Publications by authors named "Cornelis P Allaart"

62 Publications

Reversible Cause of Cardiac Arrest and Secondary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: Value of Complete Revascularization and LGE-CMR.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Apr 6:e019101. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Cardiology Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences Amsterdam Netherlands.

Background In survivors of sudden cardiac arrest with obstructive coronary artery disease, it remains challenging to distinguish ischemia as a reversible cause from irreversible scar-related ventricular arrhythmias. We aimed to evaluate the value of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation in sudden cardiac arrest survivors with presumably reversible ischemia and complete revascularization. Methods and Results This multicenter retrospective cohort study included 276 patients (80% men, age 67±10 years) receiving ICD implantation for secondary prevention. Angiography was performed before ICD implantation. A subgroup of 166 (60%) patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement before implantation. Patients were divided in 2 groups, (1) ICD-per-guideline, including 228 patients with incomplete revascularization or left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, and (2) ICD-off-label, including 48 patients with complete revascularization and left ventricular ejection fraction >35%. The primary outcome was time to appropriate device therapy (ADT). During 4.0 years (interquartile range, 3.5-4.6) of follow-up, ADT developed in 15% of the ICD-off-label group versus 43% of the ICD-per-guideline group. Time to ADT was comparable in the ICD-off-label and ICD-per-guideline groups (hazard ratio (HR), 0.46; =0.08). No difference in mortality was observed (HR, 0.95; =0.93). Independent predictors of ADT included age (HR, 1.03; =0.01), left ventricular end-diastolic volume HR, (1.05 per 10 mL increase; <0.01) and extent of transmural late gadolinium enhancement (HR, 1.12; =0.04). Conclusions This study demonstrates that sudden cardiac arrest survivors with coronary artery disease remain at high risk of recurrent ventricular arrhythmia, even after complete revascularization and with preserved left ventricular function. Late gadolinium enhancement-cardiac magnetic resonance imaging derived left ventricular volumes and extent of myocardial scar were independently associated with.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019101DOI Listing
April 2021

Altered left atrial 4D flow characteristics in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in the absence of apparent remodeling.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 16;11(1):5965. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The pathophysiology behind thrombus formation in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) patients is very complex. This can be due to left atrial (LA) flow changes, remodeling, or both. We investigated differences for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived LA 4D flow and remodeling characteristics between paroxysmal AF patients and patients without cardiac disease. In this proof-of-concept study, the 4D flow data were acquired in 10 patients with paroxysmal AF (age = 61 ± 8 years) and 5 age/gender matched controls (age = 56 ± 1 years) during sinus rhythm. The following LA and LA appendage flow parameters were obtained: flow velocity (mean, peak), stasis defined as the relative volume with velocities < 10 cm/s, and kinetic energy (KE). Furthermore, LA global strain values were derived from b-SSFP cine images using dedicated CMR feature-tracking software. Even in sinus rhythm, LA mean and peak flow velocities over the entire cardiac cycle were significantly lower in paroxysmal AF patients compared to controls [(13.1 ± 2.4 cm/s vs. 16.7 ± 2.1 cm/s, p = 0.01) and (19.3 ± 4.7 cm/s vs. 26.8 ± 5.5 cm/s, p = 0.02), respectively]. Moreover, paroxysmal AF patients expressed more stasis of blood than controls both in the LA (43.2 ± 10.8% vs. 27.8 ± 7.9%, p = 0.01) and in the LA appendage (73.3 ± 5.7% vs. 52.8 ± 16.2%, p = 0.04). With respect to energetics, paroxysmal AF patients demonstrated lower mean and peak KE values (indexed to maximum LA volume) than controls. No significant differences were observed for LA volume, function, and strain parameters between the groups. Global LA flow dynamics in paroxysmal AF patients appear to be impaired including mean/peak flow velocity, stasis fraction, and KE, partly independent of LA remodeling. This pathophysiological flow pattern may be of clinical value to explain the increased incidence of thromboembolic events in paroxysmal AF patients, in the absence of actual AF or LA remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85176-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7966746PMC
March 2021

Development and external validation of prediction models to predict implantable cardioverter-defibrillator efficacy in primary prevention of sudden cardiac death.

Europace 2021 Feb 14. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, Location AMC, University of Amsterdam, Heart Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Aims: This study was performed to develop and externally validate prediction models for appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shock and mortality to identify subgroups with insufficient benefit from ICD implantation.

Methods And Results: We recruited patients scheduled for primary prevention ICD implantation and reduced left ventricular function. Bootstrapping-based Cox proportional hazards and Fine and Gray competing risk models with likely candidate predictors were developed for all-cause mortality and appropriate ICD shock, respectively. Between 2014 and 2018, we included 1441 consecutive patients in the development and 1450 patients in the validation cohort. During a median follow-up of 2.4 (IQR 2.1-2.8) years, 109 (7.6%) patients received appropriate ICD shock and 193 (13.4%) died in the development cohort. During a median follow-up of 2.7 (IQR 2.0-3.4) years, 105 (7.2%) received appropriate ICD shock and 223 (15.4%) died in the validation cohort. Selected predictors of appropriate ICD shock were gender, NSVT, ACE/ARB use, atrial fibrillation history, Aldosterone-antagonist use, Digoxin use, eGFR, (N)OAC use, and peripheral vascular disease. Selected predictors of all-cause mortality were age, diuretic use, sodium, NT-pro-BNP, and ACE/ARB use. C-statistic was 0.61 and 0.60 at respectively internal and external validation for appropriate ICD shock and 0.74 at both internal and external validation for mortality.

Conclusion: Although this cohort study was specifically designed to develop prediction models, risk stratification still remains challenging and no large group with insufficient benefit of ICD implantation was found. However, the prediction models have some clinical utility as we present several scenarios where ICD implantation might be postponed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab012DOI Listing
February 2021

Characteristics and prognostic value of right ventricular (dys)function in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Apr 9;8(2):1055-1063. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, 1081 HV, The Netherlands.

