Publications by authors named "Corrado Mammì"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Differences between transient neonatal diabetes mellitus subtypes can guide diagnosis and therapy.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Apr;184(4):575-585

Department of Pediatrics, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM) is caused by activating mutations in ABCC8 and KCNJ11 genes (KATP/TNDM) or by chromosome 6q24 abnormalities (6q24/TNDM). We wanted to assess whether these different genetic aetiologies result in distinct clinical features.

Design: Retrospective analysis of the Italian data set of patients with TNDM.

Methods: Clinical features and treatment of 22 KATP/TNDM patients and 12 6q24/TNDM patients were compared.

Results: Fourteen KATP/TNDM probands had a carrier parent with abnormal glucose values, four patients with 6q24 showed macroglossia and/or umbilical hernia. Median age at diabetes onset and birth weight were lower in patients with 6q24 (1 week; -2.27 SD) than those with KATP mutations (4.0 weeks; -1.04 SD) (P = 0.009 and P = 0.007, respectively). Median time to remission was longer in KATP/TNDM than 6q24/TNDM (21.5 weeks vs 12 weeks) (P = 0.002). Two KATP/TNDM patients entered diabetes remission without pharmacological therapy. A proband with the ABCC8/L225P variant previously associated with permanent neonatal diabetes entered 7-year long remission after 1 year of sulfonylurea therapy. Seven diabetic individuals with KATP mutations were successfully treated with sulfonylurea monotherapy; four cases with relapsing 6q24/TNDM were treated with insulin, metformin or combination therapy.

Conclusions: If TNDM is suspected, KATP genes should be analyzed first with the exception of patients with macroglossia and/or umbilical hernia. Remission of diabetes without pharmacological therapy should not preclude genetic analysis. Early treatment with sulfonylurea may induce long-lasting remission of diabetes in patients with KATP mutations associated with PNDM. Adult patients carrying KATP/TNDM mutations respond favourably to sulfonylurea monotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-20-1030DOI Listing
April 2021

Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young is Not Necessarily Associated with Autosomal Inheritance: Case Description of a De Novo HFN1A Mutation.

Diabetes Ther 2019 Aug 16;10(4):1543-1548. Epub 2019 May 16.

Department of Human Pathology in Adult and Developmental Age "Gaetano Barresi", University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria 1, 98124, Messina, Italy.

Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) accounts for up to 4% of all cases of diabetes in pediatric patients. MODY is usually characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, impaired insulin secretion, and an average age at diagnosis of 18-26 years. Mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha (HNF1A), glucokinase, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta genes are the mutations most frequently observed in cases of MODY. We herein report a case of HNF1A-MODY characterized by an early onset of diabetes. Genetic investigations revealed a de novo heterozygous substitution, N237D (HNF1A c.709A>G), in exon 3 of the HNF1A gene. Our case supports the hypothesis that de novo mutations are more frequent than expected. This recent evidence may suggest that conventional clinical diagnostic criteria for MODY should be revised and personalized according to the individual patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-019-0633-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612332PMC
August 2019

Further delineation of Malan syndrome.

Hum Mutat 2018 09 25;39(9):1226-1237. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Belfast HSC Trust, Northern Ireland Regional Genetics Service, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Malan syndrome is an overgrowth disorder described in a limited number of individuals. We aim to delineate the entity by studying a large group of affected individuals. We gathered data on 45 affected individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis through an international collaboration and compared data to the 35 previously reported individuals. Results indicate that height is > 2 SDS in infancy and childhood but in only half of affected adults. Cardinal facial characteristics include long, triangular face, macrocephaly, prominent forehead, everted lower lip, and prominent chin. Intellectual disability is universally present, behaviorally anxiety is characteristic. Malan syndrome is caused by deletions or point mutations of NFIX clustered mostly in exon 2. There is no genotype-phenotype correlation except for an increased risk for epilepsy with 19p13.2 microdeletions. Variants arose de novo, except in one family in which mother was mosaic. Variants causing Malan and Marshall-Smith syndrome can be discerned by differences in the site of stop codon formation. We conclude that Malan syndrome has a well recognizable phenotype that usually can be discerned easily from Marshall-Smith syndrome but rarely there is some overlap. Differentiation from Sotos and Weaver syndrome can be made by clinical evaluation only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175110PMC
September 2018

Genetic risk of prediabetes and diabetes development in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with nilotinib.

