Publications by authors named "Corinne Perreau"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Lumican delays melanoma growth in mice and drives tumor molecular assembly as well as response to matrix-targeted TAX2 therapeutic peptide.

Sci Rep 2017 08 9;7(1):7700. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Campus Moulin de la Housse, 51100, Reims, France.

Lumican is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) being known as a key regulator of collagen fibrillogenesis. However, little attention has been given so far in studying its influence on tumor-associated matrix architecture. Here, we investigate the role of host lumican on tumor matrix organization as well as on disease progression considering an immunocompetent model of melanoma implanted in Lum vs. wild type syngeneic mice. Conjointly, lumican impact on tumor response to matrix-targeted therapy was evaluated considering a previously validated peptide, namely TAX2, that targets matricellular thrombospondin-1. Analysis of available genomics and proteomics databases for melanoma first established a correlation between lumican expression and patient outcome. In the B16 melanoma allograft model, endogenous lumican inhibits tumor growth and modulates response to TAX2 peptide. Indeed, IHC analyses revealed that lumican deficiency impacts intratumoral distribution of matricellular proteins, growth factor and stromal cells. Besides, innovative imaging approaches helped demonstrating that lumican host expression drives biochemical heterogeneity of s.c. tumors, while modulating intratumoral collagen deposition as well as organization. Altogether, the results obtained present lumican as a strong endogenous inhibitor of tumor growth, while identifying for the first time this proteoglycan as a major driver of tumor matrix coherent assembly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-07043-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5550434PMC
August 2017

Lumican effectively regulates the estrogen receptors-associated functional properties of breast cancer cells, expression of matrix effectors and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

Sci Rep 2017 03 23;7:45138. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Laboratoire de Biochimie Médicale et Biologie Moléculaire, Reims, France.

Lumican is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that has been shown to contribute in several physiological processes, but also to exert anticancer activity. On the other hand, it has been recently shown that knockdown of the estrogen receptor α (ERα) in low invasive MCF-7 (ERα+) breast cancer cells and the suppression of ERβ in highly aggressive MDA-MB-231 (ERβ+) cells significantly alter the functional properties of breast cancer cells and the gene expression profile of matrix macromolecules related to cancer progression and cell morphology. In this report, we evaluated the effects of lumican in respect to the ERs-associated breast cancer cell behaviour, before and after suppression of ERs, using scanning electron and confocal microscopies, qPCR and functional assays. Our data pinpointed that lumican significantly attenuated cell functional properties, including proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, it modified cell morphology, inducing cell-cell junctions, evoked EMT/MET reprogramming and suppressed the expression of major matrix effectors (matrix metalloproteinases and EGFR) implicated in breast cancer progression. The effects of lumican were found to be related to the type of breast cancer cells and the ERα/β type. These data support the anticancer activity of lumican and open a new area for the pharmacological targeting of the invasive breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep45138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5362815PMC
March 2017

The influence of oral copper-methionine on matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene expression and activation in right-sided heart failure induced by cold temperature: A broiler chicken perspective.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2017 Jan 7;39:71-75. Epub 2016 Jul 7.

Unité de Recherche "Matrice Extracellulaire et Dynamique Cellulaire" (MEDyC), UMR CNRS/URCA N° 7369, Faculté de Médecine de Reims, 51095 Reims cedex, France; CHU de Reims, Laboratoire Central de Biochimie, 51092 Reims cedex, France.

This study was designed to investigate the expression, activation and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the heart of broiler chickens reared in cold conditions and fed with copper-methionine supplement at different levels. The chickens (n=480) were randomly allotted to six treatments and four replicates. Treatments included two rearing temperatures (i.e. normal and cold temperatures) each combined with three levels of supplemental copper-methionine (i.e. 0, 100 and 200mg/kg). On d 38 and 45 of age, four broilers from each treatment were sacrificed and their hearts were stored at -80°C. Right-sided heart failure, as evident from abdominal and pericardial fluid accumulation, was observed in broilers under cold stress and not receiving supplemental copper. This clinical observation was confirmed at molecular level through increased MMP-2 expression, activation and activity in this group. Birds reared under normal temperature, however, were not involved in right-sided heart failure nor benefitted from copper-methionine supplementation. In contrast, gelatin zymography and real-time PCR demonstrated that dietary supplementation with copper-methionine decreased pro-MMP-2 and MMP-2 in the heart of chickens reared in cold conditions. However, gelatin reverse zymography did not show any difference between treatments in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2. Level of supplementation showed similar effects on parameters determined. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with copper-methionine reduced right-sided heart failure at clinical and molecular levels in cold-stressed chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.07.003DOI Listing
January 2017

Lumican Inhibits SNAIL-Induced Melanoma Cell Migration Specifically by Blocking MMP-14 Activity.

