Publications by authors named "Corinne Balleyguier"

102 Publications

Can MRI differentiate surrounding vertebral invasion from reactive inflammatory changes in superior sulcus tumor?

Eur Radiol 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Radiology, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, 114 Rue Edouard Vaillant, Villejuif, 94800, Paris, France.

Objectives: Vertebral invasion is a key prognostic factor and a critical aspect of surgical planning for superior sulcus tumors. This study aims to further evaluate MRI features of vertebral invasion in order to distinguish it from reactive inflammatory changes.

Methods: Between 2000 and 2016, a retrospective study was performed at a single institution. All patients with superior sulcus tumors undergoing surgery, including at least two partial vertebrectomies, were included. An expert radiologist evaluated qualitative and quantitative MRI signal intensity characteristics (contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR]) of suspected involved and non-involved vertebrae. A comparison of CNR of invaded and sane vertebrae was performed using non-parametric tests. Imaging data were correlated with pathological findings.

Results: A total of 92 surgical samples of vertebrectomy were analyzed. The most specific sequences for invasion were T1 and T2 weighted (92% and 97%, respectively). The most sensitive sequences were contrast enhanced T1 weighted fat suppressed and T2 weighted fat suppressed (100% and 80%). Loss of extrapleural paravertebral fat on the T1-weighted sequence was highly sensitive (100%) but not specific (63%). Using quantitative analysis, the optimum cut-off (p < 0.05) to distinguish invasion from reactive inflammatory changes was CNR > 11 for the T2-weighted fat-sat sequence (sensitivity 100%), CNR > 9 for contrast-enhanced T1-weighted fat-suppressed sequence (sensitivity 100%), and CNR < - 30 for the T1-weighted sequence (specificity 97%). Combining these criteria, 23 partial vertebrectomies could have been avoided in our cohort.

Conclusion: Qualitative and quantitative MRI analyses are useful to discriminate vertebral invasion from reactive inflammatory changes.

Key Points: • Abnormal signal intensity in a vertebral body adjacent to a superior sulcus tumor may be secondary to direct invasion or reactive inflammatory changes. • Accurate differentiation between invasion and reactive inflammatory changes significantly impacts surgical planning. T1w and T2w are the best sequences to differentiate malignant versus benign bone marrow changes. The use of quantitative analysis improves MRI specificity. • Using contrast media improves the sensitivity for the detection of tumor invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08001-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Imaging: towards a global solution to overcome the cancer pandemic.

Lancet Oncol 2021 04 4;22(4):430-432. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France; Aix Marseille University, CNRS, INSERM, CRCM, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00078-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Intercontinental Multidisciplinary Oncology Videoconferencing for Rare and Complex Cancer: An Alternative to Systematic Transfer.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 Feb 23:OP2000525. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Medical Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Purpose: To report our experience of intercontinental multidisciplinary oncology videoconferencing between the French mainland and South Pacific to discuss rare and/or complex cancer cases.

Methods: On the first and third Friday of each month, all participants connected between 6:30 am and 8:00 am GMT to discuss using a web conference service.

Results: Between November 2019 and April 2020, 99 cases concerning 78 patients were discussed. Oncology subspecialties required were sarcoma (n = 36), digestive (n = 29), dermatology (n = 5), gynecology (n = 5), breast (n = 5), urology (n = 5), hematology (n = 5), ENT (n = 3), thoracic (n = 3), thyroid (n = 2), and pediatric (n = 1). Median patient age was 58 years, 41 were female (53%), 37 were male (47%), and 43 had a metastatic disease (55%). Following discussion, 16 patients (21%) were transferred to the French mainland. Reasons for transfer were requirement for complex surgery (n = 11) and need for specialized diagnostic biopsy (n = 5). Fifty-six patients were treated locally, with systemic chemotherapy (n = 36), surveillance (n = 8), surgery (n = 8), radiotherapy (n = 3), or endoscopy (n = 1). Direct benefits for patients treated in their local facility included strategy changes (surveillance or surgery contraindication, n = 9), targeted therapy decision (n = 14), immunotherapy decision (n = 9), and diagnostic or metastatic status corrections (n = 4). Six patients are still awaiting decision.

Conclusion: Using real-time intercontinental multidisciplinary oncology videoconferencing to discuss complex or rare cancer cases is reliable and effective for decision making. This concept helped to limit to 21% the need for transfers to the mainland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/OP.20.00525DOI Listing
February 2021

Influence of Magnetic Field Strength on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Radiomics Features in Brain Imaging, an and Study.

Front Oncol 2020 20;10:541663. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Radiology, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.

Background: The development and clinical adoption of quantitative imaging biomarkers (radiomics) has established the need for the identification of parameters altering radiomics reproducibility. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of magnetic field strength on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radiomics features in neuroradiology clinical practice.

Methods: T1 3D SPGR sequence was acquired on two phantoms and 10 healthy volunteers with two clinical MR devices from the same manufacturer using two different magnetic fields (1.5 and 3T). Phantoms varied in terms of gadolinium concentrations and textural heterogeneity. 27 regions of interest were segmented (phantom: 21, volunteers: 6) using the LIFEX software. 34 features were analyzed.

Results: In the phantom dataset, 10 (67%) out of 15 radiomics features were significantly different when measured at 1.5T or 3T (student's t-test, p < 0.05). Gray levels resampling, and pixel size also influence part of texture features. These findings were validated in healthy volunteers.

