Publications by authors named "Corrie A Painter"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

COVID-19 and Cancer: Current Challenges and Perspectives.

Cancer Cell 2020 11 1;38(5):629-646. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Cancer Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:

Patients with cancer have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This effect has included the adverse outcomes in patients with cancer who develop COVID-19, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the delivery of cancer care, and the severe disruption to cancer research. However, patients with cancer are a heterogeneous population, and recent studies have now documented factors that allow risk stratification of patients with cancer in order to optimize care. In this review, we highlight data at the intersection of COVID-19 and cancer, including the biological interplay between the two diseases and practical recommendations for the treatment of patients with cancer during the pandemic. We additionally discuss the potential long-lasting impact of the pandemic on cancer care due to its deleterious effect on cancer research, as well as biological insights from the cancer research community that could help develop novel therapies for all patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2020.09.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528740PMC
November 2020

Broad host range of SARS-CoV-2 predicted by comparative and structural analysis of ACE2 in vertebrates.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 09 21;117(36):22311-22322. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

The Genome Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616;

The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of COVID-19. The main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is now undergoing extensive scrutiny to understand the routes of transmission and sensitivity in different species. Here, we utilized a unique dataset of ACE2 sequences from 410 vertebrate species, including 252 mammals, to study the conservation of ACE2 and its potential to be used as a receptor by SARS-CoV-2. We designed a five-category binding score based on the conservation properties of 25 amino acids important for the binding between ACE2 and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Only mammals fell into the medium to very high categories and only catarrhine primates into the very high category, suggesting that they are at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We employed a protein structural analysis to qualitatively assess whether amino acid changes at variable residues would be likely to disrupt ACE2/SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding and found the number of predicted unfavorable changes significantly correlated with the binding score. Extending this analysis to human population data, we found only rare (frequency <0.001) variants in 10/25 binding sites. In addition, we found significant signals of selection and accelerated evolution in the ACE2 coding sequence across all mammals, and specific to the bat lineage. Our results, if confirmed by additional experimental data, may lead to the identification of intermediate host species for SARS-CoV-2, guide the selection of animal models of COVID-19, and assist the conservation of animals both in native habitats and in human care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2010146117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7486773PMC
September 2020

Utilization of COVID-19 Treatments and Clinical Outcomes among Patients with Cancer: A COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19) Cohort Study.

Cancer Discov 2020 10 22;10(10):1514-1527. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

Among 2,186 U.S. adults with invasive cancer and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, we examined the association of COVID-19 treatments with 30-day all-cause mortality and factors associated with treatment. Logistic regression with multiple adjustments (e.g., comorbidities, cancer status, baseline COVID-19 severity) was performed. Hydroxychloroquine with any other drug was associated with increased mortality versus treatment with any COVID-19 treatment other than hydroxychloroquine or untreated controls; this association was not present with hydroxychloroquine alone. Remdesivir had numerically reduced mortality versus untreated controls that did not reach statistical significance. Baseline COVID-19 severity was strongly associated with receipt of any treatment. Black patients were approximately half as likely to receive remdesivir as white patients. Although observational studies can be limited by potential unmeasured confounding, our findings add to the emerging understanding of patterns of care for patients with cancer and COVID-19 and support evaluation of emerging treatments through inclusive prospective controlled trials. SIGNIFICANCE: Evaluating the potential role of COVID-19 treatments in patients with cancer in a large observational study, there was no statistically significant 30-day all-cause mortality benefit with hydroxychloroquine or high-dose corticosteroids alone or in combination; remdesivir showed potential benefit. Treatment receipt reflects clinical decision-making and suggests disparities in medication access..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541683PMC
October 2020

Broad Host Range of SARS-CoV-2 Predicted by Comparative and Structural Analysis of ACE2 in Vertebrates.