Aims: In non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), concomitant right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is frequently observed. This study sought to determine the correlation of RV dysfunction with several cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging characteristics in patients with DCM, and the prognostic value of RV dysfunction on all-cause mortality and ventricular arrhythmias (VA) was evaluated.

Methods And Results: Consecutive patients with DCM and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (ejection fraction < 50%) on CMR were included retrospectively. Left atrial (LA), LV, and RV volumes and function were quantified. RV systolic dysfunction was defined as RVEF<45%. The presence and pattern of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on CMR were assessed visually. Septal midwall LGE was defined as midmyocardial stripe-like or patchy hyperenhancement in the septal segments, and the extent was quantified using the full width at half maximum method. Primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality and VA, including resuscitated cardiac arrest, sustained VA, and appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy. Secondary endpoints were time to all-cause mortality alone and time to VA alone. A total of 216 DCM patients were included (42% female, age 58 ± 14 years). Mean RVEF was 46 ± 12%, and RV dysfunction was present in 38%. RVEF was moderately correlated with LA dilation (LA minimal volume ρ = -0.38, P < 0.001) and strongly correlated with LA and LV dysfunction (LA emptying fraction r = 0.58, P < 0.001 and LVEF ρ = 0.52, P < 0.001). Septal midwall LGE was more often observed in patients with RV dysfunction compared with patients with preserved RV function (respectively 40% vs. 26%, P = 0.04). No correlation was found between RVEF and the extent of septal midwall LGE (ρ = -0.12, P = 0.34). During a median follow-up of 2.2 years [IQR 1.6-2.8], 30 patients experienced the primary endpoint. RV dysfunction was significantly associated with shorter time to the composite primary endpoint (HR 3.19 [95% CI 1.49-6.84], P < 0.01) and to the secondary endpoint of VA alone (HR 6.48 [95% CI 1.83-22.98], P < 0.01). There was a trend towards increased mortality when RV dysfunction was present (HR 2.54 [95% CI 0.99-6.57], P = 0.05).

Conclusions: Right ventricular dysfunction was predominantly observed in patients with DCM with advanced heart failure and pronounced myocardial remodelling, defined as increased LV and LA dilation and dysfunction and the presence of septal midwall LGE on CMR. During follow-up, RV dysfunction was associated with shorter time to all-cause mortality and ventricular arrhythmic events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006611PMC
April 2021

Segment length in cine (SLICE) strain analysis: a practical approach to estimate potential benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy.

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2021 Jan 11;23(1). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences (ACS), Amsterdam University Medical Centers (AUMC), Location VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Segment length in cine (SLICE) strain analysis on standard cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) cine images was recently validated against gold standard myocardial tagging. The present study aims to explore predictive value of SLICE for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response.

Methods And Results: Fifty-seven patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block (LBBB) were prospectively enrolled in this multi-center study and underwent CMR examination before CRT implantation. Circumferential strains of the septal and lateral wall were measured by SLICE on short-axis cine images. In addition, timing and strain pattern parameters were assessed. After twelve months, CRT response was quantified by the echocardiographic change in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume (LVESV). In contrast to timing parameters, strain pattern parameters being systolic rebound stretch of the septum (SRS), systolic stretch index (SSI), and internal stretch factor (ISF) all correlated significantly with LVESV change (R - 0.56; R - 0.53; and R - 0.58, respectively). Of all strain parameters, end-systolic septal strain (ESS) showed strongest correlation with LVESV change (R - 0.63). Multivariable analysis showed ESS to be independently related to LVESV change together with age and QRS.

Conclusion: The practicable SLICE strain technique may help the clinician to estimate potential benefit from CRT by analyzing standard CMR cine images without the need for commercial software. Of all strain parameters, end-systolic septal strain (ESS) demonstrates the strongest correlation with reverse remodeling after CRT. This parameter may be of special interest in patients with non-strict LBBB morphology for whom CRT benefit is doubted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12968-020-00701-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798189PMC
January 2021

The value of septal rebound stretch analysis for the prediction of volumetric response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jan;22(1):37-45

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Aims: Patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) may be enhanced by evaluation of systolic myocardial stretching. We evaluate whether systolic septal rebound stretch (SRSsept) derived from speckle tracking echocardiography is a predictor of reverse remodelling after CRT and whether it holds additive predictive value over the simpler visual dyssynchrony assessment by apical rocking (ApRock).

Methods And Results: The association between SRSsept and change in left ventricular end-systolic volume (ΔLVESV) at 6 months of follow-up was assessed in 200 patients. Subsequently, the additive predictive value of SRSsept over the assessment of ApRock was evaluated in patients with and without left bundle branch block (LBBB) according to strict criteria. SRSsept was independently associated with ΔLVESV (β 0.221, P = 0.002) after correction for sex, age, ischaemic cardiomyopathy, QRS morphology and duration, and ApRock. A high SRSsept (≥optimal cut-off value 2.4) also coincided with more volumetric responders (ΔLVESV ≥ -15%) than low SRSsept in the entire cohort (70.0% and 56.4%), in patients with strict LBBB (83.3% vs. 56.7%, P = 0.024), and non-LBBB (70.7% vs. 46.3%, P = 0.004). Moreover, in non-LBBB patients, SRSsept held additional predictive information over the assessment of ApRock alone since patients that showed ApRock and high SRSsept were more often volumetric responder than those with ApRock but low SRSsept (82.8% vs. 47.4%, P = 0.001).

Conclusion: SRSsept is strongly associated with CRT-induced reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume and holds additive prognostic information over QRS morphology and ApRock. Our data suggest that CRT patient selection may be improved by assessment of SRSsept, especially in the important subgroup without strict LBBB.

Clinical Trial Registration: The MARC study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01519908.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeaa190DOI Listing
January 2021

Impact of local left atrial wall thickness on the incidence of acute pulmonary vein reconnection after Ablation Index-guided atrial fibrillation ablation.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2020 Aug 3;29:100574. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Although Ablation Index (AI)-guided ablation facilitates creation of lesions of consistent depth, pulmonary vein (PV) reconnection is still commonly observed after AI-guided pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). The present study aimed to investigate the impact of local left atrial wall thickness on the incidence of acute PV reconnection after AI-guided atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation.

