Publications by authors named "Corina Schmidt"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Canonical Wnt signalling induces satellite-cell proliferation during adult skeletal muscle regeneration.

J Cell Sci 2008 Sep 12;121(Pt 17):2939-50. Epub 2008 Aug 12.

School of Biological Sciences, AMS Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 228, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AJ, UK.

Satellite cells represent the stem cell population of adult skeletal muscle. The molecular mechanisms that control the proliferation of satellite cells are not well understood. In this study, we show that in response to injury, myofibres activate Wnt ligand transcription and activate a reporter cell line that is sensitive to the canonical Wnt-signalling pathway. Activated satellite cells on isolated cultured myofibres show robust expression of activated-beta-catenin (Act-beta-Cat), a key downstream transcriptional coactivator of canonical Wnt signalling. We provide evidence that the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins act on satellite cells in a ligand-specific manner. Overexpression of Wnt1, Wnt3a or Wnt5a protein causes a dramatic increase in satellite-cell proliferation. By contrast, exposure of satellite cells to Wnt4 or Wnt6 diminishes this process. Moreover, we show that the prolonged satellite-cell quiescence induced by inhibitory Wnt is reversible and exposing inhibited satellite cells to stimulatory Wnt signalling restores their proliferation rate. Stimulatory Wnt proteins induce premature satellite cell BrdU incorporation as well as nuclear translocation of Act-beta-Cat. Finally, we provide evidence that the Act-beta-Cat translocation observed in single fibres during in vitro culture also occurs in cases of acute and chronic skeletal muscle regeneration in rodents and humans. We propose that Wnt proteins may be key factors that regulate the rate of satellite-cell proliferation on adult muscle fibres during the wound-healing response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.026534DOI Listing
September 2008

Wnt6 controls amniote neural crest induction through the non-canonical signaling pathway.

Dev Dyn 2007 Sep;236(9):2502-11

Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, London, United Kingdom.

The neural crest is a multipotent embryonic cell population that arises from neural ectoderm and forms derivatives essential for vertebrate function. Neural crest induction requires an ectodermal signal, thought to be a Wnt ligand, but the identity of the Wnt that performs this function in amniotes is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Wnt6, derived from the ectoderm, is necessary for chick neural crest induction. Crucially, we also show that Wnt6 acts through the non-canonical pathway and not the beta-catenin-dependant pathway. Surprisingly, we found that canonical Wnt signaling inhibited neural crest production in the chick embryo. In light of studies in anamniotes demonstrating that canonical Wnt signaling induces neural crest, these results indicate a significant and novel change in the mechanism of neural crest induction during vertebrate evolution. These data also highlight a key role for noncanonical Wnt signaling in cell type specification from a stem population during development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.21260DOI Listing
September 2007

Skeletal muscle translocation in vertebrates.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Dec 19;211 Suppl 1:43-50. Epub 2006 Sep 19.

Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.

It is now over 30 years since Bodo Christ first demonstrated that the musculature of the limb originated from the somites and overturned the then prevailing view that limb muscle develops from a local source. Subsequently, using electron microscopy and histological procedures, Bodo Christ identified that cells of the somites undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition which enabled them to move from their paraxial point of origin to distal locations. These studies defined this translocation as one of the major mechanisms allowing myogenic cells to translocate around the body. The other means used to translocate muscle involves the movement of cells as a sheet. The deployment of one of these two mechanisms has been postulated to be involved in the formation of all the hypaxial musculature of the vertebrate body. In this paper we describe the formation of muscles both in the head and in the body, which use a translocatory mechanism during their development. We highlight recent data showing that muscle translocation is a far more complex process than first thought but which in itself can be used as a valuable tool to address questions regarding tissue patterning and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-006-0121-1DOI Listing
December 2006

Expression and regulation of Nkd-1, an intracellular component of Wnt signalling pathway in the chick embryo.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Oct 9;211(5):525-34. Epub 2006 Jun 9.

Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London, England, NW1 0TU.

