Publications by authors named "Corey Cutler"

296 Publications

GM-CSF secreting leukemia cell vaccination for MDS/AML after allogeneic HSCT: a randomized double blinded phase 2 trial.

Blood Adv 2021 Nov 22. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Vaccination using irradiated, adenovirus transduced autologous myeloblasts to secrete GM-CSF (GVAX) early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can induce potent immune responses. We conducted a randomized phase II trial of GVAX after HSCT for MDS-EB or relapsed/refractory AML. Myeloblasts were harvested before HSCT to generate the vaccine. Randomization to GVAX vs. placebo (1:1) was stratified by disease, transplant center, and conditioning. GVHD prophylaxis included tacrolimus and methotrexate. GVAX or placebo started between day +30-45 if there was engraftment and no GVHD. Vaccines were administered SC/ID weekly x 3, then q2 wks x 3. Tacrolimus taper began after vaccine completion. 123 patients enrolled, 92 proceeded to HSCT, and 57 (GVAX 30, Placebo 27) received at least 1 vaccination. No CTC grade ≥ 3 vaccine related adverse events were reported, but injection site reactions were more common after GVAX (10 vs. 1, p=0.006). With a median follow up of 39 months (range, 9-89), 18-month PFS, OS and relapse incidence were 53% vs 55% (p=0.79), 63% vs. 59% (p= 0.86), and 30% vs. 37% (p=0.51) for GVAX and placebo, respectively. NRM at 18 months was 17% vs. 7.7% (p=0.18), Grade II-IV aGVHD at 12 months 34% vs. 12% (p=0.13), and cGVHD at 3 years 49% vs. 57% for GVAX and placebo, respectively, p=0.26. Reconstitution of T, B, and NK cells were not decreased or enhanced by GVAX. There were no differences in serum MICA/B or other immune biomarkers between GVAX and placebo. GVAX does not improve survival after HSCT for MDS/AML. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01773395).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021006255DOI Listing
November 2021

Defibrotide: real-world management of veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstructive syndrome after stem cell transplant.

Blood Adv 2022 Jan;6(1):181-188

Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease or sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a life-threatening complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Defibrotide is the only medication approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the management of severe VOD/SOS after HSCT. We report our center's experience with commercially available defibrotide as treatment of patients with VOD/SOS. We retrospectively identified 28 cases of VOD/SOS, based on the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation criteria, from March 2016 through June 2019. The median day of VOD/SOS onset was 25 days (range, 8-69 days), and defibrotide was initiated on day of diagnosis in 71% of patients. Complete resolution of VOD/SOS occurred in 75% of patients. Day 100 survival was 64% for all HSCT patients and 53% for those with very severe VOD/SOS. Response rates and survival were similar in patients with VOD/SOS after myeloablative or reduced-intensity chemotherapy HSCT. Therapy-related adverse events were mild and included hematuria (43%), epistaxis (18%), and hypotension (11%). Severe hemorrhagic adverse events occurred in 2 patients (pulmonary hemorrhage and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage; 7%) and both in the setting of progressive VOD/SOS. Early diagnosis, prompt initiation of defibrotide, and minimization of dosing interruptions may be key to successful treatment of VOD/SOS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8753224PMC
January 2022

Adding venetoclax to fludarabine/busulfan RIC transplant for high-risk MDS and AML is feasible, safe, and active.

Blood Adv 2021 12;5(24):5536-5545

Department of Medical Oncology, and.