PLoS One 2016 1;11(3):e0150226. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

CNRS UMR 7369, Matrice Extracellulaire et Dynamique Cellulaire (MEDyC), Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Laboratoire de Biochimie Médicale et de Biologie Moléculaire, Reims, France.

Lumican, a small leucine rich proteoglycan, inhibits MMP-14 activity and melanoma cell migration in vitro and in vivo. Snail triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transitions endowing epithelial cells with migratory and invasive properties during tumor progression. The aim of this work was to investigate lumican effects on MMP-14 activity and migration of Snail overexpressing B16F1 (Snail-B16F1) melanoma cells and HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Lumican inhibits the Snail induced MMP-14 activity in B16F1 but not in HT-29 cells. In Snail-B16F1 cells, lumican inhibits migration, growth, and melanoma primary tumor development. A lumican-based strategy targeting Snail-induced MMP-14 activity might be useful for melanoma treatment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0150226PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4773148PMC
July 2016

Effects of Dietary Copper-Methionine on Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 in the Lungs of Cold-Stressed Broilers as an Animal Model for Pulmonary Hypertension.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2016 Aug 9;172(2):504-510. Epub 2016 Jan 9.

Unité de Recherche "Matrice Extracellulaire et Dynamique Cellulaire" (MEDyC), UMR CNRS/URCA NO 7369, Faculté de Médecine de Reims, 51095, Reims Cedex, France.

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of different levels of copper (as supplemental copper-methionine) on ascites incidence and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) changes in the lungs of cold-stressed broilers. For this purpose, 480 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to six treatments. Treatments consisted of two ambient temperatures (thermoneutral and cold stress) each combined with 0, 100, and 200 mg supplemental copper/kg as copper-methionine in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with four replicates. Ascites was diagnosed based on abdominal and pericardial fluid accumulation at 45 days of age. Fourty-eight broilers were killed at 38 and 45 days of age, and their lungs were collected for biological analysis. Results showed that MMP-2 increased in the lungs of ascitic broilers and that copper-methionine supplementation significantly reduced MMP-2 in cold-stressed broiler chickens. Treatments did not affect tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) at 38 and 45 days of age, and no difference was observed between 100 and 200 mg/kg copper-methionine treatments. In conclusion, copper-methionine at higher than conventional levels of supplementation decreased ascites incidence in low temperature through reduced MMP-2 concentration. Further research is warranted to investigate the effect of copper on MMP-2 concentrations in other tissues with high oxygen demand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-015-0612-0DOI Listing
August 2016

Lumican: a new inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-14 activity.

FEBS Lett 2014 Nov 7;588(23):4319-24. Epub 2014 Oct 7.

CNRS UMR 7369, Matrice Extracellulaire et Dynamique Cellulaire, Reims, France; Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Laboratoire de Biochimie Médicale et de Biologie Moléculaire, Reims, France. Electronic address:

We previously showed that lumican regulates MMP-14 expression. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of lumican and decorin on MMP-14 activity. In contrast to decorin, the glycosylated form of lumican was able to significantly decrease MMP-14 activity in B16F1 melanoma cells. Our results suggest that a direct interaction occurs between lumican and MMP-14. Lumican behaves as a competitive inhibitor which leads to a complete blocking of the activity of MMP-14. It binds to the catalytic domain of MMP-14 with moderate affinity (KD∼275 nM). Lumican may protect collagen against MMP-14 proteolysis, thus influencing cell-matrix interaction in tumor progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2014.09.040DOI Listing
November 2014

Lumican - derived peptides inhibit melanoma cell growth and migration.

PLoS One 2013 2;8(10):e76232. Epub 2013 Oct 2.

Laboratoire de Biochimie Médicale et de Biologie Moléculaire, CNRS FRE 3481, Université de Reims-Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France.