The Wnt family of secreted signalling molecules control a wide range of developmental processes in all metazoans. The intracellular response to Wnt signalling depends on the choice of signalling cascade activated in the responding cell. Cells can activate either the canonical pathway that modulates gene expression to control cellular differentiation and proliferation, or the non-canonical pathway that controls cell polarity and movement. Recent work has identified the protein Naked Cuticle to act as an intracellular switch to promote the non-canonical pathway at the expense of the canonical pathway. We have cloned chick Naked Cuticle-1 (cNkd-1) and show that it is expressed in a dynamic manner during early embryogenesis. We show that it is expressed in the somites and in particular regions where cells are undergoing movement. Lastly, we show that the expression of cNkd-1 is regulated by Wnt expression originating from the neural tube. This study provides evidence that non-canonical Wnt signalling plays a part in somite development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-006-0102-4DOI Listing
October 2006

Pax3 and Pax7 expression and regulation in the avian embryo.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Aug 28;211(4):293-310. Epub 2006 Feb 28.

Department Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, NW1 OUT, London, UK.

Satellite cells are essential for postnatal growth and repair of skeletal muscle. The paired-box transcription factors Pax3 and Pax7 are expressed in emerging muscle precursors. Recent studies have traced the origin of satellite cells to the embryonic dermomyotome, however, their developmental regulation throughout embryogenesis remains unclear. We show the overlying surface ectoderm and lateral plate are essential for Pax3 expression, and that the overlying surface ectoderm and neural tube are necessary for Pax7 expression within the dorsal somite. Furthermore we show that the notochord acts to down regulate the expression of both genes. Moreover, we identify diffusible factors within these tissues that act to maintain expression of Pax3 ( + ) and Pax7 (+) muscle precursors. We show that Wnt1, 3a, 4 and 6 proteins are able to up regulate and expand the expression of Pax3 and Pax7 within the dorsal somite. Finally, we show that Wnt6 can mimic the effect of the dorsal ectoderm to maintain Pax3 and Pax7 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-006-0083-3DOI Listing
August 2006

Immunohistochemical analysis of secretoglobin SCGB 2A1 expression in human ocular glands and tissues.

Histochem Cell Biol 2006 Jul 4;126(1):103-9. Epub 2006 Jan 4.

Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Pettenkoferstrasse 11, 80336, Munich, Germany.

Human secretoglobin (SCGB) 2A1 (or lipophilin C, lacryglobin, mammaglobin B) is a small protein of unknown function that forms heterodimers with secretoglobin 1D1 (lipophilin A) in tears. SCGB 2A1 is homologous to mammaglobin (mammaglobin A) and the C3 component of prostatein, the major secretory protein of the rat ventral prostate. Androgen-dependent expression of SCGB 2A1 has been observed in the prostate. Besides identification of SCGB 2A1 in the tear proteome only its mRNA had been detected in the lacrimal gland. Here, we report expression of SCGB 2A1 in all ocular glands and in the keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of the eyelid as well as in the stratified epithelium of the conjunctiva and in the orbicularis oculi muscle. Almost all of these tissues are also known to express the androgen receptor. Therefore, we conclude that presence of the androgen signalling machinery could be the main general determinant of SCGB 2A1 expression. Implications of the presence in tear fluid of an androgen-regulated secretoglobin, which most likely binds hydrophobic ligands, for tear film lipid layer formation and function is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00418-005-0137-2DOI Listing
July 2006

Wnts and the neural crest.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2005 Jun 13;209(5):349-55. Epub 2005 May 13.

Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, London, NW1 0TU, UK.

The neural crest is a multipotent tissue that originates between the neural epithelium and non-neural ectoderm, which can develop into numerous cell types, including neurons, glia, pigment cells, smooth muscle, cartilage and bone. Work in a variety of animal models has shown that a number of signalling factors are necessary for the induction, delamination and differentiation of neural crest cells. However one family of proteins, the Wnts, shows an overriding influence on this tissue. Here we review recent studies that pinpoint specific roles that Wnts play in the development of the neural crest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-005-0459-9DOI Listing
June 2005

BMP4 and noggin control embryonic blood vessel formation by antagonistic regulation of VEGFR-2 (Quek1) expression.

Dev Biol 2005 Apr;280(1):100-10

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology II, University of Freiburg, Albertstrasse 17, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany.

Regulation of VEGFR-2 (Quek1) is an important mechanism during blood vessel formation. In the paraxial mesoderm, Quek1 expression is restricted to the lateral portion of the somite and later to sclerotomal cells surrounding the neural tube. By grafting of either intermediate mesoderm or BMP4 beads into the paraxial mesoderm, we show that BMP4 is a positive regulator of VEGFR-2 (Quek1) expression in the quail embryo. Separation of somites from intermediate mesoderm leads to down-regulation of Quek1 expression. The expression of Quek1 in the medial somite half is normally repressed by the notochord and becomes up-regulated and lateromedially expanded after separation of the notochord. Our results show that up-regulation of BMP4 leads to an increase of the number of blood vessels, whereas inhibition of BMP4 by noggin results in a reduction of blood vessels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.01.005DOI Listing
April 2005

Wnt 6 regulates the epithelialisation process of the segmental plate mesoderm leading to somite formation.

