulp affected E. coli O157:H7 populations in vivo. Sheep (n = 24) were fed a cracked corn grain-based diet that was supplemented with a 50-50 mixture of dried orange pellet and fresh orange peel to achieve a final concentration (dry matter basis, wt/wt) of 0, 5, or 10% pelleted orange peel (OP) for 10 days. Sheep were artificially inoculated with 10(10) CFU of E. coli O157:H7 by oral dosing. Fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 was measured daily for 5 days after inoculation, after which all animals were humanely euthanized. At 96 h postinoculation, E. coli O157:H7 shedding was reduced (P < 0.05) in sheep fed 10% OP. Populations of inoculated E. coli O157:H7 were reduced by OP treatment throughout the gastrointestinal tract; however, this reduction reached significant levels in the rumen (P < 0.05) of sheep fed 10% OP diets. Cecal and rectal populations of E. coli O157:H7 were reduced (P < 0.05) by inclusion of both 5 and 10% OP diets. Our results demonstrate that orange peel products can be used as a preharvest intervention strategy as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-234DOI Listing
November 2011

Alternative antimicrobial compounds to control potential Lactobacillus contamination in bioethanol fermentations.

J Environ Sci Health B 2011 ;46(8):709-14

Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA.

Antibiotics are commonly used to control microbial contaminants in yeast-based bioethanol fermentation. Given the increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, alternative natural antimicrobials were evaluated against the potential contaminant, Lactobacillus. The effects of nisin, ϵ-polylysine, chitosan (CS) and lysozyme were screened against 5 Lactobacillus strains. A standard broth- microdilution method was used in 96-well plates to assess the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). L. delbrueckii subsp lactis ATCC479 exhibited maximal MICs with CS, ϵ-polylysine and nisin (1.87, 0.3125 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively). Nisin reduced most Lactobacillus strains by 6 log CFU/mL after 48 hours with the exception of L. casei. Synergism occurred when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was added with nisin. An MIC of 0.4 mg/mL of nisin combined with the EDTA at an MIC of 1 mg/ml markedly suppressed L .casei by 6 log CFU/mL. In conclusion, alternative antimicrobials proved to be a potential candidate for controlling bacterial contamination in the fermentation process. Synergistic effect of nisin with EDTA successfully inhibited the nisin-resistant contaminant, L. casei.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2011.594411DOI Listing
October 2011

A predictive model for the inactivation of Listeria innocua in cooked poultry products during postpackage pasteurization.

J Food Prot 2011 Aug;74(8):1261-7

Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China.

Contamination of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat poultry products poses potential risk of listeriosis to the public. To control the level of Listeria contamination, attention has been focused on the postpackage pasteurization of fully cooked poultry products. In this study, we sought to develop a model to predict the thermal inactivation of L. monocytogenes in chicken drumettes during postpackage hot water pasteurization. Fully cooked chicken drumettes were inoculated with Listeria innocua as a surrogate microorganism for Listeria monocytogenes, vacuum packaged, and treated in hot water baths at 60, 70, 80, and 90°C for different heating times. Experimental results showed that a 7-log CFU/g reduction of L. innocua occurred at 54, 28, 18, and 10 min at 60, 70, 80, and 90°C, respectively. The Weibull model was used to fit the survival curves of L. innocua at each heating temperature. The root mean square errors and residual plots indicated good agreements between the predicted and observed values. The predictive model was further validated by predicting a new data set generated in the pilot-plant tests. Model performance was evaluated by the acceptable prediction zone method, and the results indicated that the percentages of acceptable prediction errors were 100, 100, 82.4, and 87.5% at 60, 70, 80 and 90°C, respectively, which were all greater than the threshold acceptable value of 70% , indicating good performance of the model. The developed predictive model can be used as a tool to predict thermal inactivation behaviors of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat chicken drumettes products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-10-474DOI Listing
August 2011

Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2011 Oct 8;8(10):1071-5. Epub 2011 Jun 8.

Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2881 F&B Road, College Station, TX 77845, USA.

Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be transmitted to humans. Animal diets can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutritive value and is often included in cattle diets as a least-cost ration ingredient. Here we show that the inclusion of orange peel products reduced Salmonella Typhimurium populations in the gut of experimentally inoculated sheep. Sheep (n=24) were fed a cracked corn grain-based high grain diet that was supplemented with a 50%/50% (dry matter [DM], w/w) mixture of dried orange pellet and fresh orange peel to achieve a final concentration (DM, basis) of 0%, 10%, or 20% orange product (OP) for 10 days before inoculation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Sheep were experimentally inoculated with 10(10) colony forming units Salmonella Typhimurium, and fecal samples were collected every 24 h after inoculation. Sheep were humanely euthanized at 96 h after oral Salmonella inoculation. Populations of inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium were numerically reduced by OP treatment throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and this reduction only reached significant levels in the cecum (p<0.05) of sheep fed 10% OP diets. Apparent palatability issues decreased the consumption of OP in sheep fed 20% OP to intake levels below that of 10% OP (approximately 7% dry matter intake [DMI]/d feed refusal), thereby reducing the potential effects of OP feeding at this higher level. Our results demonstrate that orange peel and pellets are environmentally friendly and low-cost products that can be used as a pre-harvest intervention as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2011.0867DOI Listing
October 2011

Effect of organic poultry purchase frequency on consumer attitudes toward organic poultry meat.

J Food Sci 2010 Sep;75(7):S384-97

Dept. of Food Science and Center for Food Safety, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA.

Unlabelled: Because of the growing consumers' interest in organic meat, consumers' (N = 976) attitude toward organic meat was evaluated. Most respondents (59%) occasionally purchased organic chicken. To determine the organic chicken consumer profile, the organic chicken consumption frequencies of different demographic groups were compared. The results show dependence on age (P= 0.039) and ethnicity (P = 0.015). Older respondents as well as respondents who identified themselves as Caucasians tended to buy organic chicken more frequently. However, many other socio-demographic factors were not correlated with organic chicken consumption: gender (P = 0.185), education (P = 0.235), household income (0.867), living with partner or not (P = 0.235), and number of children (P = 0.883). Taste was identified as the most important meat quality attribute (perceived as [very] important by 94% of the respondents). Other important meat quality criteria were: general appearance, overall health, price, nutritional value, and containing no medical residues. "Organically produced" appeared to not be that important compared with other criteria. When respondents bought organic chicken more often, the importance of most of the meat quality attributes shifted to higher levels of importance, except for the price where an adverse effect was shown. The main motivation factors to buy organic chicken were the perception that organic chicken has fewer residues (pesticides, hormones, antibiotics), is safer, and healthier. The high price for organic meats was the strongest limiting factor for organic meat purchases followed by poor availability. Approximately 41% of the non-buyers and 30% of the occasional buyers perceived organic meat as not or hardly likely to be available in their supermarket.

Practical Application: This study obtained a better knowledge of consumers' attitudes and perception of organic chicken as well as the effect of various demographics on the likelihood of buying organic chicken. For marketing purposes of organic meats, it helps to know which attributes consumers perceive as important, where the consumer purchases organic chicken, and what the perceived availability of organic chicken is. Additionally, the motivation and deterrent factors are described indicating why the consumer does or does not purchase organic chicken. This information can be valuable to help promoting organic meats to the consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01775.xDOI Listing
September 2010

Use of natural antimicrobials from a food safety perspective for control of Staphylococcus aureus.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2011 Aug;12(8):1240-54

Institute of Quality Standard & Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 10081, China.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important foodborne and environmental pathogen that can produce toxins in foods and cause infections in soft tissues. S. aureus that have developed resistance to the conventional antimicrobials are commonly called Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-Resistant S. aureus (VRSA). Their prevalence is believed to be due to the widespread use of antibiotics. Therefore, natural antimicrobials are in urgent demand as alternatives to conventional antibiotics to treat S. aureus infections. In this review, natural antimicrobials from plant, animal and microbiological origins are discussed, including their mode of action and mechanisms of bacterial resistance, major components, chemical structure, effectiveness, synergistic effects and future prospects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138920111796117283DOI Listing
August 2011

Current perspectives on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne's disease, and Crohn's disease: a review.