Methods And Results: Seventy patients (63% paroxysmal AF, 67% male, mean age 63 ± 8 years) who underwent preprocedural CT imaging and AI-guided AF ablation were studied. Occurrence of acute PV reconnection after initial PVI was assessed after a 30-minute waiting period. Ablation procedures were retrospectively analyzed and each ablation circle was subdivided into 8 segments. Minimum AI, force-time integral, contact force, ablation duration, power, impedance drop and maximum interlesion distance were determined for each segment. PV antrum wall thickness was assessed for each segment on reconstructed CT images based on patient-specific thresholds in Hounsfield Units. Acute reconnection occurred in 27/1120 segments (2%, 15 anterior/roof, 12 posterior/inferior) in 19/140 ablation circles (14%). Reconnected segments were characterized by a greater local atrial wall thickness, both in anterior/roof (1.87 ± 0.42 vs. 1.54 ± 0.42 mm; p < 0.01) and posterior/inferior (1.43 ± 0.20 vs. 1.16 ± 0.22 mm; p < 0.01) segments. Minimum AI, force-time integral, contact force, ablation duration, power, impedance drop and maximum interlesion distance were not associated with acute reconnection.

Conclusions: Local atrial wall thickness is associated with acute pulmonary vein reconnection after AI-guided PVI. Individualized AI targets based on local wall thickness may be of use to create transmural ablation lesions and prevent PV reconnection after PVI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2020.100574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334811PMC
August 2020

Differences between gap-related persistent conduction and carina-related persistent conduction during radiofrequency pulmonary vein isolation.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2020 07 22;31(7):1616-1627. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: During pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), nonisolation after initial encircling of the pulmonary veins (PVs) may be due to gaps in the initial ablation line, or alternatively, earliest PV activation may occur on the intervenous carina and ablation within the wide-area circumferential ablation (WACA) circle is needed to eliminate residual conduction. This study investigated prognostic implications and predictors of gap-related persistent conduction (gap-RPC) and carina-related persistent conduction (carina-RPC) during PVI.

Methods And Results: Two hundred fourteen atrial fibrillation (AF) patients (57% paroxysmal, 61% male, mean age 62 ± 9 years) undergoing first contact force-guided radiofrequency PVI were studied. Preprocedural cardiac computed tomography imaging was used to assess left atrial and PV anatomy. PVI was assessed directly after initial WACA circle creation, after a minimum waiting period of 30 minutes, and after adenosine infusion. Persistent conduction was targeted for additional ablation and classified as gap-RPC or carina-RPC, depending on the earliest activation site. The 1-year AF recurrence rate was higher in patients with gap-RPC (47%) compared to patients without gap-RPC (28%; P = .003). No significant difference in 1-year recurrence rate was found between patients with carina-RPC (37%) and patients without carina-RPC (31%; P = .379). Multivariate analyses identified paroxysmal AF and WACA circumference as independent predictors of gap-RPC, whereas carina width and WACA circumference correlated with carina-RPC.

Conclusions: Gap-RPC is associated with increased AF recurrence risk after PVI, whereas carina-RPC does not predict AF recurrence. Moreover, gap-RPC and carina-RPC have different correlates and may thus have different underlying mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.14544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7383882PMC
July 2020

Bisoprolol therapy does not reduce right ventricular sympathetic activity in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients.

Pulm Circ 2020 Apr-Jun;10(2):2045894019873548. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Pulmonary Medicine, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Right ventricular (RV) function and autonomic dysfunction are important determinants of morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although successful in animal studies, effects of beta-blocker therapy on RV function in clinical trials were disappointing. To understand this discrepancy, we studied whether beta-blocker therapy changes RV sympathetic activity. Idiopathic PAH (IPAH) patients received beta-blocker therapy (uptitrated to a maximal tolerated dose) and underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, right heart catheterization, and a [C]-hydroxyephedrine positron emission tomography ([C]HED PET) scan at baseline to determine, respectively, RV ejection fraction (RVEF), RV pressures, and sympathetic activity. [C]HED, a norepinephrine analogue, allows determination of sympathetic innervation of the RV. [C]HED retention index reflects norepinephrine transporter activity. As a consequence of excessive catecholamine levels in the synaptic cleft, this transporter may be downregulated. Therefore, low [C]HED retention index indicates high sympathetic activity. 13 IPAH patients underwent [C]HED PET scans at baseline and after bisoprolol treatment. Although heart rate was reduced, systemic modulation of autonomic activity by bisoprolol did not affect local RV sympathetic nerve activity, RV function, or RV wall tension. In PAH patients, RV [C]HED retention index was lower compared to LV tracer uptake (p<0.01) and was related to systolic wall tension (R = 0.4731, p<0.01) and RV function (R = 0.44, p = 0.01). In RV failure, the tolerated dosage of bisoprolol did not result in an improvement of RV function nor in a reduction in RV sympathetic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2045894019873548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7187746PMC
April 2020

Value of CMR and PET in Predicting Ventricular Arrhythmias in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Patients Eligible for ICD.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 08 15;13(8):1755-1766. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study presents a head-to-head comparison of the value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived left-ventricular (LV) function and scar burden and positron emission tomography (PET)-derived perfusion and innervation in predicting ventricular arrhythmias (VAs).

Background: Improved risk stratification of VA is important to identify patients who should benefit of prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Perfusion abnormalities, sympathetic denervation, and scar burden have all been linked to VA, although comparative studies are lacking.

Methods: Seventy-four patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35%, referred for primary prevention ICD placement were enrolled prospectively. Late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) CMR was performed to assess LV function and scar characteristics. [O]HO and [C]hydroxyephedrine positron emission tomography (PET) were performed to quantify resting and hyperemic myocardial blood flow (MBF), coronary flow reserve (CFR), and sympathetic innervation. During follow-up of 5.4 ± 1.9 years, the occurrence of sustained VA, appropriate ICD therapy, and mortality were evaluated.