Conclusions: According to daily used protocols for clinical examinations, radiomic features extracted on 1.5T should not be used interchangeably with 3T when evaluating texture features. Such confounding factor should be adjusted when adapting the results of a study to a different platform, or when designing a multicentric trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.541663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855708PMC
January 2021

Cancer surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic: The experience of a comprehensive cancer center performing preoperative screening by RT-PCR and chest CT scan.

J Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 1;123(4):815-822. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Surgical and Interventional Department, Paris-Saclay University, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Background And Objectives: During the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), oncological procedures considered to be urgent could not be delayed, and a specific procedure was required to continue surgical activity. The objective was to assess the efficacy of our preoperative screening algorithm.

Methods: This observational retrospective study was performed between the 25th of March and the 12th of May 2020 in a comprehensive cancer center in France. Patients undergoing elective oncologic surgery were tested by preoperative nasopharyngeal reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that could be associated with a chest computerized tomography (CT) scan.

Results: Of the 510 screening tests (in 477 patients), only 5% (15/477) were positive for COVID-19 in 24 patients (18 RT-PCR+ and 7 CT scan+/RT-PCR-). Four patients were ultimately false positives based on the CT scan. In total, only 4.2% (20/477) of the patients were COVID-19+. The positivity rate decreased with time after the containment measures were implemented (from 7.4% to 0.8%). In the COVID-19+ group, 20% of the patients had postoperative pulmonary complications, whereas this was the case for 5% of the patients in the COVID-19 group.

Conclusions: Maintaining secure surgical activity is achievable and paramount in oncology care, even during the COVID-19 pandemic, with appropriate screening based on preoperative RT-PCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26335DOI Listing
March 2021

Integrating deep learning CT-scan model, biological and clinical variables to predict severity of COVID-19 patients.

Nat Commun 2021 01 27;12(1):634. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Owkin Lab, Owkin, Inc, New York, NY, USA.

The SARS-COV-2 pandemic has put pressure on intensive care units, so that identifying predictors of disease severity is a priority. We collect 58 clinical and biological variables, and chest CT scan data, from 1003 coronavirus-infected patients from two French hospitals. We train a deep learning model based on CT scans to predict severity. We then construct the multimodal AI-severity score that includes 5 clinical and biological variables (age, sex, oxygenation, urea, platelet) in addition to the deep learning model. We show that neural network analysis of CT-scans brings unique prognosis information, although it is correlated with other markers of severity (oxygenation, LDH, and CRP) explaining the measurable but limited 0.03 increase of AUC obtained when adding CT-scan information to clinical variables. Here, we show that when comparing AI-severity with 11 existing severity scores, we find significantly improved prognosis performance; AI-severity can therefore rapidly become a reference scoring approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20657-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840774PMC
January 2021

Methodological Study to Investigate the Potential of Ultrasound-Based Elastography and Texture as Biomarkers to Monitor Liver Tumors.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Oct 13;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Inserm, BioMaps Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France.

Aims And Objectives: In order to evaluate the responses of hepatic lesions to treatment in terms of tissue stiffness and heterogeneity, this work investigated the robustness of 2D shear-wave elastography (2D SWE) stiffness measurements and texture analyses in vitro and in vivo in terms of repeatability and variability.

Methods And Materials: A multioperator ( = 5) study was performed with an ultrasonic elastography device on two sets of phantoms. For the first set of phantoms, 10 measurements for each of the eight inclusions were performed by each observer, whereas the second set of phantoms was used to evaluate the influence of depth on the stiffness measurements. Variability of the stiffness measurements was evaluated in vivo on 10 healthy livers, with 10 measurements for each hepatic segment. Texture analyses were performed in B-mode, obtaining elastography images for every hepatic segment.

Results: Stiffness measurements were influenced by depth, particularly when exceeding 7 cm. In vivo measurements demonstrated that measurements of segments I, VII, and VIII were less reliable, mainly due to their deeper locations. The protocols used were more flexible in terms of acquisition setup and probe placement than those currently used with Fibroscan. For texture analysis on the B-mode images, 12 features showed low variability regardless of the evaluated hepatic segment. On elastogram, only two features showed low variability, but not in every segment.

Conclusion: We demonstrated the robustness of two methodologies for the quantification of liver stiffness and heterogeneity. Further clinical studies should evaluate whether these techniques can assess tumor responses to treatment and, therefore, have the potential to be used as imaging biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10100811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7602000PMC
October 2020

Prospective Multicenter Study Validate a Prediction Model for Surgery Uptake Among Women with Atypical Breast Lesions.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Apr 12;28(4):2138-2145. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Background: Diagnosis of atypical breast lesions (ABLs) leads to unnecessary surgery in 75-90% of women. We have previously developed a model including age, complete radiological target excision after biopsy, and focus size that predicts the probability of cancer at surgery. The present study aimed to validate this model in a prospective multicenter setting.

- Methods: Women with a recently diagnosed ABL on image-guided biopsy were recruited in 18 centers, before wire-guided localized excisional lumpectomy. Primary outcome was the negative predictive value (NPV) of the model.

Results: The NOMAT model could be used in 287 of the 300 patients included (195 with ADH). At surgery, 12 invasive (all grade 1), and 43 in situ carcinomas were identified (all ABL: 55/287, 19%; ADH only: 49/195, 25%). The area under the receiving operating characteristics curve of the model was 0.64 (95% CI 0.58-0.69) for all ABL, and 0.63 for ADH only (95% CI 0.56-0.70). For the pre-specified threshold of 20% predicted probability of cancer, NPV was 82% (77-87%) for all ABL, and 77% (95% CI 71-83%) for patients with ADH. At a 10% threshold, NPV was 89% (84-94%) for all ABL, and 85% (95% CI 78--92%) for the ADH. At this threshold, 58% of the whole ABL population (and 54% of ADH patients) could have avoided surgery with only 2 missed invasive cancers.