Dev Biol 2004 Jul;271(1):198-209

Institute of Anatomy, Ludwigs-Maximilians-University of Munich, D-80336, Germany.

In higher vertebrates, the paraxial mesoderm undergoes a mesenchymal to epithelial transformation to form segmentally organised structures called somites. Experiments have shown that signals originating from the ectoderm overlying the somites or from midline structures are required for the formation of the somites, but their identity has yet to be determined. Wnt6 is a good candidate as a somite epithelialisation factor from the ectoderm since it is expressed in this tissue. In this study, we show that injection of Wnt6-producing cells beneath the ectoderm at the level of the segmental plate or lateral to the segmental plate leads to the formation of numerous small epithelial somites. Ectopic expression of Wnt6 leads to sustained expression of markers associated with the epithelial somites and reduced or delayed expression of markers associated with mesenchymally organised somitic tissue. More importantly, we show that Wnt6-producing cells are able to rescue somite formation after ectoderm ablation. Furthermore, injection of Wnt6-producing cells following the isolation of the neural tube/notochord from the segmental plate was able to rescue somite formation at both the structural (epithelialisation) and molecular level, as determined by the expression of marker genes like Paraxis or Pax-3. We show that Wnts are indeed responsible for the epithelialisation of somites by applying Wnt antagonists, which result in the segmental plate being unable to form somites. These results show that Wnt6, the only known member of this family to be localised to the chick paraxial ectoderm, is able to regulate the development of epithelial somites and that cellular organisation is pivotal in the execution of the differentiation programmes. We propose a model in which the localisation of Wnt6 and its antagonists regulates the process of epithelialisation in the paraxial mesoderm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2004.03.016DOI Listing
July 2004

Longitudinal in vivo effects of growth hormone overexpression on bone in transgenic mice.

J Bone Miner Res 2004 May 15;19(5):802-10. Epub 2004 Mar 15.

Musculoskeletal Research Group, Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München, Germany.

Unlabelled: In this study we examined the effect of systemic overexpression of GH on bone in transgenic mice longitudinally in vivo over a period of 9 months. We observed substantially increased BMC in GH transgenic mice and a significant reduction in serum osteocalcin. GH effects on bone were strongly dependent on gender and developmental stage.

Introduction: State-of-the-art bone marker and microimaging technology was applied in this longitudinal study to examine bone metabolism, BMC, bone density, and cortical bone structure over the life span of growth hormone (GH) transgenic (tg) mice.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-eight mice from four genetic groups (male, female, tg, and controls) were examined with DXA, and their femur and tibia were examined with peripheral QCT (pQCT). Osteocalcin (formation) and collagen cross-links (resorption) from serum and urine were also measured at postnatal weeks 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 26, and 38.

Results: GH tg mice displayed a significant increase in body weight (up to 50%) and BMC (up to 90%), but serum osteocalcin was significantly reduced compared with controls. GH tg females (but not males) displayed increased trabecular density over controls up to week 12. In contrast, male (but not female) GH tg mice displayed a higher cortical cross-sectional area than controls. Cortical density was significantly lower in both male and female GH tg mice compared with control mice.

Conclusions: The increase in BMC in GH tg mice is associated with reduced serum osteocalcin levels, indicating that bone turnover may be lower than in the control mice. On a structural level, bone responds to GH excess in a gender-specific manner, with alterations varying substantially between different developmental stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1359/JBMR.040308DOI Listing
May 2004

Precision and accuracy of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in the mouse skeleton compared with histology and microcomputed tomography (microCT).

J Bone Miner Res 2003 Aug;18(8):1486-96

Musculoskeletal Research Group, Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München, Germany.

Unlabelled: pQCT was evaluated for accuracy of phenotypic characterization of mouse bone in vivo. Bones (tibia, femur, spine) of 27 animals were measured ex vivo with pQCT, microCT, and histomorphometry and of 23 mice in vivo (pQCT). pQCT yielded satisfactory in vivo precision and accuracy in skeletal characterization.