Adding the selective BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax to reduced-intensity conditioning chemotherapy (fludarabine and busulfan [FluBu2]) may enhance antileukemic cytotoxicity and thereby reduce the risk of posttransplant relapse. This phase 1 study investigated the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of venetoclax, a BCL-2 selective inhibitor, when added to FluBu2 in adult patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) undergoing transplant. Patients received dose-escalated venetoclax (200-400 mg daily starting day -8 for 6-7 doses) in combination with fludarabine 30 mg/m2 per day for 4 doses and busulfan 0.8 mg/kg twice daily for 8 doses on day -5 to day -2 (FluBu2). Transplant related-toxicity was evaluated from the first venetoclax dose on day -8 to day 28. Twenty-two patients were treated. At study entry, 5 patients with MDS and MDS/MPN had 5% to 10% marrow blasts, and 18 (82%) of 22 had a persistent detectable mutation. Grade 3 adverse events included mucositis, diarrhea, and liver transaminitis (n = 3 each). Neutrophil/platelet recovery and acute/chronic graft-versus-host-disease rates were similar to those of standard FluBu2. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. The RP2D of venetoclax was 400 mg daily for 7 doses. With a median follow-up of 14.7 months (range, 8.6-24.8 months), median overall survival was not reached, and progression-free survival was 12.2 months (95% confidence interval, 6.0-not estimable). In patients with high-risk AML, MDS, and MDS/MPN, adding venetoclax to FluBu2 was feasible and safe. To further address relapse risk, assessment of maintenance therapy after venetoclax plus FluBu2 transplant is ongoing. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03613532.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8714724PMC
December 2021

Impact of cryopreservation and transit times of allogeneic grafts on hematopoietic and immune reconstitution.

Blood Adv 2021 12;5(23):5140-5149

Department of Medical Oncology and.

We sought to evaluate the impact of cryopreservation of unrelated donor (URD) peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts on engraftment, chimerism, and immune reconstitution in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We reviewed stem cell product characteristics and clinical outcomes in 101 patients receiving cryopreserved PBSCs from URDs between January 1, 2019 and 31 December, 2020, compared with 203 patients receiving fresh URD PBSCs. We observed no differences in 6-month overall survival, progression-free survival, or nonrelapse mortality. Patients receiving cryopreserved PBSCs had delayed platelet engraftment and impaired reconstitution of white blood cells and T-cell subsets at day 30. Thirty-four percent of patients receiving cryopreserved grafts had CD3 chimerism <50% at day 30 after transplantation, compared with 14% of patients receiving fresh PBSCs (P = .0002). At day 100, this difference persisted (CD3+ chimerism <50%: 17% of cryopreserved cohort vs 6% of fresh cohort; P = .016). Greater product age at infusion was associated with increased graft failure, independent of cryopreservation. Receipt of grafts >48 hours old at time of cryopreservation or infusion significantly increased the risk of graft failure (subdistribution hazard ratio = 4.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.71-12.3; P = .0025). Our data indicate that cryopreservation is associated with similar overall short-term clinical outcomes compared with fresh PBSC. However, patients must be monitored closely for increased risk of other potentially adverse outcomes, including graft failure and poor immune recovery, particularly for grafts with older overall age at infusion. Longer-term follow-up is needed to determine impact on relapse and survival.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005139DOI Listing
December 2021

Initial therapy for chronic graft-versus-host disease: analysis of practice variation and failure-free survival.

Blood Adv 2021 11;5(22):4549-4559

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Prior clinical trials largely considered prednisone 1 mg/kg per day with or without calcineurin inhibitor as standard initial therapy for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), but uncertainty remains regarding the extent of practice variation and whether this affects subsequent outcomes. We assembled a cohort of 745 patients with cGVHD treated with initial systemic immune suppressive (IS) therapy from 3 prior cGVHD Consortium observational studies. Initial therapy was defined as first IS therapy started for cGVHD or prednisone increased to ≥0.4 mg/kg per day from lower doses within 30 days before cGVHD diagnosis to any time afterward. Initial therapies were nonprednisone IS therapies (n = 137, 18%), prednisone alone (n = 411, 55%), or prednisone plus other IS therapy (n = 197, 26%). In multivariate analysis, initial therapy group was not associated with failure-free survival (FFS; a composite of death, relapse, and new IS therapy), overall survival (OS), or nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Among the prednisone-based approaches, steroid dose was <0.25 (9%), 0.25 to 0.74 (36%), 0.75 to 1.25 (42%), or >1.25 mg/kg per day (13%). Prednisone dose within the patients treated with steroids was not significantly associated with FFS, OS, or NRM. No significant interactions were detected between overall cGVHD severity and either initial therapy group or prednisone dose for the outcomes of FFS, OS, or NRM. These observational data document heterogeneity in more contemporary cGVHD initial treatment practices, including prednisone dose and use of nonsteroid approaches. This variation was not associated with FFS, OS, or NRM. Prospective trials are needed to verify efficacy of reduced-dose prednisone or prednisone-free initial therapy approaches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8759136PMC
November 2021