bioRxiv 2020 Apr 18. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

The Genome Center, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). The main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is now undergoing extensive scrutiny to understand the routes of transmission and sensitivity in different species. Here, we utilized a unique dataset of 410 vertebrates, including 252 mammals, to study cross-species conservation of ACE2 and its likelihood to function as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor. We designed a five-category ranking score based on the conservation properties of 25 amino acids important for the binding between receptor and virus, classifying all species from to . Only mammals fell into the to categories, and only catarrhine primates in the category, suggesting that they are at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We employed a protein structural analysis to qualitatively assess whether amino acid changes at variable residues would be likely to disrupt ACE2/SARS-CoV-2 binding, and found the number of predicted unfavorable changes significantly correlated with the binding score. Extending this analysis to human population data, we found only rare (<0.1%) variants in 10/25 binding sites. In addition, we observed evidence of positive selection in ACE2 in multiple species, including bats. Utilized appropriately, our results may lead to the identification of intermediate host species for SARS-CoV-2, justify the selection of animal models of COVID-19, and assist the conservation of animals both in native habitats and in human care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.16.045302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263403PMC
April 2020

Clinical impact of COVID-19 on patients with cancer (CCC19): a cohort study.

Lancet 2020 06 28;395(10241):1907-1918. Epub 2020 May 28.

Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Data on patients with COVID-19 who have cancer are lacking. Here we characterise the outcomes of a cohort of patients with cancer and COVID-19 and identify potential prognostic factors for mortality and severe illness.

Methods: In this cohort study, we collected de-identified data on patients with active or previous malignancy, aged 18 years and older, with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection from the USA, Canada, and Spain from the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19) database for whom baseline data were added between March 17 and April 16, 2020. We collected data on baseline clinical conditions, medications, cancer diagnosis and treatment, and COVID-19 disease course. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality within 30 days of diagnosis of COVID-19. We assessed the association between the outcome and potential prognostic variables using logistic regression analyses, partially adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, and obesity. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04354701, and is ongoing.

Findings: Of 1035 records entered into the CCC19 database during the study period, 928 patients met inclusion criteria for our analysis. Median age was 66 years (IQR 57-76), 279 (30%) were aged 75 years or older, and 468 (50%) patients were male. The most prevalent malignancies were breast (191 [21%]) and prostate (152 [16%]). 366 (39%) patients were on active anticancer treatment, and 396 (43%) had active (measurable) cancer. At analysis (May 7, 2020), 121 (13%) patients had died. In logistic regression analysis, independent factors associated with increased 30-day mortality, after partial adjustment, were: increased age (per 10 years; partially adjusted odds ratio 1·84, 95% CI 1·53-2·21), male sex (1·63, 1·07-2·48), smoking status (former smoker vs never smoked: 1·60, 1·03-2·47), number of comorbidities (two vs none: 4·50, 1·33-15·28), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or higher (status of 2 vs 0 or 1: 3·89, 2·11-7·18), active cancer (progressing vs remission: 5·20, 2·77-9·77), and receipt of azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine (vs treatment with neither: 2·93, 1·79-4·79; confounding by indication cannot be excluded). Compared with residence in the US-Northeast, residence in Canada (0·24, 0·07-0·84) or the US-Midwest (0·50, 0·28-0·90) were associated with decreased 30-day all-cause mortality. Race and ethnicity, obesity status, cancer type, type of anticancer therapy, and recent surgery were not associated with mortality.

Interpretation: Among patients with cancer and COVID-19, 30-day all-cause mortality was high and associated with general risk factors and risk factors unique to patients with cancer. Longer follow-up is needed to better understand the effect of COVID-19 on outcomes in patients with cancer, including the ability to continue specific cancer treatments.

Funding: American Cancer Society, National Institutes of Health, and Hope Foundation for Cancer Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31187-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255743PMC
June 2020

The Angiosarcoma Project: enabling genomic and clinical discoveries in a rare cancer through patient-partnered research.