Introduction: Important aspects of modern skeletal research depend on the phenotypic characterization of genetically manipulated mice, with some approaches requiring in vivo measurement. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is applicable in vivo and provides opportunities to determine a large variety of bone parameters. Here we test the ex vivo and in vivo reproducibility of pQCT, and its accuracy in comparison with histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography (microCT).

Materials And Methods: We examined the tibia, femur, and lumbar spine of 27 mice ex vivo with high-resolution pQCT, using two mouse models (wild-type and ob/ob) with known differences in bone density. Measurements were repeated three times at different days in nine animals. In a second experiment, 23 animals (10 wild-type and 13 bGH transgenic mice) were repeatedly measured in vivo at 12 and 13 weeks of age, respectively.

Results: Among metaphyseal sites, the ex vivo precision was highest at the distal femur (RMS CV < 1% for density and < 2% for area). The correlation between density (pQCT) and bone volume fraction (histomorphometry) was r2 = 0.79 (tibia, femur, and spine), and that with microCT was r2 = 0.94 (femur). At the diaphysis, the precision was highest at the femur (< 2% for total and cortical area), and the correlation with microCT was r2 > 0.77. The in vivo precision for bone density (distal femur) was 2.3-5.1%, and that for absolute and relative cortical area (tibia) was 3.1% and 2.2%.

Conclusions: The results show that pQCT can yield satisfactory precision and accuracy in skeletal characterization of mouse bones, if properly applied. The potential advantage of pQCT is that it provides a large set of parameters on bone properties and that it can be used in vivo, extending the available methodological repertoire for genetic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.2003.18.8.1486DOI Listing
August 2003

Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) overexpression negatively regulates bone size and mass, but not density, in the absence and presence of growth hormone/IGF-I excess in transgenic mice.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2002 Dec 20;206(1-2):139-48. Epub 2002 Nov 20.

Forschungsgruppe Muskuloskelettales System, Anatomische Anstalt, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Pettenkoferstrasse 11, 80336 München, Germany.

Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) has been suggested to be a negative regulator of bone growth and maintenance. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of elevated IGFBP-2 on the skeletal phenotype of adult transgenic mice, in the absence and presence of growth hormone (GH) excess. 43 male mice were examined at an age of 4 months (7 IGFBP-2 transgenic mice, 12 GH transgenic mice, 10 mice carrying both transgenes, and 14 controls). The bone mineral content of the total skeleton and of isolated bones was quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), after validation versus ash analysis. Cortical and trabecular bone was quantified by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), after validation versus microCT. A strong linear relationship was found between DXA and ash weight, and between pQCT and micro CT ( r>0.95). Bone size and bone mineral content were significantly reduced in IGFBP-2 transgenic mice, the magnitude of the effect varying between skeletal sites and between bone compartments. Elevated IGFBP-2 negatively modulated the GH-stimulated increase in bone size and mineral content, and completely blocked GH-effects at cortical sites. Notably, bone density was not decreased in IGFBP-2 transgenic animals compared with controls. In conclusion, IGFBP-2 is identified as a potent negative regulator of normal and GH-stimulated bone growth in vivo. Interestingly, elevated IGFBP-2 levels did not lead to a decrease in bone density, suggesting that IGFBP-2 negatively affects bone size and mineral content, but not bone maintenance in adult mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-002-0282-5DOI Listing
December 2002

Cloning and expression analysis of the chick ortholog of TBX22, the gene mutated in X-linked cleft palate and ankyloglossia.

Mech Dev 2002 Sep;117(1-2):321-5

Abt Molekulare Embryologie, Max-Planck-Institut für Immunbiologie, Stübeweg 51, 79108 Freiburg, Germany.

T-box genes constitute a conserved gene family with important roles in many developmental processes. Several family members have been implicated in human congenital diseases. Recently, mutations in TBX22 were found to cause X-linked cleft palate (CPX and ankyloglossia), a semidominant X-linked disorder affecting formation of the secondary palate. Here, we have cloned the chick ortholog of human TBX22 and have analyzed its expression during embryogenesis. Expression is very prominent in the somites and in the myotome, and in the mandible and maxilla of the developing jaw. Other sites of expression include the limbs, the cranial mesenchyme and the eye. Hence, Tbx22 expression domains encompass the regions important for the development of the disease phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0925-4773(02)00196-xDOI Listing
September 2002