Nonrelapse mortality among patients diagnosed with chronic GVHD: an updated analysis from the Chronic GVHD Consortium.

Blood Adv 2021 10;5(20):4278-4284

Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is the leading cause of late morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. To better understand patients at highest risk for nonrelapse mortality (NRM), we analyzed patient-, transplant-, and cGVHD-related variables, risk factors, and causes of nonrelapse deaths in an updated cohort of 937 patients enrolled on 2 prospective, longitudinal observational studies through the Chronic GVHD Consortium. The median follow-up of survivors was 4 years (range, 0.1 months to 12.5 years). Relapse accounted for 25% of the 333 deaths. The cumulative incidence of NRM was 22% at 5 years, and it increased over time at a projected 40% (95% confidence interval, 30%-50%) at 12 years. Centers reported that cGVHD (37.8%) was the most common cause of NRM and was associated with organ failure, infection, or additional causes not otherwise specified. The next most frequent causes without mention of cGVHD were infection (17%) and respiratory failure (10%). In multivariable analysis, an increased risk for NRM was significantly associated with the use of reduced intensity conditioning, higher total bilirubin, National Institutes of Health (NIH) skin score of 2 to 3, NIH lung score of 1 to 3, worse modified Human Activity Profile adjusted activity score, and decreased distance on walk test. To summarize, cGVHD NRM does not plateau but increases over time and is most commonly attributed to GVHD or infection, presumably associated with immunocompromised status. Severe skin and lung cGVHD remain challenging manifestations associated with increased NRM, for which novel therapeutic options that do not predispose patients to infections are needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004941DOI Listing
October 2021

Ibrutinib in Steroid-Refractory Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease, a Single-Center Experience.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Dec 2;27(12):990.e1-990.e7. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Division of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a leading cause of late morbidity and mortality after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Corticosteroid-based therapies are a mainstay of its initial treatment but there is no consensus in how to treat steroid-refractory cGVHD. Ibrutinib is a Bruton tyrosine kinase and IL-2-inducible kinase inhibitor thought to affect pathways driving cGVHD, and it was approved for the treatment of refractory cGVHD by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in August 2017 after a landmark phase 1b/2 study. It was the first medication approved for this indication, but how to best treat refractory cGVHD remains an open question, and there has been limited literature on ibrutinib after the FDA approval. This study sought to characterize the utilization and outcomes associated with ibrutinib use in cGVHD via a retrospective single-center study. Fifty-three patients were identified as having been treated with ibrutinib for cGVHD following FDA approval between September 1, 2017, and December 31, 2020, using an institutional data repository. Their records were reviewed for demographics, cGVHD characteristics, and outcomes. For the entire cohort, two-year overall survival was 76% (95% confidence interval [CI], 60% to 86%), with a median follow-up among survivors of 26 months (range, 1.3 to 39.5 months). However, the 2-year failure-free survival (FFS) after initiation of ibrutinib was 9% (95% CI, 2.6% to 20%), and the median FFS was 4.5 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 7.1 months). Events of FFS included treatment change due to lack of response or toxicity, malignant relapse, or non-treatment related mortality. At the time of this report, 11 patients (21%) remained on ibrutinib. At the time of the FFS event or last follow-up, 6 patients (12%) had a complete or partial response, 34 (64%) had stable disease, and 13 (25%) had progressive disease. Ibrutinib use was associated with no reduction in corticosteroid dose between ibrutinib initiation and FFS event or last follow-up (mean difference, 0.00; P = .98). The most frequently used noncorticosteroid cGVHD therapy after ibrutinib was ruxolitinib (n = 14; 33%). The most common adverse events associated with treatment discontinuation were infection (lung, skin, enterocolitis; n = 6), bleeding and bruising (hematoma, epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleed; n = 5), and muscle aches (n = 2). In a real-world setting, ibrutinib is associated with a modest response rate and FFS and its use in a narrower, more targeted patient population may be indicated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.017DOI Listing
December 2021

Belumosudil for chronic graft-versus-host disease after 2 or more prior lines of therapy: the ROCKstar Study.