Crit Rev Microbiol 2011 May 22;37(2):141-56. Epub 2011 Jan 22.

Center for Food Safety and Food Science Department, University of Arkansas, 2650 N. Young Ave., Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA.

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes the disease of cattle, Johne's. The economic impact of this disease includes early culling of infected cattle, reduced milk yield, and weight loss of cattle sold for slaughter. There is a possible link between MAP and Crohn's disease, a human inflammatory bowel disease. MAP is also a potential human food borne pathogen because it survives current pasteurization treatments. We review the current knowledge of MAP, Johne's disease and Crohn's disease and note directions for future work with this organism including rapid and economical detection, effective management plans and preventative measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/1040841X.2010.532480DOI Listing
May 2011

Listeria monocytogenes: antibiotic resistance in food production.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2011 May 18;8(5):569-78. Epub 2010 Dec 18.

Department of Food Science and Center for Food Safety-IFSE, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA.

Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes listeriosis, a disease that mainly affects the immunocompromised, the elderly, infants, and pregnant women. Listeriosis has become increasingly common in the last 25 years since the first foodborne outbreak was noted. Treatment for listeriosis currently consists primarily of supportive therapy in conjunction with the use of intravenous antibiotics. Antibiotics have been commercially available for over 60 years for treatment of a myriad of clinical diseases. Bacteria resistant to antibiotics have been developing over this same period. This review seeks to elucidate the extent of antibiotic resistance in L. monocytogenes, the possible transmission mechanisms, and contributing factors to distribution of antibiotic resistance among Listeria species, and possible control strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2010.0718DOI Listing
May 2011

Assessment of a food microbiology senior undergraduate course as a potential food safety distance education course for poultry science majors.

Poult Sci 2010 Nov;89(11):2542-5

Department of Food Science and Center for Food Safety, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville 72704, USA.

Distance education courses have become popular due to the increased number of commuter students as well as people already in the workforce who need further education for advancement within their careers. A graduate-level Web-based course entitled Special Topics-Poultry Food Safety Microbiology was developed from an existing senior undergraduate advanced food microbiology course in the Poultry Science Department at Texas A&M University. Conversion of standard lecture material into a distance education course can provide unique challenges to maintain comparable course content in an asynchronous manner. The overall objective for this course was to examine bacterial activities including ecology in food, animals, raw and processed meat, eggs, and human pathogenesis. Students were surveyed at the end of the class and the majority agreed that they would be willing to take the course as an online course, although they were not willing to pay an extra fee for an online course. The majority of students used the online version of the course as a supplement to the classroom rather than as a substitute.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps.2010-00896DOI Listing
November 2010

Sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A to nisin and diacetyl after starvation in sodium phosphate buffered saline.

J Food Sci 2009 Nov-Dec;74(9):M493-8

Dept. of Food Science and Center for Food Safety, Inst. of Food Science & Engineering, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA.

This study determined the effectiveness of nisin and diacetyl to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) under normal cell cultivation and starvation conditions in sodium phosphate buffered saline (SPBS). Inhibitory effects of nisin at 320 or 1000 AU/mL or diacetyl at 0.25%, 0.50%, or 1.0% and combinations on Lm in brain heart infusion (BHI), SPBS, and potassium phosphate buffered saline (KPBS) were determined on BHIA (nonselective medium) and PALCAM (selective medium) agar at 0 and 2 h posttreatment after 0, 7, 14, and 21 d of starvation. Two-hour exposure to 1000 AU/mL nisin and 1% diacetyl gave 8 to 9 log CFU/mL reductions of nonstarved control cells regardless of plating medium after suspension in BHI, SPBS, or KPBS with inhibitors, but with 7 d starved cells a 2-h exposure reduced Lm levels to less than the detection limit (20 CFU/mL). Cells starved in SPBS for 14 or 21 d then suspended in BHI plus inhibitors were reduced 5 to 6 log CFU/mL. SPBS suspensions on days 14 and 21 were reduced 4 log CFU/mL and 2 to 3 log CFU/mL, respectively, on BHI media and 5 to 6 log CFU/mL and 2 to 3 log CFU/mL on PALCAM. Recovery was the same regardless of plating medium, indicating treated cells were killed and not merely injured by the nisin and diacetyl treatments. This study showed that nisin and diacetyl combinations were more effective on Lm than when either chemical was used separately in BHI, SPBS, or KPBS. Lm cells starved for 14 or more days were much more resistant to the nisin and diacetyl combinations than were nonstarved control cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01340.xDOI Listing
September 2010