Conclusion: The NOMAT model could be useful to avoid unnecessary surgery among women with ABL, including for patients with ADH.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02523612.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-09107-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Editorial Comment on "Mixed-Methods Study to Predict Upstaging of DCIS to Invasive Disease on Mammography".

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 04 3;216(4):911. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Gustave Roussy Université Paris-Saclay, BIOMAPS Villejuif, France

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.20.24467DOI Listing
April 2021

Cost-effectiveness of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging to optimize surgery in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.

Eur J Radiol 2020 Aug 11;129:109058. Epub 2020 May 11.

Gustave Roussy, Service de Biostatistique et d'Epidémiologie, Villejuif, F-94805, France; CESP, Fac. de médecine, Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de médecine, UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, 94805, France.

Purpose: Complete surgical excision is the main factor for successful breast-conserving surgery in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow surgery optimization in this indication. From an economic standpoint, systematic preoperative MRI is associated with an extra cost, which may be offset by a decrease in the number of re-interventions. We performed an economic evaluation alongside IRCIS randomised controlled trial (NCT01112254) to determine whether systematic preoperative MRI in DCIS is a cost-effective strategy.

Methods: 360 patients were included in IRCIS trial. Costs were assessed from the French national health insurance perspective. Resource use was prospectively collected during a 6-month period after randomisation. We estimated the mean cost per averted re-intervention.

Results: Despite extra costs due to MRI and additional biopsies, difference in total costs between arms was not statistically significant (mean cost of €9980 in MRI arm and €9682 in no MRI arm, cost difference: €298 [CI95% : -470; 1063]). There was a non-significant decrease in the rate of re-hospitalisations for positive or close margins (20% in MRI arm versus 27% in No MRI arm, difference -7% [CI95% : -17; 3]). At a willingness to pay of €500 to avert a re-intervention, the probability that MRI strategy is cost-effective was 93%.

Conclusion: Systematic preoperative MRI in patients with DCIS of the breast may be a cost-effective strategy. However, the modest clinical benefit associated with such a strategy limits the interest for this procedure in routine practice given the current MRI techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.109058DOI Listing
August 2020

Personalized early detection and prevention of breast cancer: ENVISION consensus statement.

Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2020 11 18;17(11):687-705. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

The European Collaborative on Personalized Early Detection and Prevention of Breast Cancer (ENVISION) brings together several international research consortia working on different aspects of the personalized early detection and prevention of breast cancer. In a consensus conference held in 2019, the members of this network identified research areas requiring development to enable evidence-based personalized interventions that might improve the benefits and reduce the harms of existing breast cancer screening and prevention programmes. The priority areas identified were: 1) breast cancer subtype-specific risk assessment tools applicable to women of all ancestries; 2) intermediate surrogate markers of response to preventive measures; 3) novel non-surgical preventive measures to reduce the incidence of breast cancer of poor prognosis; and 4) hybrid effectiveness-implementation research combined with modelling studies to evaluate the long-term population outcomes of risk-based early detection strategies. The implementation of such programmes would require health-care systems to be open to learning and adapting, the engagement of a diverse range of stakeholders and tailoring to societal norms and values, while also addressing the ethical and legal issues. In this Consensus Statement, we discuss the current state of breast cancer risk prediction, risk-stratified prevention and early detection strategies, and their implementation. Throughout, we highlight priorities for advancing each of these areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41571-020-0388-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567644PMC
November 2020

Clarification of Definitions of Hyperprogressive Disease During Immunotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

JAMA Oncol 2020 07;6(7):1039-1046

UMR (Unité Mixte de Recherche) 1281, Université Paris-Saclay, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat à l'énergie Atomique et Aux Énergies Alternatives, Laboratoire d'Imagerie Biomédicale Multimodale Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.

Importance: Hyperprogressive disease (HPD) is an aggressive pattern of progression reported for patients treated with programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death 1 ligand (PD-L1) inhibitors as a single agent in several studies. However, the use of different definitions of HPD introduces the risk of describing different tumoral behaviors.

Objective: To assess the accuracy of each HPD definition to identify the frequency of HPD and the association with poorer outcomes of immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to provide an optimized and homogenized definition based on all previous criteria for identifying HPD.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study included 406 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors from November 1, 2012, to April 5, 2017, in 8 French institutions. Measurable lesions were defined using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 criteria on at least 2 computed tomographic scans before the initiation of ICI therapy and 1 computed tomographic scan during treatment. Data were analyzed from November 1, 2012, to August 1, 2019.

Exposures: Advanced NSCLC and treatment with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Association of the definition with the related incidence and the HPD subset constitution and the association between each HPD definition and overall survival. All dynamic indexes used in the previous proposed definitions, such as the tumor growth rate (TGR) or tumor growth kinetics (TGK), were calculated before and during treatment.

Results: Among the 406 patients with NSCLC included in the analysis (259 male [63.8%]; median age at start of ICI treatment, 64 [range, 30-91] years), the different definitions resulted in incidences of the HPD phenomenon varying from 5.4% (n = 22; definition based on a progression pace >2-fold and a time to treatment failure of <2 months) to 18.5% (n = 75; definition based on the TGR ratio). The concordance between these different definitions (using the Jaccard similarity index) varied from 33.3% to 69.3%. For every definition, HPD was associated with poorer survival (range of median overall survival, 3.4 [95% CI, 1.9-8.4] to 6.0 [95% CI, 3.7-9.4] months). The difference between TGR before and during therapy (ΔTGR) was the most correlated with poor overall survival with an initial plateau for a larger number of patients and a slower increase, and it had the highest ability to distinguish patients with HPD from those with progressive disease not classified as HPD. In addition, an optimal threshold of ΔTGR of greater than 100 was identified for this distinction.