Exp Hematol 2017 11 28;55:71-75. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy. Electronic address:

Impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes represent adverse events in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with the second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib. An unweighted genetic risk score (uGRS) for the prediction of insulin resistance, consisting of 10 multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms, has been proposed. We evaluated uGRS predictivity in 61 CML patients treated with nilotinib. Patients were genotyped for IRS1, GRB14, ARL15, PPARG, PEPD, ANKRD55/MAP3K1, PDGFC, LYPLAL1, RSPO3, and FAM13A1 genes. The uGRS was based on the sum of the risk alleles within the set of selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Molecular response (MR) and MR were achieved in 90% and 79% of patients, respectively. Before treatment, none of the patients had abnormal blood glucose. During treatment and subsequent follow-up at 80.2 months (range: 1-298), seven patients (11.5%) had developed diabetes that required oral treatment, a median of 14 months (range: 3-98) after starting nilotinib treatment. Twelve patients (19.7%) had developed prediabetes. Prediabetes/diabetes-free survival was significantly higher in patients with a uGRS <10 than in those with higher scores (100% vs. 22.8 ± 12.4%, p <0.001). Each increment of one unit in the uGRS caused a 42% increase in the prediabetes/diabetes risk (hazard ratio = 1.42, confidence interval: 1.04-1.94, p = 0.026). The presence of more than 10 allelic variants associated with insulin secretion, processing, sensitivity, and clearance is predictive of prediabetes/diabetes development in CML patients treated with nilotinib. In clinical practice, uGRS could help tailor the best tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2017.07.007DOI Listing
November 2017

NFIX mutations affecting the DNA-binding domain cause a peculiar overgrowth syndrome (Malan syndrome): a new patients series.

Eur J Med Genet 2015 Sep 17;58(9):488-91. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

UO Genetica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliera Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli, Reggio Calabria, Italy. Electronic address:

The Nuclear Factor I-X (NFIX) is a member of the nuclear factor I (NFI) protein family and is deleted or mutated in a subset of patients with a peculiar overgrowth condition resembling Sotos Syndrome as well as in patients with Marshall-Smith syndrome. We identified three additional patients with this phenotype each carrying a different new mutation affecting the DNA-binding/dimerization domain of the NFIX protein. The present report further adds weight to the hypothesis that mutations in DNA-binding/dimerization domain are likely to cause haploinsufficiency of the NFIX protein and confirms that NFIX is the second gene that should be tested in individuals with overgrowth conditions resembling Sotos syndrome, previously tested negative for NSD1 mutations. We then propose to consider this overgrowth syndrome (namely Malan syndrome) and Marshall-Smith syndrome NFIX-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2015.06.009DOI Listing
September 2015

Treatment of transient neonatal diabetes mellitus: insulin pump or insulin glargine? Our experience.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2014 Dec;16(12):880-4

1 Department of Medical and Pediatric Sciences, University of Catania , University Hospital Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Italy .

Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) results from impaired insulin secretion, occurring within the first 6 months of life. NDM is classified as transient NDM (TNDM) or permanent NDM. To date there are no universal guidelines regarding its management. Intravenous insulin infusion represents the first and most adequate therapeutic approach for sustained hyperglycemia, but this can provide only a short-term solution. Several factors should be taken into account in the choice of the long-term treatment. We describe our experience with two infants affected by TNDM. The first child was treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, whereas the second infant was treated with subcutaneous insulin glargine injections. Our experience shows that the two different therapeutic approaches, if properly managed, are equally effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2014.0055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4241878PMC
December 2014

A peculiar mutation in the DNA-binding/dimerization domain of NFIX causes Sotos-like overgrowth syndrome: a new case.

Gene 2012 Dec 13;511(1):103-5. Epub 2012 Sep 13.

Unità Operativa di Genetica medica, Azienda Ospedaliera Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli, Reggio Calabria, Italy.

The Nuclear Factor I-X (NFIX) is a member of the nuclear factor I (NFI) family proteins, which are implicated as site-specific DNA-binding proteins and is deleted or mutated in a subset of patients with Sotos-like overgrowth syndrome and in patients with Marshall-Smith syndrome. We evaluated an additional patient with clinical features of Sotos-like syndrome by sequencing analysis of the NFIX gene and identified a 21 nucleotide in frame deletion predicting loss of 7 amino acids in the DNA-binding/dimerization domain of the NFIX protein. The deleted residues are all evolutionally conserved amino acids. The present report further confirms that mutations in DNA-binding/dimerization domain cause haploinsufficiency of the NFIX protein and strongly suggests that in individuals with Sotos-like features unrelated to NSD1 changes genetic testing of NFIX should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2012.08.040DOI Listing
December 2012

Absence of deletion and duplication of MLL2 and KDM6A genes in a large cohort of patients with Kabuki syndrome.