Nat Med 2020 02 10;26(2):181-187. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Count Me In, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Despite rare cancers accounting for 25% of adult tumors, they are difficult to study due to the low disease incidence and geographically dispersed patient populations, which has resulted in significant unmet clinical needs for patients with rare cancers. We assessed whether a patient-partnered research approach using online engagement can overcome these challenges, focusing on angiosarcoma, a sarcoma with an annual incidence of 300 cases in the United States. Here we describe the development of the Angiosarcoma Project (ASCproject), an initiative enabling US and Canadian patients to remotely share their clinical information and biospecimens for research. The project generates and publicly releases clinically annotated genomic data on tumor and germline specimens on an ongoing basis. Over 18 months, 338 patients registered for the ASCproject, which comprises a large proportion of all patients with angiosarcoma. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 47 tumors revealed recurrently mutated genes that included KDR, TP53, and PIK3CA. PIK3CA-activating mutations were observed predominantly in primary breast angiosarcoma, which suggested a therapeutic rationale. Angiosarcoma of the head, neck, face and scalp (HNFS) was associated with a high tumor mutation burden (TMB) and a dominant ultraviolet damage mutational signature, which suggested that for the subset of patients with angiosarcoma of HNFS, ultraviolet damage may be a causative factor and that immune checkpoint inhibition may be beneficial. Medical record review revealed that two patients with HNFS angiosarcoma had received off-label therapeutic use of antibody to the programmed death-1 protein (anti-PD-1) and had experienced exceptional responses, which highlights immune checkpoint inhibition as a therapeutic avenue for HNFS angiosarcoma. This patient-partnered approach has catalyzed an opportunity to discover the etiology and potential therapies for patients with angiosarcoma. Collectively, this proof-of-concept study demonstrates that empowering patients to directly participate in research can overcome barriers in rare diseases and can enable discoveries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-019-0749-zDOI Listing
February 2020

Identification and characterization of T reg-like cells in zebrafish.

J Exp Med 2017 Dec 24;214(12):3519-3530. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

Program in Molecular Medicine and Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA

Regulatory T (T reg) cells are a specialized sublineage of T lymphocytes that suppress autoreactive T cells. Functional studies of T reg cells in vitro have defined multiple suppression mechanisms, and studies of T reg-deficient humans and mice have made clear the important role that these cells play in preventing autoimmunity. However, many questions remain about how T reg cells act in vivo. Specifically, it is not clear which suppression mechanisms are most important, where T reg cells act, and how they get there. To begin to address these issues, we sought to identify T reg cells in zebrafish, a model system that provides unparalleled advantages in live-cell imaging and high-throughput genetic analyses. Using a orthologue as a marker, we identified CD4-enriched, mature T lymphocytes with properties of T reg cells. Zebrafish mutant for displayed excess T lymphocytes, splenomegaly, and a profound inflammatory phenotype that was suppressed by genetic ablation of lymphocytes. This study identifies T reg-like cells in zebrafish, providing both a model to study the normal functions of these cells in vivo and mutants to explore the consequences of their loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20162084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5716030PMC
December 2017

Emerging Opportunities for Target Discovery in Rare Cancers.

Cell Chem Biol 2017 Sep;24(9):1075-1091

Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:

Rare cancers pose unique challenges to research due to their low incidence. Barriers include a scarcity of tissue and experimental models to enable basic research and insufficient patient accrual for clinical studies. Consequently, an understanding of the genetic and cellular features of many rare cancer types and their associated vulnerabilities has been lacking. However, new opportunities are emerging to facilitate discovery of therapeutic targets in rare cancers. Online platforms are allowing patients with rare cancers to organize on an unprecedented scale, tumor genome sequencing is now routinely performed in research and clinical settings, and the efficiency of patient-derived model generation has improved. New CRISPR/Cas9 and small-molecule libraries permit cancer dependency discovery in a rapid and systematic fashion. In parallel, large-scale studies of common cancers now provide reference datasets to help interpret rare cancer profiling data. Together, these advances motivate consideration of new research frameworks to accelerate rare cancer target discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2017.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5857178PMC
September 2017

Zebrafish as a platform to study tumor progression.