Results: In total, 20 (26%) patients experienced VA. CMR and PET parameters showed considerable overlap between patients with VA and patients without VA, caused by substantial heterogeneity within groups. Univariable analyses showed that lower LVEF (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.92; p = 0.03), higher left-ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVi) (HR 1.02; p < 0.01), and larger scar border zone (HR 1.11; p = 0.03) were related to VA. Scar core size, resting MBF, hyperemic MBF, perfusion defect size, innervation defect size, and the innervation-perfusion mismatch were not found to be associated with VA.

Conclusions: In patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, lower LVEF, higher LVEDVi, and larger scar border zone were related to VA. PET-derived perfusion and sympathetic innervation, as well as CMR-derived scar core size were not associated with VA. These results suggest that improved prediction of VA by advanced imaging remains challenging for the individual patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2020.01.026DOI Listing
August 2020

The role of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in New York Heart Class I heart failure patients: do not abandon the asymptomatic just yet.

Eur Heart J 2020 06;41(21):2033-2034

Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263698PMC
June 2020

Shifting diastolic filling from right to left in non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: exploring new indications for biventricular pacing.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 07 24;22(7):1273-1275. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1775DOI Listing
July 2020

Correlation between septal midwall late gadolinium enhancement on CMR and conduction delay on ECG in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2020 Feb 25;26:100474. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Septal midwall late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is a characteristic finding in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and is associated with adverse cardiac events. QRS-prolongation in DCM is also frequently present and a predictor of arrhythmic events and mortality. Since the His-Purkinje fibres are located in the interventricular septum, QRS-prolongation may directly result from septal fibrosis, visualized by LGE. Our aim was to study the correlation of the presence and extent of septal midwall LGE and QRS-duration.

Methods: DCM-patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (LVEF < 50%) were included. LV volumes, systolic function and nonischemic septal midwall LGE, defined as patchy or stripe-like LGE in the septal segments, were quantified. QRS-duration on standard 12-lead ECG was measured.

Results: 165 DCM-patients were included (62% male, mean age 59 ± 15 years) with a median LVEF of 36% [24-44]. Fifty-one patients (31%) demonstrated septal midwall LGE with a median extent of 8.1 gram [4.3-16.8]. Patients with midwall LGE had increased LV end-diastolic volumes (EDV) 248 mL [193-301] vs. 193 mL [160-239], p < 0.001) and lower LVEF (26% [18-35] vs. 40% [32-45], p < 0.001). Median QRS-duration was 110 ms [95-146] without a correlation to the presence nor extent of midwall LGE. QRS-duration was moderately correlated with LV-dilation and mass (respectively r = 0.35, p < 0.001 and r = 0.30, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: In DCM-patients, QRS-prolongation and septal midwall LGE are frequently present and often co-exist. However, they are not correlated. This suggests that the assessment of LGE-CMR has complementary value to ECG evaluation in the clinical assessment and risk stratification of DCM-patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2020.100474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6994302PMC
February 2020

Left atrial sphericity as a marker of atrial remodeling: Comparison of atrial fibrillation patients and controls.

Int J Cardiol 2020 04 22;304:69-74. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Left atrial (LA) sphericity has been proposed as a more sensitive marker of atrial fibrillation (AF)-associated atrial remodeling compared to traditional markers such as LA size. However, mechanisms that underlie changes in LA sphericity are not fully understood and studies investigating the predictive value of LA sphericity for AF ablation outcome have yielded conflicting results. The present study aimed to assess correlates of LA sphericity and to compare LA sphericity in subjects with and without AF.

Methods: Measures of LA size (LA diameter, LA volume, LA volume index), LA sphericity and thoracic anteroposterior diameter (APd) at the level of the LA were determined using computed tomography (CT) imaging data in 293 AF patients (62% paroxysmal AF) and 110 controls.

Results: LA diameter (40.1 ± 6.8 mm vs. 35.2 ± 5.1 mm; p < 0.001), LA volume (116.0 ± 33.0 ml vs. 80.3 ± 22.6 ml; p < 0.001) and LA volume index (56.1 ± 15.3 ml/m vs. 41.6 ± 11.1 ml/m; p < 0.001) were significantly larger in AF patients compared to controls, also after adjustment for covariates. LA sphericity did not differ between AF patients and controls (83.7 ± 2.9 vs. 83.9 ± 2.4; p = 0.642). Multivariable linear regression analysis demonstrated that LA diameter, LA volume, female sex, body length and thoracic APd were independently associated with LA sphericity.

Conclusions: The present study suggests that thoracic constraints rather than the presence of AF determine LA sphericity, implying LA sphericity to be unsuitable as a marker of AF-related atrial remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.01.042DOI Listing
April 2020

Efficiency is key.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 02;21(2):154-156

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences (ACS), Amsterdam University Medical Centers (AUMC), VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jez260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029764PMC
February 2020

Hemodynamic Optimization in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: Should We Aim for dP/dt or Stroke Work?

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2019 09 31;5(9):1013-1025. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Cardiology, and Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences (ACS), Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study evaluated the acute effect of dP/dt- versus stroke work (SW)-guided cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) optimization and the related acute hemodynamic changes to long-term CRT response.

Background: Hemodynamic optimization may increase benefit from CRT. Typically, maximal left ventricular (LV) pressure rise dP/dt is used as an index of ventricular performance. Alternatively, SW can be derived from pressure-volume (PV) loops.

Methods: Forty-one patients underwent CRT implantation followed by invasive PV loop measurements. The stimulation protocol included 16 LV pacing configurations using each individual electrode of the quadripolar lead with 4 atrioventricular (AV) delays. Conventional CRT was defined as pacing from the distal electrode with an AV delay of approximately 120 ms.

