Publications by authors named "Cornelis Hordijk"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Exploring bacterial interspecific interactions for discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds.

Microb Biotechnol 2017 07 29;10(4):910-925. Epub 2017 May 29.

Department of Microbial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), PO BOX 50, 6700 AB, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Recent studies indicated that the production of secondary metabolites by soil bacteria can be triggered by interspecific interactions. However, little is known to date about interspecific interactions between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we aimed to understand how the interspecific interaction between the Gram-positive Paenibacillus sp. AD87 and the Gram-negative Burkholderia sp. AD24 affects the fitness, gene expression and the production of soluble and volatile secondary metabolites of both bacteria. To obtain better insight into this interaction, transcriptome and metabolome analyses were performed. Our results revealed that the interaction between the two bacteria affected their fitness, gene expression and the production of secondary metabolites. During interaction, the growth of Paenibacillus was not affected, whereas the growth of Burkholderia was inhibited at 48 and 72 h. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the interaction between Burkholderia and Paenibacillus caused significant transcriptional changes in both bacteria as compared to the monocultures. The metabolomic analysis revealed that the interaction increased the production of specific volatile and soluble antimicrobial compounds such as 2,5-bis(1-methylethyl)-pyrazine and an unknown Pederin-like compound. The pyrazine volatile compound produced by Paenibacillus was subjected to bioassays and showed strong inhibitory activity against Burkholderia and a range of plant and human pathogens. Moreover, strong additive antimicrobial effects were observed when soluble extracts from the interacting bacteria were combined with the pure 2,5-bis(1-methylethyl)-pyrazine. The results obtained in this study highlight the importance to explore bacterial interspecific interactions to discover novel secondary metabolites and to perform simultaneously metabolomics of both, soluble and volatile compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.12735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5481530PMC
July 2017

Non-random species loss in bacterial communities reduces antifungal volatile production.

Ecology 2015 Aug;96(8):2042-8

The contribution of low-abundance microbial species to soil ecosystems is easily overlooked because there is considerable overlap between metabolic abilities (functional redundancy) of dominant and subordinate microbial species. Here we studied how loss of less abundant soil bacteria affected the production of antifungal volatiles, an important factor in the natural control of soil-borne pathogenic fungi. We provide novel empirical evidence that the loss of soil bacterial species leads to a decline in the production of volatiles that suppress root pathogens. By using dilution-to-extinction for seven different soils we created bacterial communities with a decreasing number of species and grew them under carbon-limited conditions. Communities with high bacterial species richness produced volatiles that strongly reduced the hyphal growth of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. For most soil origins loss of bacterial species resulted in loss of antifungal volatile production. Analysis of the volatiles revealed that several known antifungal compounds were only produced in the more diverse bacterial communities. Our results suggest that less abundant bacterial species play an important role in antifungal volatile production by soil bacterial communities and, consequently, in the natural suppression of soil-borne pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-2359.1DOI Listing
August 2015

Legacy effects of anaerobic soil disinfestation on soil bacterial community composition and production of pathogen-suppressing volatiles.

Front Microbiol 2015 10;6:701. Epub 2015 Jul 10.

Department of Microbial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, NIOO-KNAW Wageningen, Netherlands ; Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre Wageningen, Netherlands.

There is increasing evidence that microbial volatiles (VOCs) play an important role in natural suppression of soil-borne diseases, but little is known on the factors that influence production of suppressing VOCs. In the current study we examined whether a stress-induced change in soil microbial community composition would affect the production by soils of VOCs suppressing the plant-pathogenic oomycete Pythium. Using pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal gene fragments we compared the composition of bacterial communities in sandy soils that had been exposed to anaerobic disinfestation (AD), a treatment used to kill harmful soil organisms, with the composition in untreated soils. Three months after the AD treatment had been finished, there was still a clear legacy effect of the former anaerobic stress on bacterial community composition with a strong increase in relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes and a significant decrease of the phyla Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Nitrospirae, Chloroflexi, and Chlorobi. This change in bacterial community composition coincided with loss of production of Pythium suppressing soil volatiles (VOCs) and of suppression of Pythium impacts on Hyacinth root development. One year later, the composition of the bacterial community in the AD soils was reflecting that of the untreated soils. In addition, both production of Pythium-suppressing VOCs and suppression of Pythium in Hyacinth bioassays had returned to the levels of the untreated soil. GC/MS analysis identified several VOCs, among which compounds known to be antifungal, that were produced in the untreated soils but not in the AD soils. These compounds were again produced 15 months after the AD treatment. Our data indicate that soils exposed to a drastic stress can temporarily lose pathogen suppressive characteristics and that both loss and return of these suppressive characteristics coincides with shifts in the soil bacterial community composition. Our data are supporting the suggested importance of microbial VOCs in the natural buffer of soils against diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4498103PMC
July 2015

Volatile-mediated interactions between phylogenetically different soil bacteria.