Methods Mol Biol 2014 ;1176:143-55

Program in Molecular Medicine, Department of Cancer Biology, Program in Cell and Developmental Dynamics, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 368 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA, 01605, USA.

The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model system to study human diseases, including a variety of neoplasms. Principal components that have contributed to the rise in use of this vertebrate model system are its high fecundity, ease of genetic manipulation, and low cost of maintenance. Vital imaging of the zebrafish is possible from the transparent embryonic stage through adulthood, the latter enabled by a number of mutant lines that ablate pigmentation. As a result, high-resolution analyses of tumor progression can be accomplished in vivo. Straightforward transgenesis of zebrafish has been employed to develop numerous tumor models that recapitulate many aspects of human neoplastic disease, both in terms of pathologic and molecular conservation. The small size of zebrafish embryos has enabled screens for novel chemotherapeutic agents. Its facile genetics have been exploited in studies that extend beyond modeling cancer to investigations that define new cancer genes and mechanisms of cancer progression. Together, these attributes have established the zebrafish as a robust and versatile model system for investigating cancer. In this chapter we describe methods that are used to study a gene's impact on melanoma progression. We detail methods for making transgenic animals and screening for tumor onset as well as methods to investigate tumor invasion and propagation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0992-6_12DOI Listing
March 2015

HLA-DO acts as a substrate mimic to inhibit HLA-DM by a competitive mechanism.

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2013 Jan 9;20(1):90-8. Epub 2012 Dec 9.

Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

Mammalian class II major histocompatibility (MHCII) proteins bind peptide antigens in endosomal compartments of antigen-presenting cells. The nonclassical MHCII protein HLA-DM chaperones peptide-free MHCII, protecting it against inactivation, and catalyzes peptide exchange on loaded MHCII. Another nonclassical MHCII protein, HLA-DO, binds HLA-DM and influences the repertoire of peptides presented by MHCII proteins. However, the mechanism by which HLA-DO functions is unclear. Here we have used X-ray crystallography, enzyme kinetics and mutagenesis approaches to investigate human HLA-DO structure and function. In complex with HLA-DM, HLA-DO adopts a classical MHCII structure, with alterations near the α subunit's 3₁₀ helix. HLA-DO binds to HLA-DM at the same sites implicated in MHCII interaction, and kinetic analysis showed that HLA-DO acts as a competitive inhibitor. These results show that HLA-DO inhibits HLA-DM function by acting as a substrate mimic, and the findings also limit the possible functional roles for HLA-DO in antigen presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nsmb.2460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3537886PMC
January 2013

Conformational variation in structures of classical and non-classical MHCII proteins and functional implications.

Immunol Rev 2012 Nov;250(1):144-57

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, USA.

Recent structural characterizations of classical and non-classical major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) proteins have provided a view into the dynamic nature of the MHCII-peptide binding groove and the role that structural changes play in peptide loading processes. Although there have been numerous reports of crystal structures for MHCII-peptide complexes, a detailed analysis comparing all the structures has not been reported, and subtle conformational variations present in these structures may not have been fully appreciated. We compared the 91 MHCII crystal structures reported in the PDB to date, including an HLA-DR mutant particularly susceptible to DM-mediated peptide exchange, and reviewed experimental and computational studies of the effect of peptide binding on MHCII structure. These studies provide evidence for conformational lability in and around the α-subunit 3-10 helix at residues α48-51, a region known to be critical for HLA-DM-mediated peptide exchange. A biophysical study of MHC-peptide hydrogen bond strengths and a recent structure of the non-classical MHCII protein HLA-DO reveal changes in the same region. Conformational variability was observed also in the vicinity of a kink in the β-subunit helical region near residue β66 and in the orientation and loop conformation in the β2 Ig domain. Here, we provide an overview of the regions within classical and non-classical MHCII proteins that display conformational changes and the potential role that these changes may have in the peptide loading/exchange process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3471379PMC
November 2012

Conformational lability in the class II MHC 310 helix and adjacent extended strand dictate HLA-DM susceptibility and peptide exchange.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 Nov 14;108(48):19329-34. Epub 2011 Nov 14.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 10655, USA.