Mol Genet Metab 2012 Nov 6;107(3):627-9. Epub 2012 Jul 6.

Unita' Operativa di Genetica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliera Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli, Reggio Calabria, Italy.

Kabuki syndrome is a rare, multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome caused by MLL2 point mutations and KDM6A microdeletions. We screened a large cohort of MLL2 mutation-negative patients for MLL2 and KDM6A exon(s) microdeletion and microduplication. Our assays failed to detect such rearrangements in MLL2 as well as in KDM6A gene. These results show that these genomic events are extremely rare in the Kabuki syndrome, substantiating its genetic heterogeneity and the search for additional causative gene(s).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2012.06.019DOI Listing
November 2012

Role of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma: results from the HD2000 GISL trial.

Leuk Lymphoma 2012 Mar;53(3):406-10

UOC di Ematologia, Dipartimento Oncoematologico, Azienda Ospedaliera, Cosenza, Italy.

Polymorphisms of the Glutathione-S Transferase (GST) family may influence the prognosis in lymphoma patients. We aimed to validate the impact of GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletions and of the GSTP1Ile105Val polymorphism on outcome and toxicity in 140 patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma enrolled in the prospective multicenter HD2000-GISL trial, comparing ABVD, BEACOPP and CEC regimens. Carriers of the GSTP1Ile105Val polymorphism had a higher rate of grade 3-4 anemia following treatment. Overall, our study failed to validate GST genotyping as prognostic factor for progression-free survival (PFS). Only the small cohort of patients with an international prognostic score (IPS) >3 and undeleted GSTT1 and/or GSTM1, treated with ABVD had worse progression-free survival (PFS) (GSTT1 + vs GSTT1-: HR 5.02, 95% C.I., 1.16-21.8, p = 0.031, GSTM1 + /GSTT1 + vs GSTM1-and/or GSTT1-: HR 4.61, 95% C.I. 1.28- 16.6, p = 0.019, respectively). No differences were observed for patients treated with intensified regimens, as BEACOPP and CEC. In conclusion, the prognostic role of GST polymorphism, if at all, is limited to a small subgroup of patients treated with standard ABVD regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2011.623254DOI Listing
March 2012

Prevalence of prothrombotic polymorphisms in a selected cohort of cryptogenic and noncryptogenic ischemic stroke patients.

Neurol India 2009 Sep-Oct;57(5):636-7

IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino-Pulejo, Cda Casazza, Messina, Italy.

Ischemic stroke is a complex multifactorial disease and approximately 30%, especially in the young, are cryptogenic. In some of the patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke the underlying risk factor may be a prothrombotic state. We studied 101 patients with ischemic stroke under 55 years of age. All the patients underwent an extensive diagnostic evaluation to determine the cause of stroke. Common variations in the genes encoding factor V, prothrombin, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and human platelet alloantigens-1 were evaluated. Of the 101 patients with ischemic stroke, 28 patients had cryptogenic ischemic stroke. At least one of the different genetic polymorphisms investigated was present in 44% patients in the total group and in 48% of patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke. In this study population under 55 years of age there was no significant difference in the prevalence of various genetic polymorphisms, factor V, prothrombin, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and human platelet alloantigens) in patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke and in patients with ischemic stroke of determined cause.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0028-3886.57819DOI Listing
January 2010

High incidence of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A in healthy southern Italians.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2009 May-Jun;15(3):356-9. Epub 2009 Feb 11.

Centro Emofilia, Servizio Emostasi e Trombosi, Azienda Ospedaliera Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli, Reggio Calabria, Italy.