Lumican, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan of the extracellular matrix, presents potent anti-tumor properties. Previous works from our group showed that lumican inhibited melanoma cell migration and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Melanoma cells adhered to lumican, resulting in a remodeling of their actin cytoskeleton and preventing their migration. In addition, we identified a sequence of 17 amino acids within the lumican core protein, named lumcorin, which was able to inhibit cell chemotaxis and reproduce anti-migratory effect of lumican in vitro. The aim of the present study was to characterize the anti-tumor mechanism of action of lumcorin. Lumcorin significantly decreased the growth in monolayer and in soft agar of two melanoma cell lines - mice B16F1 and human SK-MEL-28 cells - in comparison to controls. Addition of lumcorin to serum free medium significantly inhibited spontaneous motility of these two melanoma cell lines. To characterize the mechanisms involved in the inhibition of cell migration by lumcorin, the status of the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of proteins was examined. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation was observed in presence of lumcorin. Since cancer cells have been shown to migrate and to invade by mechanisms that involve matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the expression and activity of MMPs were analyzed. Lumcorin induced an accumulation of an intermediate form of MMP-14 (~59kDa), and inhibited MMP-14 activity. Additionally, we identified a short, 10 amino acids peptide within lumcorin sequence, which was able to reproduce its anti-tumor effect on melanoma cells. This peptide may have potential pharmacological applications.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0076232PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3788744PMC
July 2014

Effect of lumican on the migration of human mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells: involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-14.

PLoS One 2012 7;7(12):e50709. Epub 2012 Dec 7.

Laboratoire de Biochimie Médicale et de Biologie Moléculaire, CNRS FRE 3481, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France.

Background: Increasing number of evidence shows that soluble factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) components provide an optimal microenvironment controlling human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) functions. Successful in vivo administration of stem cells lies in their ability to migrate through ECM barriers and to differentiate along tissue-specific lineages, including endothelium. Lumican, a protein of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family, was shown to impede cell migration and angiogenesis. The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of lumican in the control of MSC migration and transition to functional endothelial progenitor cell (EPC).

Methodology/principal Findings: Lumican inhibited tube-like structures formation on Matrigel® by MSC, but not EPC. Since matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-14, play an important role in remodelling of ECM and enhancing cell migration, their expression and activity were investigated in the cells grown on different ECM substrata. Lumican down-regulated the MMP-14 expression and activity in MSC, but not in EPC. Lumican inhibited MSC, but not EPC migration and invasion. The inhibition of MSC migration and invasion by lumican was reversed by MMP-14 overexpression.

Conclusion/significance: Altogether, our results suggest that lumican inhibits MSC tube-like structure formation and migration via mechanisms that involve a decrease of MMP-14 expression and activity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0050709PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3517548PMC
May 2013

Lumican inhibits cell migration through α2β1 integrin.

Exp Cell Res 2010 Oct 10;316(17):2922-31. Epub 2010 Aug 10.

CNRS UMR 6237 MEDyC, Université de Reims-Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France.

Lumican, an extracellular matrix protein of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family, has been shown to impede melanoma progression by inhibiting cell migration. In the present study, we show that lumican targets α2β1 integrin thereby inhibiting cell migration. A375 melanoma cells were transfected with siRNA directed against the α2 integrin subunit. Compared to A375 control cells, the anti-migratory effect of lumican was abrogated on transfected A375 cells. Moreover, lumican inhibited the chemotactic migration of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with α2 integrin subunit (CHO-A2) but not that of wild-type CHO cells (CHO-WT) lacking this subunit. In contrast to CHO-WT cells, we observed in time-lapse microscopy a decrease of CHO-A2 cell migration speed in presence of lumican. Focal adhesion kinase phosphorylated at tyrosine-397 (pFAK) and total FAK were analysed in CHO-WT and CHO-A2 cells. A significant decrease of the ratio pFAK/FAK was shown in presence of recombinant human lumican. Using solid phase assays, a direct binding between lumican and the α2β1 integrin was demonstrated. This interaction did not involve the glycan moiety of lumican and was cation independent. Lumican was also able to bind the activated I domain of the α2 integrin subunit with a K(d)≥200nM. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that the inhibition of cell migration by lumican depends on a direct binding between the core protein of lumican and the α2β1 integrin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2010.08.002DOI Listing
October 2010

Lumcorin: a leucine-rich repeat 9-derived peptide from human lumican inhibiting melanoma cell migration.

FEBS Lett 2009 Sep 15;583(18):3027-32. Epub 2009 Aug 15.

Laboratoire de Biochimie Médicale et de Biologie Moléculaire, CNRS UMR 6237, Université Reims-Champagne-Ardenne, F-51095 Reims, France.