Front Microbiol 2014 11;5:289. Epub 2014 Jun 11.

Department Microbial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW) Wageningen, Netherlands ; Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre Wageningen, Netherlands.

There is increasing evidence that organic volatiles play an important role in interactions between micro-organisms in the porous soil matrix. Here we report that volatile compounds emitted by different soil bacteria can affect the growth, antibiotic production and gene expression of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1. We applied a novel cultivation approach that mimics the natural nutritional heterogeneity in soil in which P. fluorescens grown on nutrient-limited agar was exposed to volatiles produced by 4 phylogenetically different bacterial isolates (Collimonas pratensis, Serratia plymuthica, Paenibacillus sp., and Pedobacter sp.) growing in sand containing artificial root exudates. Contrary to our expectation, the produced volatiles stimulated rather than inhibited the growth of P. fluorescens. A genome-wide, microarray-based analysis revealed that volatiles of all four bacterial strains affected gene expression of P. fluorescens, but with a different pattern of gene expression for each strain. Based on the annotation of the differently expressed genes, bacterial volatiles appear to induce a chemotactic motility response in P. fluorescens, but also an oxidative stress response. A more detailed study revealed that volatiles produced by C. pratensis triggered, antimicrobial secondary metabolite production in P. fluorescens. Our results indicate that bacterial volatiles can have an important role in communication, trophic - and antagonistic interactions within the soil bacterial community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4052926PMC
June 2014

Volatiles produced by the mycophagous soil bacterium Collimonas.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2014 Mar 12;87(3):639-49. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Department Microbial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, The Netherlands.

It is increasingly recognized that volatile organic compounds play an import role during interactions between soil microorganisms. Here, we examined the possible involvement of volatiles in the interaction of Collimonas bacteria with soil fungi. The genus Collimonas is known for its ability to grow at the expense of living fungi (mycophagy), and antifungal volatiles may contribute to the attack of fungi by these bacteria. We analyzed the composition of volatiles produced by Collimonas on agar under different nutrient conditions and studied the effect on fungal growth. The volatiles had a negative effect on the growth of a broad spectrum of fungal species. Collimonas bacteria did also produce volatiles in sand microcosms supplied with artificial root exudates. The production of volatiles in sand microcosms was enhanced by the presence of fungi. The overall picture that we get from our study is that antifungal volatiles produced by Collimonas could play an important role in realizing its mycophagous lifestyle. The current work is also interesting for understanding the ecological relevance of volatile production by soil bacteria in general as we found strong influences of root exudates composition and incubation conditions on the spectrum of volatiles produced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1574-6941.12252DOI Listing
March 2014

An ecogenomic analysis of herbivore-induced plant volatiles in Brassica juncea.

Mol Ecol 2013 Dec 13;22(24):6179-96. Epub 2013 Nov 13.

Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara College, University of Delhi, Benito Juarez Marg, Dhaula kuan, New Delhi, 11002, India.

Upon herbivore feeding, plants emit complex bouquets of induced volatiles that may repel insect herbivores as well as attract parasitoids or predators. Due to differences in the temporal dynamics of individual components, the composition of the herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) blend changes with time. Consequently, the response of insects associated with plants is not constant either. Using Brassica juncea as the model plant and generalist Spodoptera spp. larvae as the inducing herbivore, we investigated herbivore and parasitoid preference as well as the molecular mechanisms behind the temporal dynamics in HIPV emissions at 24, 48 and 72 h after damage. In choice tests, Spodoptera litura moth preferred undamaged plants, whereas its parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris favoured plants induced for 48 h. In contrast, the specialist Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid C. vestalis preferred plants induced for 72 h. These preferences matched the dynamic changes in HIPV blends over time. Gene expression analysis suggested that the induced response after Spodoptera feeding is mainly controlled by the jasmonic acid pathway in both damaged and systemic leaves. Several genes involved in sulphide and green leaf volatile synthesis were clearly up-regulated. This study thus shows that HIPV blends vary considerably over a short period of time, and these changes are actively regulated at the gene expression level. Moreover, temporal changes in HIPVs elicit differential preferences of herbivores and their natural enemies. We argue that the temporal dynamics of HIPVs may play a key role in shaping the response of insects associated with plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.12555DOI Listing
December 2013

Microbial minorities modulate methane consumption through niche partitioning.

ISME J 2013 Nov 20;7(11):2214-28. Epub 2013 Jun 20.

