Publications by authors named "Cornelius J H M Klemann"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genetic underpinnings of sociability in the general population.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 Aug 30;46(9):1627-1634. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Levels of sociability are continuously distributed in the general population, and decreased sociability represents an early manifestation of several brain disorders. Here, we investigated the genetic underpinnings of sociability in the population. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of a sociability score based on four social functioning-related self-report questions from 342,461 adults in the UK Biobank. Subsequently we performed gene-wide and functional follow-up analyses. Robustness analyses were performed in the form of GWAS split-half validation analyses, as well as analyses excluding neuropsychiatric cases. Using genetic correlation analyses as well as polygenic risk score analyses we investigated genetic links of our sociability score to brain disorders and social behavior outcomes. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia had a lower sociability score. The score was significantly heritable (SNP h of 6%). We identified 18 independent loci and 56 gene-wide significant genes, including genes like ARNTL, DRD2, and ELAVL2. Many associated variants are thought to have deleterious effects on gene products and our results were robust. The sociability score showed negative genetic correlations with autism spectrum, disorders, depression, schizophrenia, and two sociability-related traits-loneliness and social anxiety-but not with bipolar disorder or Alzheimer's disease. Polygenic risk scores of our sociability GWAS were associated with social behavior outcomes within individuals with bipolar disorder and with major depressive disorder. Variation in population sociability scores has a genetic component, which is relevant to several psychiatric disorders. Our findings provide clues towards biological pathways underlying sociability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-021-01044-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280100PMC
August 2021

Physical Exercise Modulates L-DOPA-Regulated Molecular Pathways in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2018 Jul 10;55(7):5639-5657. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Department of Molecular Animal Physiology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), resulting in motor and non-motor dysfunction. Physical exercise improves these symptoms in PD patients. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical exercise, we exposed 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidine (MPTP)-treated mice to a four-week physical exercise regimen, and subsequently explored their motor performance and the transcriptome of multiple PD-linked brain areas. MPTP reduced the number of DA neurons in the SNpc, whereas physical exercise improved beam walking, rotarod performance, and motor behavior in the open field. Further, enrichment analyses of the RNA-sequencing data revealed that in the MPTP-treated mice physical exercise predominantly modulated signaling cascades that are regulated by the top upstream regulators L-DOPA, RICTOR, CREB1, or bicuculline/dalfampridine, associated with movement disorders, mitochondrial dysfunction, and epilepsy-related processes. To elucidate the molecular pathways underlying these cascades, we integrated the proteins encoded by the exercise-induced differentially expressed mRNAs for each of the upstream regulators into a molecular landscape, for multiple key brain areas. Most notable was the opposite effect of physical exercise compared to previously reported effects of L-DOPA on the expression of mRNAs in the SN and the ventromedial striatum that are involved in-among other processes-circadian rhythm and signaling involving DA, neuropeptides, and endocannabinoids. Altogether, our findings suggest that physical exercise can improve motor function in PD and may, at the same time, counteract L-DOPA-mediated molecular mechanisms. Further, we hypothesize that physical exercise has the potential to improve non-motor symptoms of PD, some of which may be the result of (chronic) L-DOPA use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-017-0775-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5994219PMC
July 2018

Validity of the MPTP-Treated Mouse as a Model for Parkinson's Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2016 Apr 13;53(3):1625-1636. Epub 2015 Feb 13.

Department of Molecular Animal Physiology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic (DA) neuron death in the substantia nigra (SN) and subsequent striatal adaptations. Mice treated with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidine (MPTP) are widely used as a model for PD. To assess the validity of the MPTP mouse model for PD pathogenesis, we here identify the biological processes that are dysregulated in both human PD and MPTP-treated mice. Gene enrichment analysis of published differentially expressed messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in the SN of PD patients and MPTP-treated mice revealed an enrichment of gene categories related to motor dysfunction and neurodegeneration. In the PD striatum, a similar enrichment was found, whereas in the striatum of MPTP mice, acute processes linked to epilepsy were selectively enriched shortly following MPTP treatment. More importantly, we integrated the proteins encoded by the differentially expressed mRNAs into molecular landscapes showing PD pathogenesis-implicated processes only in the SN, including vesicular trafficking, exocytosis, mitochondrial apoptosis, and DA neuron-specific transcription, but not in the striatum. We conclude that the current use of the MPTP mouse as a model for studying the molecular processes in PD pathogenesis is more valid for SN than striatal mechanisms in PD. This novel insight has important practical implications for future studies using this model to investigate PD pathogenesis and evaluate the efficacy of new treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-015-9103-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4789200PMC
April 2016

The gray area between synapse structure and function-Gray's synapse types I and II revisited.

Synapse 2011 Nov 17;65(11):1222-30. Epub 2011 Jun 17.

Department of Cellular Animal Physiology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

On the basis of ultrastructural parameters, the concept was formulated that asymmetric Type I and symmetric Type II synapses are excitatory and inhibitory, respectively. This "functional Gray synapses concept" received strong support from the demonstration of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in Type I synapses and of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid in Type II synapses, and is still frequently used in modern literature. However, morphological and functional evidence has accumulated that the concept is less tenable. Typical features of synapses like shape and size of presynaptic vesicles and synaptic cleft and presence of a postsynaptic density (PsD) do not always fit the postulated (excitatory/inhibitory) function of Gray's synapses. Furthermore, synapse function depends on postsynaptic receptors and associated signal transduction mechanisms rather than on presynaptic morphology and neurotransmitter type. Moreover, the notion that many synapses are difficult to classify as either asymmetric or symmetric has cast doubt on the assumption that the presence of a PsD is a sign of excitatory synaptic transmission. In view of the morphological similarities of the PsD in asymmetric synapses with membrane junctional structures such as the zonula adherens and the desmosome, asymmetric synapses may play a role as links between the postsynaptic and presynaptic membrane, thus ensuring long-term maintenance of interneuronal communication. Symmetric synapses, on the other hand, might be sites of transient communication as takes place during development, learning, memory formation, and pathogenesis of brain disorders. Confirmation of this idea might help to return the functional Gray synapse concept its central place in neuroscience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.20962DOI Listing
November 2011
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