We previously showed that lumican decreases melanoma progression. The aim of the present study was to determine the active sequence of the lumican core protein responsible for the inhibition of melanoma cell migration. Using different recombinant and synthetic peptides derived from lumican, we localized an active site in the leucine-rich repeat 9 domain of the lumican core protein. We propose the name lumcorin (fragment of lumican core protein) for the active peptide derived from this site. Lumcorin was able to inhibit melanoma cell migration in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2009.08.012DOI Listing
September 2009

Lumican core protein inhibits melanoma cell migration via alterations of focal adhesion complexes.

Cancer Lett 2009 Sep 24;283(1):92-100. Epub 2009 Apr 24.

Laboratoire de Biochimie Médicale et Biologie Moléculaire, CNRS UMR 6237, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Reims-Champagne-Ardenne, 51095 Reims Cedex, France.

Lumican is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) of the extracellular matrix (ECM) with anti-tumor activity. We recently demonstrated that lumican inhibits the migration of melanoma cells and identified beta1 integrin as mediator of this effect [M.F. D'Onofrio, S. Brézillon, T. Baranek, C. Perreau, P.J. Roughley, F.X. Maquart, Y. Wegrowski, Identification of beta1 integrin as mediator of melanoma cell adhesion to lumican, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 365 (2008) 266-272]. The aim of the present work was to study beta1 integrin, focal adhesion complexes, actin distribution and expression in the presence of lumican substratum in comparison to type I collagen or fibronectin substrata in A375 human melanoma cells. The protein distribution was investigated by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. In parallel, their expression was evaluated by Western immunoblotting and Real-time Reverse Transcription-PCR analyses. The interaction of melanoma cells with the lumican substratum resulted in heterogeneous distribution of beta1 integrin on cell membrane after 24h of seeding. Concomitantly, a reorganization of actin stress fibers and a significant decrease in vinculin immunostaining at focal adhesion complexes were observed. No alteration of the expression was detected at protein and mRNA levels. However, a cytosolic accumulation of vinculin focal adhesion protein was observed on lumican substratum by confocal microscopy. Moreover, vinculin expression was significantly increased in cytosolic fractions in comparison to cells seeded on type I collagen or fibronectin substrata. Our results suggest that lumican induces an alteration of the link between actin filaments and beta1 integrin, characterized by a cytosolic accumulation of vinculin focal adhesion protein, which could lead to a destabilization of focal adhesion complexes. In addition, focal adhesion kinase phosphorylated at tyrosine-397 (pFAK) was significantly decreased. Therefore, the cytoskeleton remodeling and the decreased pFAK phosphorylation induced by lumican in melanoma cells might explain, at least in part, the anti-invasive effect of this SLRP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2009.03.032DOI Listing
September 2009

Involvement of lysine 1047 in type I collagen-mediated activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

FEBS J 2008 Jun 13;275(12):3226-35. Epub 2008 May 13.

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, UMR CNRS no. 6237, 51 Rue Cognacq-Jay, Reims, France.

Oxidative functions of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), which play a deciding role in the phagocytosis process, are stimulated by extracellular matrix proteins such as type I collagen. Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of a DGGRYY sequence located within the alpha(1) chain C-terminal telopeptide in type I collagen-induced PMN activation, but so far the mechanism has not been completely elucidated. We have recently demonstrated that collagen carbamylation (i.e. post-translational binding of cyanate to lysine epsilon-NH(2) groups) impairs PMN oxidative functions, suggesting the potential involvement of lysine residues in this process. The present study was devoted to the identification of lysine residues involved in the collagen-induced activation of PMNs. The inhibition of PMN activation by collagen in the presence of 6-amino-hexanoic acid, a structural analogue of lysine residues, confirmed the involvement of specific lysine residues. Modification of lysine residues by carbamylation demonstrated that only one residue, located within the alpha(1)CB6 collagen peptide, was involved in this mechanism. A recombinant alpha(1)CB6 peptide, designed for the substitution of lysine 1047 by glycine, exhibited decreased activity, demonstrating that the lysine residue at position 1047 within the collagen molecule played a significant role in the mechanism of activation. These results help to understand in more detail the collagen-mediated PMN activation mechanism and confirm the prominent involvement of lysine residues in interactions between extracellular matrix proteins and inflammatory cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06474.xDOI Listing
June 2008

Identification of beta1 integrin as mediator of melanoma cell adhesion to lumican.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008 Jan 5;365(2):266-72. Epub 2007 Nov 5.