HLA-DM is required for efficient peptide exchange on class II MHC molecules, but its mechanism of action is controversial. We trapped an intermediate state of class II MHC HLA-DR1 by substitution of αF54, resulting in a protein with increased HLA-DM binding affinity, weakened MHC-peptide hydrogen bonding as measured by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and increased susceptibility to DM-mediated peptide exchange. Structural analysis revealed a set of concerted conformational alterations at the N-terminal end of the peptide-binding site. These results suggest that interaction with HLA-DM is driven by a conformational change of the MHC II protein in the region of the α-subunit 3(10) helix and adjacent extended strand region, and provide a model for the mechanism of DM-mediated peptide exchange.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1108074108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3228433PMC
November 2011

Structural Insights Into HLA-DM Mediated MHC II Peptide Exchange.

Curr Top Biochem Res 2011 ;13(2):39-55

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 USA.

Antigen presentation by class II MHC proteins (MHC-II) is a critical component of the adaptive immune response to foreign pathogens. Our understanding of how antigens are presented has been greatly enhanced by crystallographic studies of MHC-II-peptide complexes, which have shown a canonical extended conformation of peptide antigens within the peptide-binding domain of MHC-II. However, a detailed understanding of the peptide loading process, which is mediated by the accessory molecule HLA-DM (DM), remains unresolved. MHC-II proteins appear to undergo conformational changes during the peptide loading/exchange process that have not been clearly described in a structural context. In the absence of a crystal structure for the DM-MHC-II complex, mutational studies have provided a low resolution understanding as to how these molecules interact. This review will focus on structural and biochemical studies of the MHC-II-peptide interaction, and on studies of the DM-MHC-II interaction, with an emphasis on identifying structural features important for the mechanism of DM mediated peptide catalysis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4175922PMC
January 2011

Model for the peptide-free conformation of class II MHC proteins.

PLoS One 2008 Jun 11;3(6):e2403. Epub 2008 Jun 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: Major histocompatibility complex proteins are believed to undergo significant conformational changes concomitant with peptide binding, but structural characterization of these changes has remained elusive.

Methodology/principal Findings: Here we use molecular dynamics simulations and experimental probes of protein conformation to investigate the peptide-free state of class II MHC proteins. Upon computational removal of the bound peptide from HLA-DR1-peptide complex, the alpha50-59 region folded into the P1-P4 region of the peptide binding site, adopting the same conformation as a bound peptide. Strikingly, the structure of the hydrophobic P1 pocket is maintained by engagement of the side chain of Phe alpha54. In addition, conserved hydrogen bonds observed in crystal structures between the peptide backbone and numerous MHC side chains are maintained between the alpha51-55 region and the rest of the molecule. The model for the peptide-free conformation was evaluated using conformationally-sensitive antibody and superantigen probes predicted to show no change, moderate change, or dramatic changes in their interaction with peptide-free DR1 and peptide-loaded DR1. The binding observed for these probes is in agreement with the movements predicted by the model.

Conclusion/significance: This work presents a molecular model for peptide-free class II MHC proteins that can help to interpret the conformational changes known to occur within the protein during peptide binding and release, and can provide insight into possible mechanisms for DM action.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0002403PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2408972PMC
June 2008

Acute tissue-type plasminogen activator release in human microvascular endothelial cells: the roles of Galphaq, PLC-beta, IP3 and 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid.

Thromb Haemost 2007 Feb;97(2):263-71

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232-6300, USA.