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings of this retrospective cohort study of patients with NSCLC suggest that the previous 5 definitions of HPD were not associated with the same tumor behavior. A new definition, based on ΔTGR of greater than 100, appeared to be associated with the characteristics expected with HPD (increase of the tumor kinetics and poor survival). Additional studies on larger groups of patients are necessary to confirm the accuracy and validate this proposed definition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.1634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290708PMC
July 2020

Solving the preoperative breast MRI conundrum: design and protocol of the MIPA study.

Eur Radiol 2020 Oct 6;30(10):5427-5436. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Despite its high diagnostic performance, the use of breast MRI in the preoperative setting is controversial. It has the potential for personalized surgical management in breast cancer patients, but two of three randomized controlled trials did not show results in favor of its introduction for assessing the disease extent before surgery. Meta-analyses showed a higher mastectomy rate in women undergoing preoperative MRI compared to those who do not. Nevertheless, preoperative breast MRI is increasingly used and a survey from the American Society of Breast Surgeons showed that 41% of respondents ask for it in daily practice. In this context, a large-scale observational multicenter international prospective analysis (MIPA study) was proposed under the guidance of the European Network for the Assessment of Imaging in Medicine (EuroAIM). The aims were (1) to prospectively and systematically collect data on consecutive women with a newly diagnosed breast cancer, not candidates for neoadjuvant therapy, who are offered or not offered breast MRI before surgery according to local practice; (2) to compare these two groups in terms of surgical and clinical endpoints, adjusting for covariates. The underlying hypotheses are that MRI does not cause additional mastectomies compared to conventional imaging, while reducing the reoperation rate in all or in subgroups of patients. Ninety-six centers applied to a web-based call; 36 were initially selected based on volume and quality standards; 27 were active for enrollment. On November 2018, the target of 7000 enrolled patients was reached. The MIPA study is presently at the analytic phase. Key Points • Breast MRI has a high diagnostic performance but its utility in the preoperative setting is controversial. • A large-scale observational multicenter prospective study was launched to compare women receiving with those not receiving preoperative MRI. • Twenty-seven centers enrolled more than 7000 patients. The study is presently at the analytic phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-06824-7DOI Listing
October 2020

CT Texture Analysis Challenges: Influence of Acquisition and Reconstruction Parameters: A Comprehensive Review.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Apr 28;10(5). Epub 2020 Apr 28.

IR4M-UMR8081, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, University Paris Saclay, Rue Ampère, 91405 Orsay CEDEX, France.

Texture analysis in medical imaging is a promising tool that is designed to improve the characterization of abnormal images from patients, to ultimately serve as a predictive or prognostic biomarker. However, the nature of image acquisition itself implies variability in each pixel/voxel value that could jeopardize the usefulness of texture analysis in the medical field. In this review, a search was performed to identify current published data for computed tomography (CT) texture reproducibility and variability. On the basis of this analysis, the critical steps were identified with a view of using texture analysis as a reliable tool in medical imaging. The need to specify the CT scanners used and the associated parameters in published studies is highlighted. Harmonizing acquisition parameters between studies is a crucial step for future texture analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10050258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277097PMC
April 2020

Association of metastatic pattern and molecular status in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer adenocarcinoma.

Eur Radiol 2020 Sep 23;30(9):5021-5028. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Imaging Department, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, F-94805, Villejuif, France.

Objectives: The aim of our study was to investigate the association between driver oncogene alterations and metastatic patterns on imaging assessment, in a large cohort of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma patients.

Methods: From January 2010 to May 2017, 550 patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma with molecular analysis were studied retrospectively including 135 EGFR-mutated, 81 ALK-rearrangement, 47 BRAF-mutated, 141 KRAS-mutated, and 146 negative tumors for these 4 mutations (4N). After review of the complete imaging report by two radiologists (junior and senior) to identify metastatic sites, univariate correlation analyzes were performed.

Results: We found differences in metastatic tropism depending on the molecular alteration type when compared with the non-mutated 4N group: in the EGFR group, pleural metastases were more frequent (32% versus 20%; p = 0.021), and adrenal and node metastases less common (6% versus 23%; p < 0.001 and 11% versus 23%; p = 0.011). In the ALK group, there were more brain and lung metastases (respectively 42% versus 29%; p = 0.043 and 37% versus 24%; p = 0.037). In the BRAF group, pleural and pericardial metastases were more common (respectively 47% versus 20%; p < 0.001 and 11% versus 3%; p = 0.04) and bone metastases were rarer (21% versus 42%; p = 0.011). Lymphangitis was more frequent in EGFR, ALK, and BRAF groups (respectively 6%, 7%, and 15% versus 1%); p = 0.016; p = 0.009; and p < 0.001.

Conclusion: The application of these correlations between molecular status and metastatic tropism in clinical practice may lead to earlier and more accurate identification of patients for targeted therapy.