Factor V Leiden (FVL) and G20210 prothrombin (FII G20210A) mutations are risk factors for thromboembolism. In Europe, FVL is more prevalent in the north (7%) than in the south (3%), whereas FII G20210A is more common in the south (3% to 7%) than in the north (2% to 5%). In Italy, the prevalence is 2% to 3% for both. The aim of this study was to assess if these polymorphisms could be more frequent in the south than in the rest of Italy. In 105 blood donors in southern Italy, the prevalence of FVL and FIIG20210A was 9.5% and 5.7%, respectively. These prevalence data are higher when compared with published data. The results of this study are as high as those observed in Greece and the Middle East. The diffusion of FVL and FII G20210A in the Mediterranean, consequent to Phoenician and Greek colonization, could be a reason for the high prevalence observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1076029607310218DOI Listing
July 2009

The incidence of JAK2 V617F mutation in bcr/abl-negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders: assessment by two different detection methods.

Leuk Lymphoma 2008 Oct;49(10):1907-15

Unità Operativa di Ematologia, Azienda Ospedaliera, Cosenza, Italy.

A recurrent specific JAK2 V617F mutation has been reported in bcr/abl-negative chronic myeloproliferative diseases (cMPD), including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF). The mutation is detectable in a variable proportion of neoplastic clones, depending on the molecular methods employed. In this study, we attempted to establish the JAK2 V617F mutation frequency in two partially overlapping cMPD patient series by two different PCR-based techniques. Using an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay (AS-PCR), the JAK2 V617F mutation was detected in 124/158 (78.5%) cMPD patients; in particular, 90.2, 72.1, 63.2 and 50% of PV, ET, IMF and unclassified (U)-MPD cases, respectively, showed the mutation. Employing a semiquantitative 5' fluorogenic TaqMan assay, the JAK2 V617F mutation was identified in a much larger percentage of cMPDs patients (118/127: 92.9%). Rates of mutation in PV, ET, IMF and U-MPD cases were 95.9, 85.7, 91.7 and 92.9%, respectively. Furthermore, a statistically higher percentage of JAK2 mutated alleles was detected by TaqMan assay in PV (68+/-3.5, mean value+/-SEM) and IMF (64+/-9.3) cases as compared with ET (35+/-5.4). Finally, a significant correlation between JAK2 V617F mutational status and hematocrit (Ht), white blood cell and platelet counts in PV patients, and Ht values in ET cases, was observed by AS-PCR. Overall, these data indicate that TaqMan technology significantly improved sensitivity in detecting the JAK2 mutation in cMPD patients and may be worth of further evaluations as a clinically useful tool for detection of small amounts of mutated clones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428190802290652DOI Listing
October 2008

MS-MLPA is a specific and sensitive technique for detecting all chromosome 11p15.5 imprinting defects of BWS and SRS in a single-tube experiment.

Eur J Hum Genet 2008 May 23;16(5):565-71. Epub 2008 Jan 23.

Operative Unit of Medical Genetics, Hospital of Reggio Calabria Az. Ospedaliera Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli, V Petrara Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.

Human chromosome 11p15.5 harbours a large cluster of imprinted genes. Different epigenetic defects at this locus have been associated with both Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Multiple techniques (Southern blotting, COBRA and microsatellite analysis) have been used so far to detect various DNA methylation abnormalities, uniparental disomies and copy number variations, which are characteristics of these two diseases. We have now evaluated a methylation-specific multiplex-ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (MS-MLPA) for the molecular diagnosis of BWS and SRS. Seventy-three samples derived from BWS- and SRS-affected individuals and 20 controls were analysed by conventional tests and MS-MLPA in blind. All cases that were found positive with conventional methods were also identified by MS-MLPA. These included cases with paternal UPD11, hyper- or hypo-methylation at the Imprinting Centre 1 or Imprinting Centre 2 and rare 11p15.5 duplications. In summary, this MS-MLPA assay can detect both copy number variations and methylation defects of the 11p15.5 critical region within one single experiment and represents an easy, low cost and reliable system for the molecular diagnostics of BWS and SRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejhg.5202001DOI Listing
May 2008

Utility of the clinical practice of administering thrombophilic screening and antithrombotic prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin to healthy donors treated with G-CSF for mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells.

Tumori 2007 Mar-Apr;93(2):155-9

Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera "Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli", Reggio Calabria, Italy.