The acute physiologic release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) from the endothelium is critical for vascular homeostasis. This process is prostacyclin- and nitric oxide (NO)-independent in humans. It has been suggested that calcium signaling and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF) may play a role in t-PA release. G-protein-coupled receptor-dependent calcium signaling is typically Galphaq-dependent. EDHFs have been functionally defined and in various tissues are believed to be various regioisomers of the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). We tested the hypothesis in vitro that thrombin-stimulated t-PA release from human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) is both Galphaq- and EDHF-dependent. Conditioned media was harvested following thrombin stimulation, and t-PA antigen was measured by ELISA. Thrombin-induced t-PA release was limited by a membrane-permeable Galphaq inhibitory peptide, the PLC-beta antagonist U73122, and the IP3 receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxyphenylborane, while the Galphaq agonist Pasteurella toxin modestly induced t-PA release. The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inhibitor, miconazole, and the arachidonic acid epoxygenase inhibitor MS-PPOH inhibited thrombin-stimulated t-PA release, while 5,6-EET-methyl ester stimulated t-PA release. The 5,6- and 14,15-EET antagonist, 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid, inhibited t-PA release at the 100 microM concentration. However, thrombin-stimulated t-PA release was unaffected by the prostacyclin and NO inhibitors ASA and L-NAME, as well as the potassium channel inhibitors TEA, apamin and charybdotoxin. These studies suggest that thrombin-stimulated t-PA release is Galphaq-, PLC-beta-, IP3-, and 5,6-EET-dependent while being prostacyclin-, NO- and K+ channel-independent in HMECs.
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February 2007

Tumor necrosis factor alpha activates the human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene through a distal nuclear factor kappaB site.

J Biol Chem 2004 Apr 12;279(18):18127-36. Epub 2004 Feb 12.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-6300, USA.

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the major inhibitor of plasminogen activation and likely plays important roles in coronary thrombosis and arteriosclerosis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is one of many recognized physiological regulators of PAI-1 expression and may contribute to elevated plasma PAI-1 levels in sepsis and obesity. Although TNFalpha is a potent inducer of PAI-1 expression in vitro and in vivo, the precise location of the TNFalpha response site in the PAI-1 promoter has yet to be determined. Transient transfection studies using luciferase reporter constructs containing PAI-1 promoter sequence up to 6.4 kb failed to detect a response to TNFalpha. Moreover, TNFalpha failed to induce expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of a 2.9-kb human PAI-1 promoter in transgenic mice, although endogenous murine PAI-1 was strongly induced. These data suggested that the TNFalpha response element in the PAI-1 gene is remote from the proximal promoter region. In this study, seven candidate regulatory regions were identified using cross-species sequence homology analysis as well as DNase I-hypersensitive site analysis. We identified a 5' distal TNFalpha-responsive enhancer of the PAI-1 gene located 15 kb upstream of the transcription start site containing a conserved NFkappaB-binding site that mediates the response to TNFalpha. This newly recognized site is fully capable of binding NFkappaB subunits p50 and p65, whereas overexpression of the NFkappaB inhibitor IkappaB prevents TNFalpha-induced activation of this enhancer element.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M310438200DOI Listing
April 2004

Regulation of the PAI-1 promoter by circadian clock components: differential activation by BMAL1 and BMAL2.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2003 May;35(5):473-81

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2220 Pierce Avenue, 383 PRB, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

Circadian variation in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production likely contributes to increased risk of myocardial infarction and decreased efficacy of thrombolytic therapy during the morning. In this study, we characterize the abilities of fundamental molecular components of intrinsic circadian clocks to regulate the human PAI-1 promoter in transfected endothelial cells. Both CLOCK:BMAL1 and CLOCK:BMAL2 heterodimers activate the PAI-1 promoter through requisite proximal (-565 to -560 bp) and distal (-680 to -675 bp) E-box enhancers. Although the distal E-box overlaps the 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 promoter, allelic variation at this site does not influence CLOCK:BMAL1-and CLOCK:BMAL2-mediated transactivation. Together, CLOCK:BMAL1 and CLOCK:BMAL2 make additive contributions to PAI-1 gene transcription. While the abilities of these heterodimers to activate gene expression differ by twofold, the susceptibilities of these circadian activators to inhibition by period and cryptochrome proteins are equivalent and redox independent. Given that BMAL1 and BMAL2 differ in their spatiotemporal distributions, such distinctions may allow intrinsic circadian clocks to modulate the amplitudes of their oscillators, while maintaining circadian periodicity. In this way, fundamental circadian clock components may drive circadian variation in PAI-1, which in turn influences the pathogenesis, timing, and treatment of acute atherothrombotic events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0022-2828(03)00051-8DOI Listing
May 2003

ACE inhibition versus angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonism: differential effects on PAI-1 over time.