Department of Microbial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Microbes catalyze all major geochemical cycles on earth. However, the role of microbial traits and community composition in biogeochemical cycles is still poorly understood mainly due to the inability to assess the community members that are actually performing biogeochemical conversions in complex environmental samples. Here we applied a polyphasic approach to assess the role of microbial community composition in modulating methane emission from a riparian floodplain. We show that the dynamics and intensity of methane consumption in riparian wetlands coincide with relative abundance and activity of specific subgroups of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), which can be considered as a minor component of the microbial community in this ecosystem. Microarray-based community composition analyses demonstrated linear relationships of MOB diversity parameters and in vitro methane consumption. Incubations using intact cores in combination with stable isotope labeling of lipids and proteins corroborated the correlative evidence from in vitro incubations demonstrating γ-proteobacterial MOB subgroups to be responsible for methane oxidation. The results obtained within the riparian flooding gradient collectively demonstrate that niche partitioning of MOB within a community comprised of a very limited amount of active species modulates methane consumption and emission from this wetland. The implications of the results obtained for biodiversity-ecosystem functioning are discussed with special reference to the role of spatial and temporal heterogeneity and functional redundancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2013.99DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3806271PMC
November 2013

On-line detection of root-induced volatiles in Brassica nigra plants infested with Delia radicum L. root fly larvae.

Phytochemistry 2012 Dec 17;84:68-77. Epub 2012 Sep 17.

Life Science Trace Gas Facility, Institute of Molecules and Materials (IMM), Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Plants emit various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) upon herbivore attack. These VOC emissions often show temporal dynamics which may influence the behavior of natural enemies using these volatiles as cues. This study analyzes on-line VOC emissions by roots of Brassica nigra plants under attack by cabbage root fly larvae, Delia radicum. Root emitted VOCs were detected using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). These analyses showed that several sulfur containing compounds, such as methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) and glucosinolate breakdown products, such as thiocyanates (TC) and isothiocyanates (ITC), were emitted by the roots in response to infestation. The emissions were subdivided into early responses, emerging within 1-6 h after infestation, and late responses, evolving only after 6-12 h. The marker for rapid responses was detected at m/z 60. The ion detected at m/z 60 was identified as thiocyanic acid, which is also a prominent fragment in some TC or ITC spectra. The emission of m/z 60 stopped when the larvae had pupated, which makes it an excellent indicator for actively feeding larvae. Methanethiol, DMS and DMDS levels increased much later in infested roots, indicating that activation of enzymes or genes involved in the production of these compounds may be required. Earlier studies have shown that both early and late responses can play a role in tritrophic interactions associated with Brassica species. Moreover, the identification of these root induced responses will help to design non-invasive analytical procedures to assess root infestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.08.013DOI Listing
December 2012

Virus infection decreases the attractiveness of white clover plants for a non-vectoring herbivore.

Oecologia 2012 Oct 17;170(2):433-44. Epub 2012 Apr 17.

Department of Experimental Plant Ecology, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Plant pathogens and insect herbivores are prone to share hosts under natural conditions. Consequently, pathogen-induced changes in the host plant can affect herbivory, and vice versa. Even though plant viruses are ubiquitous in the field, little is known about plant-mediated interactions between viruses and non-vectoring herbivores. We investigated the effects of virus infection on subsequent infestation by a non-vectoring herbivore in a natural genotype of Trifolium repens (white clover). We tested whether infection with White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) alters (1) the effects of fungus gnat feeding on plant growth, (2) the attractiveness of white clover for adult fungus gnat females, and (3) the volatile emission of white clover plants. We observed only marginal effects of WClMV infection on the interaction between fungus gnat larvae and white clover. However, adult fungus gnat females clearly preferred non-infected over WClMV-infected plants. Non-infected and virus-infected plants could easily be discriminated based on their volatile blends, suggesting that the preference of fungus gnats for non-infected plants may be mediated by virus-induced changes in volatile emissions. The compound β-caryophyllene was exclusively detected in the headspace of virus-infected plants and may hence be particularly important for the preference of fungus gnat females. Our results demonstrate that WClMV infection can decrease the attractiveness of white clover plants for fungus gnat females. This suggests that virus infections may contribute to protecting their hosts by decreasing herbivore infestation rates. Consequently, it is conceivable that viruses play a more beneficial role in plant-herbivore interactions than generally thought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-012-2322-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3439618PMC
October 2012

Differences in volatile profiles of turnip plants subjected to single and dual herbivory above- and belowground.

J Chem Ecol 2011 Apr 30;37(4):368-77. Epub 2011 Mar 30.

UMR 1099 BiO3P, University of Rennes 1, INRA, Agrocampus Ouest, 263 avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042, Rennes Cedex, France.