Results: Compared with conventional CRT, dP/dt-guided optimization resulted in a one-third additional dP/dt increase (17 ± 11% vs. 12 ± 9%; p < 0.001). Similarly, SW-guided optimization resulted in a one-third additional SW increase (80 ± 55% vs. 53 ± 48%; p < 0.001). Comparing both optimization strategies, dP/dt favored contractility (8 ± 12% vs. 5 ± 10%; p = 0.015), whereas SW optimization improved ventricular-arterial (VA) coupling (45% vs. 32%; p < 0.001). After 6 months, mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) change was 10 ± 9% with 23 (56%) patients becoming super-responders to CRT (≥10% LVEF improvement). Although acute changes in SW were predictive for long-term CRT response (area under the curve: 0.78; p = 0.002), changes in dP/dt were not (area under the curve: 0.65; p = 0.112).

Conclusions: PV-guided hemodynamic optimization in CRT results in approximately one-third SW improvement on top of conventional CRT, caused by a mechanism of enhanced VA coupling. In contrast, dP/dt optimization favored LV contractility. Ultimately, acute changes in SW showed larger predictive value for long-term CRT response compared with dP/dt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2019.05.020DOI Listing
September 2019

1-Year Outcomes of Delayed Versus Immediate Intervention in Patients With Transient ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2019 11 2;12(22):2272-2282. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a delayed versus an immediate invasive approach on final infarct size and clinical outcome up to 1 year.

Background: Up to 24% of patients with acute coronary syndromes present with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) but show complete resolution of ST-segment elevation and symptoms before revascularization. Current guidelines do not clearly state whether these patients with transient STEMI should be treated with a STEMI-like or non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome-like intervention strategy.

Methods: In this multicenter trial, 142 patients with transient STEMI were randomized 1:1 to either delayed or immediate coronary intervention. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 4 days and at 4-month follow-up to assess infarct size and myocardial function. Clinical follow-up was performed at 4 and 12 months.

Results: In the delayed (22.7 h) and the immediate (0.4 h) invasive groups, final infarct size as a percentage of the left ventricle was very small (0.4% [interquartile range: 0.0% to 2.5%] vs. 0.4% [interquartile range: 0.0% to 3.5%]; p = 0.79), and left ventricular function was good (mean ejection fraction 59.3 ± 6.5% vs. 59.9 ± 5.4%; p = 0.63). In addition, the overall occurrence of major adverse cardiac events, consisting of death, recurrent infarction, and target lesion revascularization, up to 1 year was low and not different between both groups (5.7% vs. 4.4%, respectively; p = 1.00).

Conclusions: At follow-up, patients with transient STEMI have limited infarction and well-preserved myocardial function in general, and delayed or immediate revascularization has no effect on functional outcome and clinical events up to 1 year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2019.07.018DOI Listing
November 2019

The Benefit of Prophylactic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantation in Asymptomatic Heart Failure Patients With a Reduced Ejection Fraction.

Am J Cardiol 2019 08 29;124(4):560-566. Epub 2019 May 29.

Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Recommendations for prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation in asymptomatic heart failure patients with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) differ between guidelines. Evidence on the risk of appropriate device therapy (ADT) and death in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I patients is scarce. Aim of this study is to evaluate ADT and mortality in NYHA-I primary prevention ICD patients with a LVEF ≤35%. A retrospective cohort was studied, including 572 patients with LVEF ≤35% who received a prophylactic ICD with or without resynchronization therapy (CRT-D). To evaluate the incidence of ADT and mortality, NYHA-I was compared with NYHA-II-III using Cox regression analysis. During a follow-up of 4.1 ± 2.4 years, 33% of the NYHA-I patients received ADT compared with 20% of the NYHA-II-III patients (hazard ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 2.31, p = 0.03). No differences in mortality were observed (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.07, p = 0.10). Additional analyses showed no difference in time to ADT excluding CRT patients (ICD-NYHA-I patients vs ICD-NYHA-II-III patients, p = 0.17) and comparing ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy NYHA-I patients (p = 0.13). Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed that NYHA class was the strongest independent predictor of ADT. In conclusion, primary prevention NYHA-I ICD patients showed a higher incidence of ADT compared with NYHA-II-III ICD patients. These results strongly suggest that primary prevention NYHA-I patients with a LVEF ≤35% are likely to benefit from ICD therapy and should not be excluded from a potentially life-saving therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.05.026DOI Listing
August 2019

Left atrial appendage morphology in atrial fibrillation: Do we prefer chicken wing or cauliflower?

J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr 2020 Mar - Apr;14(2):201-202. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcct.2019.04.002DOI Listing
October 2020

Size Matters: Normalization of QRS Duration to Left Ventricular Dimension Improves Prediction of Long-Term Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Outcome.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2018 12;11(12):e006767

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (ACS) (A.Z., C.V., S.B., A.C.v.R., R.N., C.P.A.).

Background: In patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB), QRS duration (QRSd) depends on left ventricular (LV) dimension. Previously, we demonstrated that normalizing QRSd to LV dimension, to adjust for variations in LV size, improved prediction of hemodynamic response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). In addition, sex-specific differences in CRT outcome have been attributed to normalized QRSd. The present study evaluates the effect of normalization of QRSd to LV dimension on prediction of survival after CRT implantation.

Methods: In this 2-center study, we studied 250 heart failure patients with LV ejection fraction ≤35% and QRSd ≥120 ms who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging before CRT implantation. LV end-diastolic volumes were used for QRSd normalization (ie, QRSd/LV end-diastolic volumes). The primary end point was a combined end point of death, LV assist device, or heart transplantation.

Results: During a median follow-up of 3.9 years, 79 (32%) patients reached the primary end point. Using univariable Cox regression, unadjusted QRSd was unrelated to CRT outcome ( P=0.116). In contrast, normalized QRSd was a strong predictor of survival (hazard ratio, 0.81 per 0.1 ms/mL; P=0.008). Women demonstrated higher normalized QRSd than men (0.62±0.17 versus 0.55±0.17 ms/mL; P=0.003) and showed better survival after CRT (hazard ratio, 0.52; P=0.018). A multivariable prognostic model included normalized QRSd together with age, atrial fibrillation, renal function, and heart failure cause, whereas sex, diabetes mellitus, strict left bundle branch block morphology, and LV end-diastolic volumes were expelled from the model.