Spray application of liquid smoke to reduce or eliminate Listeria monocytogenes surface inoculated on frankfurters.

Meat Sci 2010 Aug 21;85(4):640-4. Epub 2010 Mar 21.

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA.

In a simulated post process contamination scenario liquid smoke was sprayed on the frankfurters after peeling, and then inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Samples that did not receive a liquid smoke spray remained at approximately 2 log cfu/cm(2) during the 48h of storage while the levels on the liquid smoke treated frankfurters continued to decline until they were below detection level (1 cfu/100 cm(2)). A shelf-life study lasting 140 days indicated that liquid smoke suppressed the growth of Lm for up to 130 days. An application of 2 or 3 ml liquid smoke at packaging resulted in at least a 1 log reduction of Lm within 12h post packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.03.017DOI Listing
August 2010

The impact of single antimicrobial intervention treatment with potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on non-inoculated ground beef lipid, instrumental color, and sensory characteristics.

Meat Sci 2009 Nov 27;83(3):345-50. Epub 2009 May 27.

Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.

The effect of using potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, acidified sodium chlorite, or peroxyacetic acid as a single antimicrobial intervention on ground beef instrumental color, sensory color and odor characteristics, and lipid oxidation was evaluated. Prior to grinding, beef trimmings (90/10) were treated with 3% potassium lactate (KL), 4% sodium metasilicate (NMS), 200-ppm peroxyacetic acid (PAA), 1000-ppm acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), or left untreated (CON). Ground beef under simulated retail display was measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 7 of display for instrumental color, sensory characteristics, TBARS values, and pH to evaluate the impact of the treatments. The KL, NMS, PAA, and ASC were redder (a(∗); P<0.05) than CON. All treatments were scored by sensory panelists to have a brighter (P<0.05) red color than CON during days 1-3 of display. All treatments had less (P<0.05) lipid oxidation than CON on days 0, 3, and 7 of display. These results suggest that the use of these antimicrobial compounds on beef trimmings prior to grinding may not adversely affect, and may improve bulk packaged ground beef quality characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.05.015DOI Listing
November 2009

Effect of soluble maillard reaction products on cadA expression in Salmonella typhimurium.

J Environ Sci Health B 2010 Feb;45(2):162-6

Department of Poultry Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

The presence of Maillard reaction products (MRP) in foods and food components is due to the non-enzymatic reaction between protein and carbohydrate residues triggered by thermal steps during food processing. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of MRPs and increasing lysine concentrations on S. Typhimurium growth and the expression of cadA which may be an indirect determinant of Salmonella virulence response. Variations in lysine concentrations (from 0 to 0.5 mM) did not exert any effect either on the final optical density after 6-hour incubation or the growth rates of S. Typhimurium in media containing MRPs. In contrast to the reduced final absorbancy of the bacterial cultures grown with histidine and arginine MRPs supplementations (0.1%), growth rates, in general, remained unaltered by all MRPs at each lysine concentration when compared to the control (M9 pH 5.8, no MRPs added). The induction levels of cadA in media containing 0.1% MRPs were close to cadA induction in the reference media (M9, pH 5.8 and no MRPs) and did not exceed the corresponding values by more than approximately 30%. Although the observed negligible induction of cadA under these conditions complies with the concept of its potential "anti-virulence" function, additional studies involving various concentrations and more refined MRPs are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601230903472207DOI Listing
February 2010
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