Plants attacked by herbivorous insects emit volatile organic compounds that are used by natural enemies to locate their host or prey. The composition of the blend is often complex and specific. It may vary qualitatively and quantitatively according to plant and herbivore species, thus providing specific information for carnivorous arthropods. Most studies have focused on simple interactions that involve one species per trophic level, and typically have investigated the aboveground parts of plants. These investigations need to be extended to more complex networks that involve multiple herbivory above- and belowground. A previous study examined whether the presence of the leaf herbivore Pieris brassicae on turnip plants (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) influences the response of Trybliographa rapae, a specialist parasitoid of the root feeder Delia radicum. It showed that the parasitoid was not attracted by volatiles emitted by plants under simultaneous attack. Here, we analyzed differences in the herbivore induced plant volatile (HIPV) mixtures that emanate from such infested plants by using Orthogonal Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). This multivariate model focuses on the differences between odor blends, and highlights the relative importance of each compound in an HIPV blend. Dual infestation resulted in several HIPVs that were present in both isolated infestation types. However, HIPVs collected from simultaneously infested plants were not the simple combination of volatiles from isolated forms of above- and belowground herbivory. Only a few specific compounds characterized the odor blend of each type of damaged plant. Indeed, some compounds were specifically induced by root herbivory (4-methyltridecane and salicylaldehyde) or shoot herbivory (methylsalicylate), whereas hexylacetate, a green leaf volatile, was specifically induced after dual herbivory. It remains to be determined whether or not these minor quantitative variations, within the background of more commonly induced odors, are involved in the reduced attraction of the root feeder's parasitoid. The mechanisms involved in the specific modification of the odor blends emitted by dual infested turnip plants are discussed in the light of interferences between biosynthetic pathways linked to plant responses to shoot or root herbivory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-011-9934-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197925PMC
April 2011

Identification of biologically relevant compounds in aboveground and belowground induced volatile blends.

J Chem Ecol 2010 Sep 25;36(9):1006-16. Epub 2010 Aug 25.

Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Water and Wetland Research (IWWR), PO Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Plants under attack by aboveground herbivores emit complex blends of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Specific compounds in these blends are used by parasitic wasps to find their hosts. Belowground induction causes shifts in the composition of aboveground induced VOC blends, which affect the preference of parasitic wasps. To identify which of the many volatiles in the complex VOC blends may explain parasitoid preference poses a challenge to ecologists. Here, we present a case study in which we use a novel bioinformatics approach to identify biologically relevant differences between VOC blends of feral cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.). The plants were induced aboveground or belowground with jasmonic acid (JA) and shoot feeding caterpillars (Pieris brassicae or P. rapae). We used Partial Least Squares--Discriminant Analysis (PLSDA) to integrate and visualize the relation between plant-emitted VOCs and the preference of female Cotesia glomerata. Overall, female wasps preferred JA-induced plants over controls, but they strongly preferred aboveground JA-induced plants over belowground JA-induced plants. PLSDA revealed that the emission of several monoterpenes was enhanced similarly in all JA-treated plants, whereas homoterpenes and sesquiterpenes increased exclusively in aboveground JA-induced plants. Wasps may use the ratio between these two classes of terpenes to discriminate between aboveground and belowground induced plants. Additionally, it shows that aboveground applied JA induces different VOC biosynthetic pathways than JA applied to the root. Our bioinformatic approach, thus, successfully identified which VOCs matched the preferences of the wasps in the various choice tests. Additionally, the analysis generated novel hypotheses about the role of JA as a signaling compound in aboveground and belowground induced responses in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-010-9844-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2941087PMC
September 2010

Prey and non-prey arthropods sharing a host plant: effects on induced volatile emission and predator attraction.

J Chem Ecol 2008 Mar 10;34(3):281-90. Epub 2008 Jan 10.

Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8031, 6700 EH, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

It is well established that plants infested with a single herbivore species can attract specific natural enemies through the emission of herbivore-induced volatiles. However, it is less clear what happens when plants are simultaneously attacked by more than one species. We analyzed volatile emissions of lima bean and cucumber plants upon multi-species herbivory by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) and caterpillars (Spodoptera exigua) in comparison to single-species herbivory. Upon herbivory by single or multiple species, lima bean and cucumber plants emitted volatile blends that comprised mostly the same compounds. To detect additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects, we compared the multi-species herbivory volatile blend with the sum of the volatile blends induced by each of the herbivore species feeding alone. In lima bean, the majority of compounds were more strongly induced by multi-species herbivory than expected based on the sum of volatile emissions by each of the herbivores separately, potentially caused by synergistic effects. In contrast, in cucumber, two compounds were suppressed by multi-species herbivory, suggesting the potential for antagonistic effects. We also studied the behavioral responses of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized natural enemy of spider mites. Olfactometer experiments showed that P. persimilis preferred volatiles induced by multi-species herbivory to volatiles induced by S. exigua alone or by prey mites alone. We conclude that both lima bean and cucumber plants effectively attract predatory mites upon multi-species herbivory, but the underlying mechanisms appear different between these species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-007-9405-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2266969PMC
March 2008