Conclusions: Normalization of QRSd to LV dimension improves prediction of survival after CRT implantation. In addition, sex-specific differences in CRT outcome might be attributed to the higher QRSd/LV end-diastolic volumes ratio that was found in selected women, indicating more conduction delay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.118.006767DOI Listing
December 2018

Timing of revascularization in patients with transient ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a randomized clinical trial.

Eur Heart J 2019 01;40(3):283-291

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Aims: Patients with acute coronary syndrome who present initially with ST-elevation on the electrocardiogram but, subsequently, show complete normalization of the ST-segment and relief of symptoms before reperfusion therapy are referred to as transient ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and pose a therapeutic challenge. It is unclear what the optimal timing of revascularization is for these patients and whether they should be treated with a STEMI-like or a non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)-like invasive approach. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of an immediate vs. a delayed invasive strategy on infarct size measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR).

Methods And Results: In a randomized clinical trial, 142 patients with transient STEMI with symptoms of any duration were randomized to an immediate (STEMI-like) [0.3 h; interquartile range (IQR) 0.2-0.7 h] or a delayed (NSTEMI-like) invasive strategy (22.7 h; IQR 18.2-27.3 h). Infarct size as percentage of the left ventricular myocardial mass measured by CMR at day four was generally small and not different between the immediate and the delayed invasive group (1.3%; IQR 0.0-3.5% vs. 1.5% IQR 0.0-4.1%, P = 0.48). By intention to treat, there was no difference in major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as death, reinfarction, or target vessel revascularization at 30 days (2.9% vs. 2.8%, P = 1.00). However, four additional patients (5.6%) in the delayed invasive strategy required urgent intervention due to signs and symptoms of reinfarction while awaiting angiography.

Conclusion: Overall, infarct size in transient STEMI is small and is not influenced by an immediate or delayed invasive strategy. In addition, short-term MACE was low and not different between the treatment groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy651DOI Listing
January 2019

Chronotropic Incompetence in Chronic Heart Failure.

Circ Heart Fail 2018 08;11(8):e004969

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, VU University Medical Center, the Netherlands.

Chronotropic incompetence (CI) is generally defined as the inability to increase the heart rate (HR) adequately during exercise to match cardiac output to metabolic demands. In patients with heart failure (HF), however, this definition is unsuitable because metabolic demands are unmatched to cardiac output in both conditions. Moreover, HR dynamics in patients with HF differ from those in healthy subjects and may be affected by β-blocking medication. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that CI in HF is associated with reduced functional capacity and poor survival. During exercise, the normal heart increases both stroke volume and HR, whereas in the failing heart, contractility reserve is lost, thus rendering increases in cardiac output primarily dependent on cardioacceleration. Consequently, insufficient cardioacceleration because of CI may be considered a major limiting factor in the exercise capacity of patients with HF. Despite the profound effects of CI in this specific population, the issue has drawn limited attention during the past years and is often overlooked in clinical practice. This might partly be caused by a lack of standardized approach to diagnose the disease, further complicated by changes in HR dynamics in the HF population, which render reference values derived from a normal population invalid. Cardiac implantable electronic devices (implantable cardioverter defibrillator; cardiac resynchronization therapy) now offer a unique opportunity to study HR dynamics and provide treatment options for CI by rate-adaptive pacing using an incorporated sensor that measures physical activity. This review provides an overview of disease mechanisms, diagnostic strategies, clinical consequences, and state-of-the-art device therapy for CI in HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.118.004969DOI Listing
August 2018

Atrioventricular optimization in cardiac resynchronization therapy with quadripolar leads: should we optimize every pacing configuration including multi-point pacing?

Europace 2019 Jan;21(1):e11-e19

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, CX Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Aims: This study aims to define an atrioventricular (AV) delay optimization method for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with a quadripolar left ventricular (LV) lead based on intrinsic conduction intervals.

Methods And Results: Heart failure patients with a left bundle branch block underwent CRT implantation with a quadripolar LV lead. Invasive LV pressure-volume loops were recorded during four biventricular and three multi-point pacing (MPP) settings, using four patient-specific paced AV delays. Haemodynamic response was defined as change in stroke work (Δ%SW) compared to intrinsic rhythm and was related to the following conduction intervals: right atrial pacing to right ventricular sensing interval (RAp-RVs), Q to LV sensing interval normalized to QRS duration (QLV/QRSd), PR-interval, and P-wave duration. In 44 patients, the largest Δ%SW (104 ± 76%) occurred at a paced AV delay of 128 ± 32 ms, at 47 ± 9% of RAp-RVs. Optimal AV delay of biventricular pacing (126 ± 26 ms) did not differ from MPP (126 ± 21 ms, P = 0.29). Intra-class correlation coefficient between optimal AV delays of different pacing configurations was 0.64 (0.45-0.78, P < 0.001). Although not statistically significant, Δ%SW at 50% of RAp-RVs (98 ± 74%) was closer to the maximal achievable Δ%SW increase than a fixed interval of 120 ms (96 ± 73%, P = 0.60). RAp-RVs, QLV/QRSd, PR interval, and P-wave duration were associated with the optimal AV delay in univariate analysis, but only RAp-RVs remained significantly associated in multivariate analysis (R = 0.69).

Conclusion: The AV delay that provides highest haemodynamic response is similar for various LV pacing configurations and for MPP. An AV delay ∼50% of RAp-RVs creates an acute haemodynamic response close to the maximal patient-specific response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euy138DOI Listing
January 2019

Strain imaging to predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: a systematic comparison of strain parameters using multiple imaging techniques.

ESC Heart Fail 2018 12 26;5(6):1130-1140. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Cardiology, and Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences (ACS), VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Aims: Various strain parameters and multiple imaging techniques are presently available including cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) tagging (CMR-TAG), CMR feature tracking (CMR-FT), and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). This study aims to compare predictive performance of different strain parameters and evaluate results per imaging technique to predict cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response.