Key Points: • Bone and brain metastasis are the most common organs involved in lung adenocarcinoma but the relative incidence of each metastatic site depends on the molecular alteration. • EGFR-mutated tumors preferentially spread to the pleura and less commonly to adrenals, ALK-rearrangement tumors usually spread to the brain and the lungs, whereas BRAF-mutated tumors are unlikely to spread to bones and have a serous (pericardial ad pleural) tropism. • These correlations could help in the clinical management of patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-06784-yDOI Listing
September 2020

Image-guided breast biopsy and localisation: recommendations for information to women and referring physicians by the European Society of Breast Imaging.

Insights Imaging 2020 Feb 5;11(1):12. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Imaging, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

We summarise here the information to be provided to women and referring physicians about percutaneous breast biopsy and lesion localisation under imaging guidance. After explaining why a preoperative diagnosis with a percutaneous biopsy is preferred to surgical biopsy, we illustrate the criteria used by radiologists for choosing the most appropriate combination of device type for sampling and imaging technique for guidance. Then, we describe the commonly used devices, from fine-needle sampling to tissue biopsy with larger needles, namely core needle biopsy and vacuum-assisted biopsy, and how mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, or magnetic resonance imaging work for targeting the lesion for sampling or localisation. The differences among the techniques available for localisation (carbon marking, metallic wire, radiotracer injection, radioactive seed, and magnetic seed localisation) are illustrated. Type and rate of possible complications are described and the issue of concomitant antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy is also addressed. The importance of pathological-radiological correlation is highlighted: when evaluating the results of any needle sampling, the radiologist must check the concordance between the cytology/pathology report of the sample and the radiological appearance of the biopsied lesion. We recommend that special attention is paid to a proper and tactful approach when communicating to the woman the need for tissue sampling as well as the possibility of cancer diagnosis, repeat tissue sampling, and or even surgery when tissue sampling shows a lesion with uncertain malignant potential (also referred to as "high-risk" or B3 lesions). Finally, seven frequently asked questions are answered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13244-019-0803-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7002629PMC
February 2020

Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting Data System Magnetic Resonance Imaging (O-RADS MRI) Score for Risk Stratification of Sonographically Indeterminate Adnexal Masses.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 01 3;3(1):e1919896. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

American College of Radiology, Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Magnetic Resonance Imaging Committee.

Importance: Approximately one-quarter of adnexal masses detected at ultrasonography are indeterminate for benignity or malignancy, posing a substantial clinical dilemma.

Objective: To validate the accuracy of a 5-point Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting Data System Magnetic Resonance Imaging (O-RADS MRI) score for risk stratification of adnexal masses.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This multicenter cohort study was conducted between March 1, 2013, and March 31, 2016. Among patients undergoing expectant management, 2-year follow-up data were completed by March 31, 2018. A routine pelvic MRI was performed among consecutive patients referred to characterize a sonographically indeterminate adnexal mass according to routine diagnostic practice at 15 referral centers. The MRI score was prospectively applied by 2 onsite readers and by 1 reader masked to clinical and ultrasonographic data. Data analysis was conducted between April and November 2018.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was the joint analysis of true-negative and false-negative rates according to the MRI score compared with the reference standard (ie, histology or 2-year follow-up).

Results: A total of 1340 women (mean [range] age, 49 [18-96] years) were enrolled. Of 1194 evaluable women, 1130 (94.6%) had a pelvic mass on MRI with a reference standard (surgery, 768 [67.9%]; 2-year follow-up, 362 [32.1%]). A total of 203 patients (18.0%) had at least 1 malignant adnexal or nonadnexal pelvic mass. No invasive cancer was assigned a score of 2. Positive likelihood ratios were 0.01 for score 2, 0.27 for score 3, 4.42 for score 4, and 38.81 for score 5. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.961 (95% CI, 0.948-0.971) among experienced readers, with a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89-0.96; 189 of 203 patients) and a specificity of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.89-0.93; 848 of 927 patients). There was good interrater agreement among both experienced and junior readers (κ = 0.784; 95% CI, 0.743-0824). Of 580 of 1130 women (51.3%) with a mass on MRI and no specific gynecological symptoms, 362 (62.4%) underwent surgery. Of them, 244 (67.4%) had benign lesions and a score of 3 or less. The MRI score correctly reclassified the mass origin as nonadnexal with a sensitivity of 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98-0.99; 1360 of 1372 patients) and a specificity of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.71-0.85; 102 of 130 patients).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, the O-RADS MRI score was accurate when stratifying the risk of malignancy in adnexal masses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.19896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6991280PMC
January 2020

Good clinical practice recommendations for the use of PET/CT in oncology.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2020 01 21;47(1):28-50. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Nuclear Medicine, Jean Perrin Cancer Institute, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique with proven clinical value in oncology. PET/CT indications are continually evolving with fresh advances made through research. French practice on the use of PET in oncology was framed in recommendations based on Standards-Options-Recommendations methodology and coordinated by the French federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNLCC). The recommendations were originally issued in 2002 followed by an update in 2003, but since then, a huge number of scientific papers have been published and new tracers have been licenced for market release. The aim of this work is to bring the 2003 version recommendations up to date. For this purpose, a focus group was set up in collaboration with the French Society for Nuclear Medicine (SFMN) to work on developing good clinical practice recommendations. These good clinical practice recommendations have been awarded joint French National Heath Authority (HAS) and French Cancer Institute (INCa) label status-the stamp of methodological approval. The present document is the outcome of comprehensive literature review and rigorous appraisal by a panel of experts, organ specialists, clinical oncologists, surgeons and imaging specialists. These data were also used for the EANM referral guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-019-04553-8DOI Listing
January 2020

Machine learning defined diagnostic criteria for differentiating pituitary metastasis from autoimmune hypophysitis in patients undergoing immune checkpoint blockade therapy.

