Publications by authors named "Craig Schluttenhofer"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Origin and evolution of jasmonate signaling.

Plant Sci 2020 Sep 15;298:110542. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Agriculture Research and Development Program, 1400 Brush Row Road, Wilberforce OH, 45384, USA. Electronic address:

Jasmonate (JA) signaling is a key mediator of plant development and defense which arose during plants transition from an aqueous to terrestrial environment. Elucidating the evolution of JA signaling is important for understanding plant development, defense, and production of specialized metabolites. The lineage of key protein domains characterizing JA signaling factors was traced to identify the origins of CORONITINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1), JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ), NOVEL INTERACTOR OF JAZ, MYC2, TOPLESS, and MEDIATOR SUBUNIT 25. Charophytes do not possess genes encoding key JA signaling components, including COI1, JAZ, MYC2, and the JAZ-interacting bHLH factors, yet their orthologs are present in bryophytes. TIFY family genes were found in charophyta and chlorophya algae. JAZs evolved from ZIM genes of the TIFY family through changes to several key amino acids. Dating placed the origin of JA signaling 515 to 473 million years ago during the middle Cambrian to early Ordovician periods. This time is known for rapid biodiversification and mass extinction events. An increased predation from the diversifying and changing fauna may have driven evolution of JA signaling and plant defense.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2020.110542DOI Listing
September 2020

Hemp hemp hooray for cannabis research.

Science 2019 Feb;363(6428):701-702

Tobacco Research and Development Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw3537DOI Listing
February 2019

Canada begins a great ganja experiment.

Science 2018 08;361(6401):460

Tobacco Research and Development Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aau5323DOI Listing
August 2018

Cross-family transcription factor interaction between MYC2 and GBFs modulates terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis.

J Exp Bot 2018 08;69(18):4267-4281

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and Kentucky Tobacco Research and Development Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Biosynthesis of medicinally valuable terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) in Catharanthus roseus is regulated by transcriptional activators such as the basic helix-loop-helix factor CrMYC2. However, the transactivation effects are often buffered by repressors, such as the bZIP factors CrGBF1 and CrGBF2, possibly to fine-tune the accumulation of cytotoxic TIAs. Questions remain as to whether and how these factors interact to modulate TIA production. We demonstrated that overexpression of CrMYC2 induces CrGBF expression and results in reduced alkaloid accumulation in C. roseus hairy roots. We found that CrGBF1 and CrGBF2 form homo- and heterodimers to repress the transcriptional activities of key TIA pathway gene promoters. We showed that CrGBFs dimerize with CrMYC2, and CrGBF1 binds to the same cis-elements (T/G-box) as CrMYC2 in the target gene promoters. Our findings suggest that CrGBFs antagonize CrMYC2 transactivation possibly by competitive binding to the T/G-box in the target promoters and/or protein-protein interaction that forms a non-DNA binding complex that prevents CrMYC2 from binding to its target promoters. Homo- and heterodimer formation allows fine-tuning of the amplitude of TIA gene expression. Our findings reveal a previously undescribed regulatory mechanism that governs the TIA pathway genes to balance metabolic flux for TIA production in C. roseus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ery229DOI Listing
August 2018

A network of jasmonate-responsive bHLH factors modulate monoterpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus.

New Phytol 2018 03 27;217(4):1566-1581. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Kentucky Tobacco Research and Development Center, University of Kentucky, 1401 University Drive, Lexington, KY, 40546, USA.

The pharmaceutically valuable monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) in Catharanthus roseus are derived from the indole and iridoid pathways that respond to jasmonate (JA) signaling. Two classes of JA-responsive bHLH transcription factor (TF), CrMYC2 and BIS1/BIS2, are known to regulate the indole and iridoid pathways, respectively. However, upregulation of either one of the TF genes does not lead to increased MIA accumulation. Moreover, little is known about the interconnection between the CrMYC2 and BIS transcriptional cascades and the hierarchical position of BIS1/BIS2 in JA signaling. Here, we report that a newly identified bHLH factor, Repressor of MYC2 Targets 1 (RMT1), is activated by CrMYC2 and BIS1, and acts as a repressor of the CrMYC2 targets. In addition, we isolated and functionally characterized the core C. roseus JA signaling components, including CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM domain (JAZ) proteins. CrMYC2 and BIS1 are repressed by the JAZ proteins in the absence of JA, but de-repressed by the SCF complex on perception of JA. Our findings suggest that the repressors, JAZs and RMT1, mediate crosstalk between the CrMYC2 and BIS regulatory cascades to balance the metabolic flux in MIA biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.14910DOI Listing
March 2018

Challenges towards Revitalizing Hemp: A Multifaceted Crop.

Trends Plant Sci 2017 11 5;22(11):917-929. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA; The Kentucky Tobacco Research and Development Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA; South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Hemp has been an important crop throughout human history for food, fiber, and medicine. Despite significant progress made by the international research community, the basic biology of hemp plants remains insufficiently understood. Clear objectives are needed to guide future research. As a semi-domesticated plant, hemp has many desirable traits that require improvement, including eliminating seed shattering, enhancing the quantity and quality of stem fiber, and increasing the accumulation of phytocannabinoids. Methods to manipulate the sex of hemp plants will also be important for optimizing yields of seed, fiber, and cannabinoids. Currently, research into trait improvement is hindered by the lack of molecular techniques adapted to hemp. Here we review how addressing these limitations will help advance our knowledge of plant biology and enable us to fully domesticate and maximize the agronomic potential of this promising crop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2017.08.004DOI Listing
November 2017

Regulation of specialized metabolism by WRKY transcription factors.