Methods And Results: Twenty-seven patients were prospectively enrolled and underwent CMR and echocardiographic examination before CRT implantation. Strain analysis was performed in circumferential (CMR-TAG, CMR-FT, and STE-circ) and longitudinal (STE-long) orientations. Regional strain values, parameters of dyssynchrony, and discoordination were calculated. After 12 months, CRT response was measured by the echocardiographic change in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume (LVESV). Twenty-six patients completed follow-up; mean LVESV change was -29 ± 27% with 17 (65%) patients showing ≥15% LVESV reduction. Measures of dyssynchrony (SD-TTP ) and discoordination (ISF ) were strongly related to CRT response when using CMR-TAG (R 0.61 and R 0.57, respectively), but showed poor correlations for CMR-FT and STE (all R  ≤ 0.32). In contrast, the end-systolic septal strain (ESS ) parameter showed a consistent high correlation with LVESV change for all techniques (CMR-TAG R 0.60; CMR-FT R 0.50; STE-circ R 0.43; and STE-long R 0.43). After adjustment for QRS duration and QRS morphology, ESS remained an independent predictor of response per technique.

Conclusions: End-systolic septal strain was the only parameter with a consistent good relation to reverse remodelling after CRT, irrespective of assessment technique. In clinical practice, this measure can be obtained by any available strain imaging technique and provides predictive value on top of current guideline criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300826PMC
December 2018

[MRI in patients with a pacemaker or ICD requires expertise].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2018 Jun 18;162. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

VUmc, afd. Cardiologie, Amsterdam.

Nazarian et al. recently studied the safety of magnetic resonance imaging in a large cohort of patients with cardiac devices not considered to be MRI-conditional (termed a "legacy" device). More than 2100 thoracic and nonthoracic MRI examinations were performed in 1509 patients. It was found that with appropriate precautions, including a prespecified safety protocol, no long-term clinically significant adverse events occurred. It could easily be concluded from these observations that MRI can now be considered "safe" in this category of patients. Whether such a conclusion is justified, is questionable however. Although not life-threatening, interactions between MRI and devices still occur and clinical consequences remain unpredictable. It is therefore strongly recommended that MRI in patients with a legacy device should exclusively be performed in centres of excellence. Only in the presence of a multidisciplinary radiological and cardiac expert team can MRI be conducted with acceptable risks in patients with a legacy device.
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June 2018

Pressure-Volume Loop Analysis of Multipoint Pacing With a Quadripolar Left Ventricular Lead in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2018 07 28;4(7):881-889. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Objectives: This study aimed to compare multipoint pacing (MPP) to optimal biventricular pacing with a quadripolar left ventricular (LV) lead and find factors associated with hemodynamic response to MPP.

Background: MPP with a quadripolar LV lead may increase response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Methods: Heart failure patients with a left bundle branch block underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy implantation. Q to LV sensing interval divided by the intrinsic QRS duration was measured. Invasive pressure-volume loops were assessed during 4 biventricular pacing settings and 3 MPP settings, using 4 atrioventricular delays. Hemodynamic response was defined as change in stroke work (Δ%SW) compared with baseline measurements during intrinsic conduction. Δ%SW of MPP was compared with conventional biventricular pacing using the distal electrode and the electrode with highest Δ%SW (BIV-OPT).

Results: Forty-three patients were analyzed (age 66 ± 10 years, 63% men, 30% ischemic cardiomyopathy, LV ejection fraction 29 ± 8%, and QRS duration 175 ± 13 ms). Q to local LV sensing interval corrected for QRS duration was 84 ± 8%, and variation between LV electrodes was 9 ± 5%. Compared with conventional biventricular pacing using the distal electrode, MPP showed a significant higher increase of SW (Δ%SW +15 ± 35%; p < 0.05) with a large interindividual variation. There was no significant difference in Δ%SW with MPP compared with BIV-OPT (-5 ± 24%; p = 0.19). Male sex and low LV ejection fraction were associated with increase in Δ%SW due to MPP versus BIV-OPT in multivariate analysis, while ischemic cardiomyopathy was only associated in univariate analysis.

Conclusions: Optimization of the pacing site of a quadripolar LV lead is more important than to program MPP. However, specific subgroups (i.e., especially men) may benefit substantially from MPP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2018.02.005DOI Listing
July 2018

Can We Use the Intrinsic Left Ventricular Delay (QLV) to Optimize the Pacing Configuration for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With a Quadripolar Left Ventricular Lead?

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2018 03;11(3):e005912

From the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands (W.M.v.E., M.J.C., P.A.D., M.M.); Department of Cardiology, Institute for Cardiovascular Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (A.Z., A.C.v.R., C.P.A.); Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, The Netherlands (U.C.N., K.V.); and Department of Physiology, CARIM (Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht), Maastricht University, The Netherlands (U.C.N., F.W.P.).

Background: Previous studies indicated the importance of the intrinsic left ventricular (LV) electric delay (QLV) for optimal benefit to cardiac resynchronization therapy. We investigated the use of QLV for achieving optimal acute hemodynamic response to cardiac resynchronization therapy with a quadripolar LV lead.

Methods And Results: Forty-eight heart failure patients with a left bundle branch block were prospectively enrolled (31 men; age, 66±10 years; LV ejection fraction, 28±8%; QRS duration, 176±14 ms). Immediately after cardiac resynchronization therapy implantation, invasive LV pressure-volume loops were recorded during biventricular pacing with each separate electrode at 4 atrioventricular delays. Acute cardiac resynchronization therapy response, measured as change in stroke work (Δ%SW) compared with intrinsic conduction, was related to intrinsic interval between Q on the ECG and LV sensing delay (QLV), normalized for QRS duration (QLV/QRSd), and electrode position. QLV/QRSd was 84±9% and variation between the 4 electrodes 9±5%. Δ%SW was 89±64% and varied by 39±36% between the electrodes. In univariate analysis, an anterolateral or lateral electrode position and a high QLV/QRSd had a significant association with a large Δ%SW (all <0.01). In a combined model, only QLV/QRSd remained significantly associated with Δ%SW (<0.05). However, a direct relation between QLV/QRSd and Δ%SW was only seen in 24 patients, whereas 24 patients showed an inverse relation.