Eur J Cancer 2019 09 12;119:44-56. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Department of Radiology, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France; Université Paris-Saclay, Paris, France.

Purpose: New-onset pituitary gland lesions are observed in up to 18% of cancer patients undergoing treatment with immune checkpoint blockers (ICB). We aimed to develop and validate an imaging-based decision-making algorithm for use by the clinician that helps differentiate pituitary metastasis (PM) from ICB-induced autoimmune hypophysitis (HP).

Materials And Methods: A systematic search was performed in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to October 2018 to identify studies concerning PM and HP in patients treated with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 and programmed cell death (ligand) 1. The reference standard for diagnosis was confirmation by histology or response on follow-up imaging. Patients from included studies were randomly assigned to the training set or the validation set. Using machine learning (random forest tree algorithm) with the most-described six imaging and three clinical features, a multivariable prediction model (the signature) was developed and validated for diagnosing PM. Signature performance was evaluated using area under a receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs).

Results: Out of 3174 screened articles, 65 were included totalising 122 patients (HP: 60 pts, PM: 62 pts). Complete radiological data were available in 82 pts (Training: 62 pts, Validation: 20 pts). The signature reached an AUC = 0.91 (0.82, 1.00), P < 10 in the training set and AUC = 0.94 (0.80, 1.00), P = 0.001 in the validation set. The signature predicted PM in lesions either ≥ 2 cm in size or < 2 cm if associated with heterogeneous contrast enhancement and cavernous extension.

Conclusion: An image-based signature was developed with machine learning and validated for differentiating PM from HP. This tool could be used by clinicians for enhanced decision-making in cancer patients undergoing ICB treatment with new-onset, concerning lesions of the pituitary gland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2019.06.020DOI Listing
September 2019

Early detection with MRI of incomplete treatment of spine metastases after percutaneous cryoablation.

Eur Radiol 2019 Oct 15;29(10):5655-5663. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Gustave Roussy Cancer Center, 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805, Villejuif, France.

Objectives: To evaluate post-ablation MRI for the detection of incompletely treated spinal osseous metastases (SOM) after cryoablation and to propose a post-ablation imaging classification.

Methods: After IRB consent, all patients treated with cryoablation of SOM between 2011 and 2017 having at least 1-year minimum follow-up and a spine MRI within 4 months after cryoablation were retrospectively included. A classification of MRI images into four types was set up. The primary endpoint of our study was to assess the diagnostic performance of the post-ablation MRI. The secondary endpoints were the 1-year complete treatment rate (CTR) and complications.

Results: Fifty-four SOMs in 39 patients were evaluated. Post-ablation MRI was performed with a median delay of 25 days after cryoablation. Images were evaluated by two independent readers according to the pre-established image classification. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of residual tumor were 77.3% (95%CI = 62.2-88.5) and 85.9% (95%CI = 75.0-93.4), respectively. Types I, II, III, and IV of the classification were associated with a 1-year complete treatment in 100%, 83.3%, 35.7%, and 10% of cases, respectively. The 1-year CTR was 59.3% for all 54 metastases, and 95.8% for metastases measuring less than 25 mm and at least 2 mm or more away from the spinal canal. Two grade 3 and two grade 2 adverse events according to the CTCAE were reported.

Conclusions: MRI after cryoablation is useful for the evaluation of the ablation efficacy. The classification of post-cryoablation MRI provides reliable clues for the prediction of complete treatment at 1 year.

Key Points: • MRI performed 25 days after cryoablation is useful to evaluate the efficacy. • The proposed classification provides a reliable clue for complete cryoablation. • Percutaneous cryoablation of spinal metastases is highly effective for lesions less than 25 mm in diameter and of at least 2 mm away from the spinal canal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-019-06040-yDOI Listing
October 2019

Computed tomography evaluation after induction chemotherapy for T3 laryngeal cancer: Does response correlate with vocal cord mobility?

Oral Oncol 2019 03 28;90:13-16. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif F-94800, France; IR4M (UMR8081), Université Paris-Sud, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay 91471, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: After induction chemotherapy (IC) for laryngeal cancer, Computed Tomography (CT) is used to assess tumor response but lacks rationalized methods for measurement of this response. In T3 laryngeal cancer, remobilization of an initially fixed vocal cord (VC) is a major sign of tumor response. We compared the performances of RECIST1.1, WHO and volumetric methods of evaluating response with laryngeal remobilization to determine if these measurements could objectively assess tumor response.

Material And Methods: This monocentric retrospective cohort study included patients treated with T3 laryngeal cancer with initial VC fixation treated with an organ preservation protocol with IC between 1999 and 2012. Tumors were measured with CT using RECIST1.1, WHO and volumetric methods by two radiologists blinded to VC remobilization (VCR), before and after induction chemotherapy and VC mobility was clinically assessed. Radiologic tumor shrinkage was compared to VCR. AUCs of ROC curves were compared. Inter-reader reliability, sensitivity and specificity of optimal cutoffs were determined.

Results: Seven females and thirty-six males with a mean age of 59 years were included. AUCs were 0.759, [95%CI 0.614; 0.904] for RECIST1.1, 0.763, [95%CI 0.617; 0.909] for WHO and 0.752, [95%CI 0.608; 0.896] for volumetric evaluations with no significant difference among the three techniques. Inter-reader reader reliabilities were good (RECIST1.1) to excellent (WHO and volumetric methods).