Plant Physiol 2015 Feb 10;167(2):295-306. Epub 2014 Dec 10.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and Kentucky Tobacco Research and Development Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40546

WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are well known for regulating plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. However, much less is known about how WRKY TFs affect plant-specialized metabolism. Analysis of WRKY TFs regulating the production of specialized metabolites emphasizes the values of the family outside of traditionally accepted roles in stress tolerance. WRKYs with conserved roles across plant species seem to be essential in regulating specialized metabolism. Overall, the WRKY family plays an essential role in regulating the biosynthesis of important pharmaceutical, aromatherapy, biofuel, and industrial components, warranting considerable attention in the forthcoming years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.114.251769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4326757PMC
February 2015

Analyses of Catharanthus roseus and Arabidopsis thaliana WRKY transcription factors reveal involvement in jasmonate signaling.

BMC Genomics 2014 Jun 20;15:502. Epub 2014 Jun 20.

Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA.

Background: To combat infection to biotic stress plants elicit the biosynthesis of numerous natural products, many of which are valuable pharmaceutical compounds. Jasmonate is a central regulator of defense response to pathogens and accumulation of specialized metabolites. Catharanthus roseus produces a large number of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) and is an excellent model for understanding the regulation of this class of valuable compounds. Recent work illustrates a possible role for the Catharanthus WRKY transcription factors (TFs) in regulating TIA biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis and other plants, the WRKY TF family is also shown to play important role in controlling tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, as well as secondary metabolism.

Results: Here, we describe the WRKY TF families in response to jasmonate in Arabidopsis and Catharanthus. Publically available Arabidopsis microarrays revealed at least 30% (22 of 72) of WRKY TFs respond to jasmonate treatments. Microarray analysis identified at least six jasmonate responsive Arabidopsis WRKY genes (AtWRKY7, AtWRKY20, AtWRKY26, AtWRKY45, AtWRKY48, and AtWRKY72) that have not been previously reported. The Catharanthus WRKY TF family is comprised of at least 48 members. Phylogenetic clustering reveals 11 group I, 32 group II, and 5 group III WRKY TFs. Furthermore, we found that at least 25% (12 of 48) were jasmonate responsive, and 75% (9 of 12) of the jasmonate responsive CrWRKYs are orthologs of AtWRKYs known to be regulated by jasmonate.

Conclusion: Overall, the CrWRKY family, ascertained from transcriptome sequences, contains approximately 75% of the number of WRKYs found in other sequenced asterid species (pepper, tomato, potato, and bladderwort). Microarray and transcriptomic data indicate that expression of WRKY TFs in Arabidopsis and Catharanthus are under tight spatio-temporal and developmental control, and potentially have a significant role in jasmonate signaling. Profiling of CrWRKY expression in response to jasmonate treatment revealed potential associations with secondary metabolism. This study provides a foundation for further characterization of WRKY TFs in jasmonate responses and regulation of natural product biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4099484PMC
June 2014

MED18 interaction with distinct transcription factors regulates multiple plant functions.

Nat Commun 2014 ;5:3064

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, 915 W State Street, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional regulatory complex. Mechanisms of Mediator function are poorly understood. Here we show that Arabidopsis MED18 is a multifunctional protein regulating plant immunity, flowering time and responses to hormones through interactions with distinct transcription factors. MED18 interacts with YIN YANG1 to suppress disease susceptibility genes glutaredoxins GRX480, GRXS13 and thioredoxin TRX-h5. Consequently, yy1 and med18 mutants exhibit deregulated expression of these genes and enhanced susceptibility to fungal infection. In addition, MED18 interacts with ABA INSENSITIVE 4 and SUPPRESSOR OF FRIGIDA4 to regulate abscisic acid responses and flowering time, respectively. MED18 associates with the promoter, coding and terminator regions of target genes suggesting its function in transcription initiation, elongation and termination. Notably, RNA polymerase II occupancy and histone H3 lysine tri-methylation of target genes are affected in the med18 mutant, reinforcing MED18 function in different mechanisms of transcriptional control. Overall, MED18 conveys distinct cues to engender transcription underpinning plant responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4064DOI Listing
November 2015

Transcriptional regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in plants.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2013 Nov 7;1829(11):1236-47. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Kentucky Tobacco Research and Development Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA.

Plants produce thousands of secondary metabolites (a.k.a. specialized metabolites) of diverse chemical nature. These compounds play important roles in protecting plants under adverse conditions. Many secondary metabolites are valued for their pharmaceutical properties. Because of their beneficial effects to health, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites has been a prime focus of research. Many transcription factors have been characterized for their roles in regulating biosynthetic pathways at the transcriptional level. The emerging picture of transcriptional regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis suggests that the expression of activators and repressors, in response to phytohormones and different environmental signals, forms a dynamic regulatory network that fine-tune the timing, amplitude and tissue specific expression of pathway genes and the subsequent accumulation of these compounds. Recent research has revealed that some metabolic pathways are also controlled by posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. This review will use recent developments in the biosynthesis of flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids to highlight the complexity of transcriptional regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagrm.2013.09.006DOI Listing
November 2013