Laboratoire de Biochimie Médicale et Biologie Moléculaire, CNRS UMR 6198, Faculté de Médecine, IFR 53, Université de Reims-Champagne-Ardenne, 51095 Reims cedex, France.

Lumican is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) present in the dermal extracellular matrix. Previous data from our laboratory demonstrated that lumican decreases melanoma progression in vivo. Here, we show that melanoma cell migration is decreased by lumican and that this effect is due to an enhanced cell adhesion. The adhesion of A375 human melanoma cells on lumican was dose-dependent and required Mg2+ and Mn2+ divalent cations. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against integrin subunits, we showed that A375 cells can bind to recombinant lumican through beta1 type integrins. Moreover, the use of rhodocetin, an inhibitor of alpha2 integrin, suggested that this particular subunit might also be involved in the interaction with lumican. The increased beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion of melanoma cells to lumican might explain, at least in part, the anti-invasive effect of this SLRP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.10.155DOI Listing
January 2008

The small leucine-rich proteoglycan lumican inhibits melanoma progression.

Exp Cell Res 2004 Jun;296(2):294-306

Laboratory of Biochemistry, CNRS UMR 6198, Faculty of Medicine, F-51095 Reims, France.

Lumican is a member of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family. It contributes to the organisation of the collagen network and plays an important role in cell migration and tissue repair. The present study aimed to determine the influence of lumican expression on adhesion, anchorage-dependent and -independent growth, migration, in vitro invasion and in vivo melanoma growth. For that purpose, B16F1 mouse melanoma cells were stably transfected with an expression plasmid containing the complete lumican cDNA. Lumican expression by tumor cells did not change the proliferative activity of mouse melanoma cells in monolayer culture and did not influence either cell adhesion to extracellular matrix gel or type I collagen or cell spreading on these substrates. In contrast, lumican-transfected cells were characterized by a strong reduction of their anchorage-independent proliferation in agarose gel and capacity to invade extracellular matrix gel. After subcutaneous injections of transfected B16F1 cells in syngenic mice, lumican expression significantly decreased subcutaneous tumor formation in vivo, with a concomitant decrease of cyclin D1 expression. Lumican induced and/or increased the apoptosis of B16F1 cells. The results suggest that lumican is involved in the control of melanoma growth and invasion and may be considered, like decorin, as an anti-tumor factor from the extracellular matrix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2004.02.005DOI Listing
June 2004

Specific protein-1 is a universal regulator of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase expression: its positive involvement in transforming growth factor-beta signaling and inhibition in hypoxia.

J Biol Chem 2003 Jun 7;278(24):21566-75. Epub 2003 Apr 7.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, CNRS Formation de Recherche en Evolution 2534, Faculty of Medicine, 51 rue Cognacq-Jay, 51095 Reims cedex, France.

UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) is a key enzyme of the unique pathway for the synthesis of UDP-glucuronate, the substrate for the numerous glucuronosyl transferases, which act on the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans and glucuronidation reaction of xeno- and endobiotics. Using the bacterial artificial chromosome approach, we have cloned and characterized the human UGDH promoter. The core promoter of -644 nucleotides conferred reporter gene activity in transient transfection assay of a variety of cell types, including MRC5 fibroblasts and the HepG2 hepatoma cell line. The minimal promoter of -100 nucleotides contains a functional inverted TATA box. No consensus CAAT sequence was found up to -2133 nucleotides. The expression of UGDH was up- and down-regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and hypoxia, respectively. TGF-beta enhanced the activity of all the deletion constructs, except the minimal promoter. Hypoxia slightly increased the activity of the short promoter-containing constructs but decreased that of the -374 nucleotides and core promoter constructs. The core promoter contained numerous GC-rich sequences for the binding of Sp1 transcription factor. Bisanthracycline, an anti-Sp1 compound, decreased UGDH mRNA expression and inhibited the core promoter constructs activity. Gel mobility shift and supershift assays after TGF-beta stimulation demonstrated an increased DNA binding of the nuclear extract proteins to the two Sp1 sequences located in the -374-bp promoter. By contrast, nuclear extract proteins from hypoxia-treated cells demonstrated a decreased binding of the consensus Sp1 sequence. These results indicate that numerous Sp1 cis-acting sequences of the UGDH core promoter are responsible for up- and down-regulation of the gene after TGF-beta stimulation and in hypoxic conditions, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M209366200DOI Listing
June 2003