Conclusion: RECIST1.1, WHO and volumetric measures match with VCR after IC in patient with T3 laryngeal cancer. WHO criteria combine accuracy, reproducibility and practical use; they may be best adapted for response assessment and protocol design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2019.01.009DOI Listing
March 2019

Preoperative Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Women With Local Ductal Carcinoma in Situ to Optimize Surgical Outcomes: Results From the Randomized Phase III Trial IRCIS.

J Clin Oncol 2019 04 27;37(11):885-892. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

1 Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Purpose: We evaluated the addition of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to standard radiologic evaluation on the re-intervention rate in women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) undergoing breast-conserving surgery.

Patients And Methods: Women with biopsy-proven DCIS corresponding to a unifocal microcalcification cluster or a mass less than 30 mm were randomly assigned to undergo MRI or standard evaluation. The primary end point was the re-intervention rate for positive or close margins (< 2 mm) in the 6 months after randomization ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01112254).

Results: A total of 360 patients from 10 hospitals in France were included in the study. Of the 352 analyzable patients, 178 were randomly assigned to the MRI arm, and 174 were assigned to the control arm. In the intent-to-treat analysis, 82 of 345 patients with the assessable end point were reoperated for positive or close margins within 6 months, resulting in a re-intervention rate of 20% (35 of 173) in the MRI arm and 27% (47 of 172) in the control arm. The absolute difference of 7% (95% CI, -2% to 16%) corresponded to a relative reduction of 26% (stratified odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.1; P = .13). When considering only the per-protocol population with an assessable end point, the difference was 9% (stratified odds ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.0; P = .05). Total mastectomy rates were 18% (31 of 176) in the MRI arm and 17% (30 of 173) in the control arm (stratified P = .93). For 100 lesions seen on MRI, nonmass-like enhancement was more predominant (82%) than mass enhancement (20%). Nevertheless, no specific morphologic and kinetic parameters for DCIS were identified.

Conclusion: The study did not show sufficient surgical improvement with the use of preoperative MRI to be clinically relevant in DCIS staging. However, this could be reconsidered with the improvement of new MRI sequences and new modalities in magnetic resonance techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.00595DOI Listing
April 2019

A new automated method to evaluate 2D mammographic breast density according to BI-RADS® Atlas Fifth Edition recommendations.

Eur Radiol 2019 Jul 15;29(7):3830-3838. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Imaging Department, Gustave Roussy, 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94800, Villejuif, France.

Objectives: Radiologists' visual assessment of breast mammographic density (BMD) is subject to inter-observer variability. We aimed to develop and validate a new automated software tool mimicking expert radiologists' consensus assessments of 2D BMD, as per BI-RADS V recommendations.

Methods: The software algorithm was developed using a concept of Manhattan distance to compare a patient's mammographic image to reference mammograms with an assigned BMD category. Reference databases were built from a total of 2289 pairs (cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique views) of 2D full-field digital mammography (FFDM). Each image was independently assessed for BMD by a consensus of radiologists specialized in breast imaging. A validation set of additional 800 image pairs was evaluated for BMD both by the software and seven blinded radiologists specialized in breast imaging. The median score was used for consensus. Software reproducibility was assessed using FFDM image pairs from 214 patients in the validation set to compare BMD assessment between left and right breasts.

Results: The software showed a substantial agreement with the radiologists' consensus (unweighted κ = 0.68, 95% CI 0.64-0.72) when considering the four breast density categories, and an almost perfect agreement (unweighted κ = 0.84, 95% CI 0.80-0.88) when considering clinically significant non-dense (A-B) and dense (C-D) categories. Correlation between left and right breasts was high (r = 0.87; 95% CI 0.84-0.90).

Conclusions: BMD assessment by the software was strongly correlated to radiologists' consensus assessments of BMD. Its performance should be compared to other methods, and its clinical utility evaluated in a risk assessment model.

Key Points: • A new software tool assesses breast density in a standardized way. • The tool mimics radiologists' clinical assessment of breast density. • It may be incorporated in a breast cancer risk assessment model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-019-06016-yDOI Listing
July 2019

[Update of the recommendations of good clinical practice for the use of PET in oncology].

Bull Cancer 2019 Mar 23;106(3):262-274. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Jean-Perrin Comprehensive Cancer Center, service de médecin nucléaire, 58, rue Montalembert, 63100 Clermont-Ferrand, France. Electronic address:

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a functional nuclear medicine imaging technique which clinical value in oncology has been demonstrated. PET indications are constantly evolving, thanks to the contribution of research. The use of PET in oncology has been the subject of recommendations according to the Standard-Options-Recommendations methodology from the Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer in 2002, updated in 2003. However, many scientific works have been published since 2003 and new tracers have also obtained a marketing authorization in France. The objective of this work was therefore to update the recommendations established in 2003. In this context, in collaboration with the Société française de médecine nucléaire, a working group was set up for the development of good clinical practice recommendations under the HAS-INCA methodological label. The present document is issued from a comprehensive review of the literature and rigorous appraisal by a panel of national experts, organ specialists, clinical oncologists, surgeons, and imaging specialists. It is intended to be used as a guide to decision-making for those oncology teams that are able to manage patients in various situations in which the AMM label is not sufficiently precise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2019.01.002DOI Listing
March 2019

Patient-assisted compression helps for image quality reduction dose and improves patient experience in mammography.

Eur J Cancer 2018 11 15;103:137-142. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Radiology Department, Gustave Roussy, 94805, Villejuif, France.