Hypertension 2002 Dec;40(6):859-65

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232-6602, USA.

ACE inhibition reduces plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a risk factor for myocardial infarction, whereas the effect of angiotensin receptor antagonism on PAI-1 is uncertain. The present study compares the time course of effects of ACE inhibition and angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonism on morning plasma PAI-1 antigen. Blood pressure and endocrine, metabolic, and fibrinolytic variables were measured in 20 insulin-resistant (defined by fasting glucose >8.3 mmol/L, body mass index >28 kg/m2, or fasting serum triglyceride > or =2.8 mmol/L) hypertensive subjects (mean age, 47.9+/-2.1 years) (1) before and after 1 week of hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg/d, and (2) before and 1, 3, 4, and 6 weeks after addition of ramipril (escalated to 10 mg/d) or losartan (escalated to 100 mg/d). Hydrochlorothiazide decreased systolic (P=0.011) and diastolic (P=0.019) pressure. Ramipril (from 133.6+/-5.1/94.5+/-2.4 to 127.0+/-3.1/91.4+/-3.3 mm Hg) or losartan (from 137.0+/-3.9/93.1+/-2.9 to 123.7+/-2.6/86.4+/-2.1 mm Hg) further reduced systolic (P=0.009) and diastolic (P=0.037) pressure. The pressure effects of the 2 drugs were similar. Hydrochlorothiazide increased plasma PAI-1 (P=0.013) but not tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) (P=0.431) antigen. Addition of either ramipril or losartan significantly decreased plasma PAI-1 antigen (P=0.046). However, the effect of losartan on PAI-1 antigen was not sustained throughout the 6-week treatment period, such that there was a significant drugxtime interaction (P=0.043). tPA antigen decreased during either ramipril or losartan (P=0.032), but tPA activity decreased only during losartan (P=0.018). Short-term interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by either ACE inhibition or AT1 receptor antagonism decreases PAI-1 antigen, but the duration of this effect is greater for ACE inhibition than for AT1 receptor antagonism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.hyp.0000040264.15961.48DOI Listing
December 2002

Age-dependent spontaneous coronary arterial thrombosis in transgenic mice that express a stable form of human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

Circulation 2002 Jul;106(4):491-6

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tenn 37232-6300, USA.

Background: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) regulates fibrinolysis and has been reported to be an independent risk factor for ischemic cardiovascular events. This study describes the age-dependent development of spontaneous coronary arterial thrombi that are associated with evidence of subendocardial myocardial infarction in mice transgenic for human PAI-1.

Methods And Results: We generated two independent transgenic mice founder lines that express a stable variant of active human PAI-1 under control of the murine preproendothelin-1 (mPPET-1) promoter. Backcrossed homozygous transgenic animals from founder line I had plasma PAI-1 levels of 23+/-12 ng/mL. PAI-1 transgenic animals younger than 4 months do not exhibit any evidence of arterial or venous thrombosis. Ninety percent of transgenic animals (n=10) older than 6 months developed spontaneous occlusions of typically multiple, penetrating coronary arteries, with histological evidence of subendocardial infarction identified in 50% of animals.