The aim of the study was to verify the utility of the clinical practice of administering thrombophilic screening and antithrombotic prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin to healthy donors receiving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells. Thrombophilia screening comprised of testing for factor V Leiden G1691A, prothrombin G20210A, the thermolabile variant (C677T) of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene, protein C, protein S, factor VIII and homocysteine plasmatic levels, antithrombin III activity, and acquired activated protein C resistance. We investigated prospectively 72 white Italian healthy donors, 39 men and 33 women, with a median age of 42 years (range, 18-65). Five donors (6.9%) were heterozygous carriers of Factor V Leiden G1691A; two healthy donors had the heterozygous prothrombin G20210A gene mutation; C677T mutation in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene was present in 34 (47.2%) donors in heterozygous and in 7 donors (9.7%) in homozygous. Acquired activated protein C resistance was revealed in 8 donors of the study (11.1%). The protein C plasmatic level was decreased in 3 donors (4.2%); the protein S level was decreased in 7 donors (9.7%). An elevated factor VIII dosage was shown in 10 donors (13.9%) and hyperhomocysteinemia in 9 donors (12.5%). Concentration of antithrombin III was in the normal range for all study group donors. The factor V Leiden mutation was combined with the heterozygous prothrombin G20210A in 2 cases and with protein S deficiency in one case; 2 healthy donors presented an associated deficiency of protein C and protein S. Although none of these healthy subjects had a previous history of thrombosis, low-molecular-weight heparin was administered to all donors during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration to prevent thrombotic events. No donor experienced short or long-term thrombotic diseases after a median follow-up of 29.2 months. Our data do not support this clinical practice because there is no evidence that the combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to previous hypercoagulable conditions results in thrombotic events.
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July 2007

Role of hyperhomocystinemia in retinal vascular occlusive disease.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2007 Jan;13(1):104-7

Hemophilia Centre, Hemostasis and Thrombosis Service, Azienda Ospedaliera Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli, Reggio Calabria, Italy.

Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level is considered a risk factor for vascular diseases. In recent years, many scientific reports have suggested that hyperhomocystinemia may be associated with an increased risk of retinal vascular occlusive disease (RVOD). The prevalence of elevation of homocysteine in patients with a recent retinal vascular occlusion was compared to a health control group in this study. Forty-nine consecutive patients (22 M; 27 F) (age 26-85 years, mean 69) with diagnosis of retinal vascular occlusion were compared with 71 healthy controls. These patients underwent laboratory evaluation for plasma fasting total homocysteine, activated protein C resistance, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, and antiphospholipid and anticardiolipin antibodies. The G20210 prothrombin gene mutation (FII G20210A) and Factor V Leiden mutation (FVL) were evaluated. None of these enrolled subjects had other prothrombic risk factors. The health control group consisted of healthy subjects from the general population, with no history or clinical evidence of retinal vascular disease, recruited during the same 2-year period. High fasting homocystinemia (higher than 15 mumol/L) was detected in 24/49 subjects (48.9%) (P < .0005). There was a high prevalence of hyperhomocystinemia: these data suggest an association between RVOD and high fasting homocystinemia. Elevated homocysteine may be an independent risk factor, and its assessment may be important in the investigation, management, and follow-up of patients with RVOD. Further controlled studies are necessary to clarify the exact role of hyperhomocystinemia in RVOD and to evaluate the appropriate therapeutic approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1076029606296423DOI Listing
January 2007

Genetic prothrombotic risk factors in women with unexplained pregnancy loss.

Thromb Res 2006 12;117(6):681-4. Epub 2005 Jul 12.

Centro Emofilia-Servizio Emostasi e Trombosi, Azienda Ospedaliera Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli, Reggio Calabria, Italy.

Introduction: Inherited thrombophilia has been associated with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and stillbirth. This thrombotic tendency can manifest as thrombotic lesions in the placenta, and may lead to abortion and stillbirth. The aim of our case-control study was to investigate the prevalence of FVL and FII G20210A in women with adverse pregnancy outcome, compared to the prevalence of the same mutations in our health control group.

Materials And Methods: 102 consecutive women with unexplained pregnancy loss (55 with history of RPL, and 47 with history of stillbirth) were studied for hereditary thrombophilia. The health control group consisted of 217 healthy women from the general population.

Results And Conclusions: Of the 55 women with recurrent abortions, we found the same prevalence for the FVL and the FII G20210A(9.1%, 5 pts). (p=NS compared to control group). Of the 47 women with stillbirth, 11 (23.4%) had the FVL and 9 (19.1%) had the FII G20210A(p<0.0005 for both mutations). In our experience the prevalence of FVL and the FII G20210Amutations was significantly higher in women with unexplained stillbirth, instead the prevalence of genetic thrombophilia was high but not statistically significant in women with recurrent pregnancy loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2005.06.005DOI Listing
July 2006