We evaluated the impact of patient-assisted compression (PAC) on image quality, dose, workflow and patient experience of mammography. Patients aged 40-90 years coming for bilateral mammography were included prospectively in the study. After positioning each breast, the technologist performed the compression and exposure of the first breast, initiated the compression of the other until 3 daN and then let the patient complete the compression using a remote control device. Image quality, compression force, breast thickness, average glandular dose and pain value for each breast were assessed for PAC and technologist compression (TC). The compression level was significantly higher with PAC than TC for both craniocaudal (CC; median difference 2.0 daN, p < 0.0001) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views (median difference 1.5 daN, p < 0.0001). Breast thickness was reduced with PAC (CC, median difference -1.90 cm, p = 0.02), as well as glandular dose (CC, median difference -0.03, p = 0.02). The image quality was rated equivalent for both modes in 85% (85/100) of cases, superior for PAC in 10% (10/100) of cases and inferior in 5% (5/100) of cases. There was no significant difference in discomfort or pain felt between PAC and TC modes. Seventy-four percent of patients reported that the self-compressing device would facilitate their reattendance. PAC may be a suitable technique for mammography examinations, providing an equivalent image quality to TC. Moreover, as the breast compression level is increased, PAC may help reduce breast thickness, hence glandular dose. The fact that patients have control over the procedure may change their perception of mammography and improve uptake and compliance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2018.08.009DOI Listing
November 2018

Breast ultrasound: recommendations for information to women and referring physicians by the European Society of Breast Imaging.

Insights Imaging 2018 Aug 9;9(4):449-461. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Morandi 30, 20097, San Donato Milanese, Milan, Italy.

This article summarises the information that should be provided to women and referring physicians about breast ultrasound (US). After explaining the physical principles, technical procedure and safety of US, information is given about its ability to make a correct diagnosis, depending on the setting in which it is applied. The following definite indications for breast US in female subjects are proposed: palpable lump; axillary adenopathy; first diagnostic approach for clinical abnormalities under 40 and in pregnant or lactating women; suspicious abnormalities at mammography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); suspicious nipple discharge; recent nipple inversion; skin retraction; breast inflammation; abnormalities in the area of the surgical scar after breast conserving surgery or mastectomy; abnormalities in the presence of breast implants; screening high-risk women, especially when MRI is not performed; loco-regional staging of a known breast cancer, when MRI is not performed; guidance for percutaneous interventions (needle biopsy, pre-surgical localisation, fluid collection drainage); monitoring patients with breast cancer receiving neo-adjuvant therapy, when MRI is not performed. Possible indications such as supplemental screening after mammography for women aged 40-74 with dense breasts are also listed. Moreover, inappropriate indications include screening for breast cancer as a stand-alone alternative to mammography. The structure and organisation of the breast US report and of classification systems such as the BI-RADS and consequent management recommendations are illustrated. Information about additional or new US technologies (colour-Doppler, elastography, and automated whole breast US) is also provided. Finally, five frequently asked questions are answered.

Teaching Points: • US is an established tool for suspected cancers at all ages and also the method of choice under 40. • For US-visible suspicious lesions, US-guided biopsy is preferred, even for palpable findings. • High-risk women can be screened with US, especially when MRI cannot be performed. • Supplemental US increases cancer detection but also false positives, biopsy rate and follow-up exams. • Breast US is inappropriate as a stand-alone screening method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13244-018-0636-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6108964PMC
August 2018

Detection of immune-related adverse events by medical imaging in patients treated with anti-programmed cell death 1.

Eur J Cancer 2018 06 23;96:91-104. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Department of Radiology, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France; Université Paris-Saclay, Paris, France.

Background: Programmed death receptor-1 blocking antibodies (anti-PD1) are a new standard of care in many cancer types. Patients benefit from improved survival but have the risk of immune-related adverse events (irAE). We evaluated if medical imaging procedures, used for anti-tumour response assessment, can detect irAEs.

Materials And Methods: All consecutive patients treated with anti-PD1 and with a medical imaging acquisition performed within 2 weeks with irAEs ≥2 were retrospectively included. Data were gathered from June 2014 to February 2017, and a central review was performed. The primary and secondary end-points were i) to evaluate the overall detection rate of irAEs by medical imaging and ii) to provide a comprehensive radiological description of irAEs.

Results: Fifty-three patients (31 women, 22 men; average age: 61 years) were included. The primary tumour was melanoma (n = 32), lung cancer (n = 18) and other (n = 3). Patients were treated with nivolumab (n = 27) or pembrolizumab (n = 26). Of 74 medical imaging procedures analysed (ratio = 1.4 medical imaging per patient), 55 irAE were detected. The detection rate was overall: 74% (95 confidence interval: 63-84%), positron emission tomography with 18F-fludeoxyglucose integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT): 83% (n = 10/12), magnetic resonance imaging: 83% (n = 5/6), computed tomography scan: 79% (n = 19/24), ultrasonography: 70% (n = 19/27), standard X-rays: 40% (n = 2/5), lung/mediastinum: 100% (n = 7/7), enterocolitis: 100% (n = 8/8), hypophysitis: 100% (n = 3/3), thyroiditis: 75% (n = 15/20), hepatitis: 67% (n = 2/3), arthralgia or arthritis: 40% (n = 2/5) and pancreas: 28% (n = 2/7).

Conclusion: Medical imaging detected 74% of irAE in patients treated with anti-PD1. Beyond response assessment, medical imaging can detect irAE and guide towards specific management. We described the most frequent sites and patterns of imaging findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2018.03.006DOI Listing
June 2018