Conclusions: This study shows that chronically elevated levels of PAI-1 are associated with age-dependent coronary arterial thrombosis in mice transgenic for human PAI-1. This is the first study of a murine model of coronary thrombosis that occurs in the absence of severe hypercholesterolemia or multiple genetic manipulations. These findings provide new evidence to support the hypothesis that PAI-1 excess contributes to the development of coronary arterial thrombosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.0000023186.60090.fbDOI Listing
July 2002

Ethnicity affects vasodilation, but not endothelial tissue plasminogen activator release, in response to bradykinin.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002 Jun;22(6):1023-8

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tenn, USA.

Previous studies indicate that the vasodilator response to bradykinin (BK) and other endothelium-dependent and -independent agonists is decreased in black Americans compared with white Americans. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of ethnicity on fibrinolytic function in humans. Graded doses of BK (100, 200, and 400 ng/min), acetylcholine (15, 30, and 60 microg/min; N=20), or methacholine (3.2, 6.4, 12.8 microg/min; N=20), and sodium nitroprusside (0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 microg/min) were infused via brachial artery in 19 white and 21 black age-matched normotensive subjects. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by plethysmography, and venous and arterial samples were collected for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen. Compared with whites (increase in FBF from 3.7+/-0.5 to 23.9+/-2.5 mL x min(-1) x 100 mL(-1)), blacks (increase in FBF from 2.8+/-0.3 to 15.2+/-1.9 mL x 100 mL(-1) x min(-1)) exhibited a blunted FBF response to BK (P=0.035). Responses to sodium nitroprusside and methacholine or acetylcholine were similarly decreased. In contrast, there was no effect of ethnicity on net tPA antigen release in response to BK (increase from -0.2+/-0.4 to 67.3+/-15.2 ng x min(-1) x 100 mL(-1) in blacks; from 0.04+/-0.9 to 65.9+/-13.6 ng x min(-1) x 100 mL(-1) in whites). Thus, ethnicity significantly influenced the relationship between the flow and tPA release responses to BK (P=0.037). These data suggest that the BK-dependent alterations in vascular fibrinolytic function are preserved in black Americans compared with white Americans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.atv.0000017704.45007.1dDOI Listing
June 2002

Potential roles of plasminogen activator system in coronary vascular remodeling induced by long-term nitric oxide synthase inhibition.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2002 Jun;34(6):617-27

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.

Recent studies have indicated that a number of factors contribute to the pathophysiology in response to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition. We previously demonstrated that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficient (PAI-1-/-) mice are protected against hypertension and perivascular fibrosis induced by relatively short-term NOS inhibition. In this study, we compared the temporal changes in systolic blood pressure and coronary perivascular fibrosis induced by long-term treatment with N(omega)-nitro- L -arginine methyl ester (L -NAME) in wild type (WT), PAI-1(-/-) and tissue-type plasminogen activator deficient (t-PA-/-) mice. After initiating L -NAME, systolic blood pressure increased in all groups at 2 weeks. Over a 16 week study period, systolic blood pressure increased to 143+/-3 mmHg (mean+/-SEM) in WT animals, 139+/-2 in t-PA-/- mice vs 129+/-2 in PAI-1-/- mice (P < 0.01). Coronary perivascular fibrosis increased in L -NAME-treated WT and t-PA(-/-) mice compared to each control group (P<0.01 in WT, P<0.05 in t-PA-/-), while PAI-1-/- mice were protected against fibrosis induced by L -NAME. t-PA deficiency did not accentuate the vascular pathology or the changes in blood pressure. In situ zymography demonstrated augmented gelatinolytic activity in PAI-1-/- mice at baseline, suggesting that PAI-1 deficiency prevents the increase of collagen deposition by promoting matrix degradation. Plasma TGF-beta1 levels increased in L -NAME-treated WT and PAI-1-/- mice (P < 0.01), but not in L -NAME-treated t-PA-/- mice. These findings support the hypothesis that the plasminogen activator system protects against the structural vascular changes induced by long-term NOS inhibition. While PAI-1 deficiency protects against L -NAME-induced hypertension and perivascular fibrosis, t-PA deficiency does not exacerbate the vascular pathology or hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jmcc.2002.2001DOI Listing
June 2002