Conclusions: The large variation in acute hemodynamic response indicates that the choice of the stimulated electrode on a quadripolar lead is important. Although QLV/QRSd was associated with acute hemodynamic response at group level, it cannot be used to select the optimal electrode in the individual patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.117.005912DOI Listing
March 2018

Long-Term Prognostic Implications of Previous Silent Myocardial Infarction in Patients Presenting With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 12 18;11(12):1773-1781. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study investigated the prevalence of silent myocardial infarction (MI) in patients presenting with first acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and its relation with mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) at long-term follow-up.

Background: Up to 54% of MI occurs without apparent symptoms. The prevalence and long-term prognostic implications of previous silent MI in patients presenting with seemingly first AMI are unclear.

Methods: A 2-center observational longitudinal study was performed in 392 patients presenting with first AMI between 2003 and 2013, who underwent late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) examination within 14 days post-AMI. Silent MI was assessed on LGE-CMR images by identifying regions of hyperenhancement with an ischemic distribution pattern in other territories than the AMI. Mortality and MACE (all-cause death, reinfarction, coronary artery bypass grafting, and ischemic stroke) were assessed at 6.8 ± 2.9 years follow-up.

Results: Thirty-two patients (8.2%) showed silent MI on LGE-CMR. Compared with patients without silent MI, mortality risk was higher in patients with silent MI (hazard ratio: 3.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.21 to 12.38; p = 0.023), as was risk of MACE (hazard ratio: 3.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.22 to 7.86; p = 0.017), both independent from clinical and infarction-related characteristics.

Conclusions: Silent MI occurred in 8.2% of patients presenting with first AMI and was independently related to poorer long-term clinical outcome, with a more than 3-fold risk of mortality and MACE. Silent MI holds prognostic value over important traditional prognosticators in the setting of AMI, indicating that these patients represent a high-risk subgroup warranting clinical awareness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2018.02.009DOI Listing
December 2018

The Prognostic Value of Late Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Review and Meta-Analysis.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 09 18;11(9):1274-1284. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Department of Cardiology, Northwest Clinics, Alkmaar, the Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objectives: This review and meta-analysis reviews the prognostic value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

Background: Late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) CMR is a noninvasive method to determine the underlying cause of DCM and previous studies reported the prognostic value of the presence of LGE to identify patients at risk of major adverse cardiovascular events.

Methods: PubMed was searched for studies describing the prognostic implication of LGE in patients with DCM for the specified endpoints cardiovascular mortality, major ventricular arrhythmic events including appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy, rehospitalization for heart failure, and left ventricular reverse remodeling.

Results: Data from 34 studies were included, with a total of 4,554 patients. Contrast enhancement was present in 44.8% of DCM patients. Patients with LGE had increased cardiovascular mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 3.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.04 to 5.67), ventricular arrhythmic events (OR: 4.52; 95% CI: 3.41 to 5.99), and rehospitalization for heart failure (OR: 2.66; 95% CI: 1.67 to 4.24) compared with those without LGE. Moreover, the absence of LGE predicted left ventricular reverse remodeling (OR: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.36).

Conclusions: The presence of LGE on CMR substantially worsens prognosis for adverse cardiovascular events in DCM patients, and the absence indicates left ventricular reverse remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2018.03.006DOI Listing
September 2018

Comparison of strain parameters in dyssynchronous heart failure between speckle tracking echocardiography vendor systems.

Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2017 Oct 18;15(1):25. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, P.O. Box 855500, 3508, GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Although mechanical dyssynchrony parameters derived by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) may predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), comparability of parameters derived with different STE vendors is unknown.

Methods: In the MARC study, echocardiographic images of heart failure patients obtained before CRT implantation were prospectively analysed with vendor specific STE software (GE EchoPac and Philips QLAB) and vendor-independent software (TomTec 2DCPA). Response was defined as change in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume between examination before and six-months after CRT implantation. Basic longitudinal strain and mechanical dyssynchrony parameters (septal to lateral wall delay (SL-delay), septal systolic rebound stretch (SRSsept), and systolic stretch index (SSI)) were obtained from either separate septal and lateral walls, or total LV apical four chamber. Septal strain patterns were categorized in three types. The coefficient of variation and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were analysed. Dyssynchrony parameters were associated with CRT response using univariate regression analysis and C-statistics.

Results: Two-hundred eleven patients were analysed. GE-cohort (n = 123): age 68 years (interquartile range (IQR): 61-73), 67% male, QRS-duration 177 ms (IQR: 160-192), LV ejection fraction: 26 ± 7%. Philips-cohort (n = 88): age 67 years (IQR: 59-74), 60% male, QRS-duration: 179 ms (IQR: 166-193), LV ejection fraction: 27 ± 8. LV derived peak strain was comparable in the GE- (GE: -7.3 ± 3.1%, TomTec: -6.4 ± 2.8%, ICC: 0.723) and Philips-cohort (Philips: -7.7 ± 2.7%, TomTec: -7.7 ± 3.3%, ICC: 0.749). SL-delay showed low ICC values (GE vs. TomTec: 0.078 and Philips vs. TomTec: 0.025). ICC's of SRSsept and SSI were higher but only weak (GE vs. TomTec: SRSsept: 0.470, SSI: 0.467) (Philips vs. QLAB: SRSsept: 0.419, SSI: 0.421). Comparability of septal strain patterns was low (Cohen's kappa, GE vs. TomTec: 0.221 and Philips vs. TomTec: 0.279). Septal strain patterns, SRSsept and SSI were associated with changes in LV end-systolic volume for all vendors. SRSsept and SSI had relative varying C-statistic values (range: 0.530-0.705) and different cut-off values between vendors.

Conclusions: Although global longitudinal strain analysis showed fair comparability, assessment of dyssynchrony parameters was vendor specific and not applicable outside the context of the implemented platform. While the standardization taskforce took an important step for global peak strain, further standardization of STE is still warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12947-017-0116-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5648447PMC
October 2017