Blood 2021 12;138(22):2278-2289

Kadmon Corporation, New York, NY.

Belumosudil, an investigational oral selective inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2), reduces type 17 and follicular T helper cells via downregulation of STAT3 and enhances regulatory T cells via upregulation of STAT5. Belumosudil may effectively treat patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), a major cause of morbidity and late nonrelapse mortality after an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. This phase 2 randomized multicenter registration study evaluated belumosudil 200 mg daily (n = 66) and 200 mg twice daily (n = 66) in subjects with cGVHD who had received 2 to 5 prior lines of therapy. The primary end point was best overall response rate (ORR). Duration of response (DOR), changes in Lee Symptom Scale score, failure-free survival, corticosteroid dose reductions, and overall survival were also evaluated. Overall median follow-up was 14 months. The best ORR for belumosudil 200 mg daily and 200 mg twice daily was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 62-84) and 77% (95% CI, 65-87), respectively, with high response rates observed in all subgroups. All affected organs demonstrated complete responses. The median DOR was 54 weeks; 44% of subjects have remained on therapy for ≥1 year. Symptom reduction with belumosudil 200 mg daily and 200 mg twice daily was reported in 59% and 62% of subjects, respectively. Adverse events (AEs) were consistent with those expected in patients with cGVHD receiving corticosteroids and other immunosuppressants. Sixteen subjects (12%) discontinued belumosudil because of possible drug-related AEs. Belumosudil, a promising therapy for cGVHD, was well tolerated with clinically meaningful responses. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03640481.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021012021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8641099PMC
December 2021

National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: IV. The 2020 Highly morbid forms report.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 10 10;27(10):817-835. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can be associated with significant morbidity, in part because of nonreversible fibrosis, which impacts physical functioning (eye, skin, lung manifestations) and mortality (lung, gastrointestinal manifestations). Progress in preventing severe morbidity and mortality associated with chronic GVHD is limited by a complex and incompletely understood disease biology and a lack of prognostic biomarkers. Likewise, treatment advances for highly morbid manifestations remain hindered by the absence of effective organ-specific approaches targeting "irreversible" fibrotic sequelae and difficulties in conducting clinical trials in a heterogeneous disease with small patient numbers. The purpose of this document is to identify current gaps, to outline a roadmap of research goals for highly morbid forms of chronic GVHD including advanced skin sclerosis, fasciitis, lung, ocular and gastrointestinal involvement, and to propose strategies for effective trial design. The working group made the following recommendations: (1) Phenotype chronic GVHD clinically and biologically in future cohorts, to describe the incidence, prognostic factors, mechanisms of organ damage, and clinical evolution of highly morbid conditions including long-term effects in children; (2) Conduct longitudinal multicenter studies with common definitions and research sample collections; (3) Develop new approaches for early identification and treatment of highly morbid forms of chronic GVHD, especially biologically targeted treatments, with a special focus on fibrotic changes; and (4) Establish primary endpoints for clinical trials addressing each highly morbid manifestation in relationship to the time point of intervention (early versus late). Alternative endpoints, such as lack of progression and improvement in physical functioning or quality of life, may be suitable for clinical trials in patients with highly morbid manifestations. Finally, new approaches for objective response assessment and exploration of novel trial designs for small populations are required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8478861PMC
October 2021

Omidubicel vs standard myeloablative umbilical cord blood transplantation: results of a phase 3 randomized study.

Blood 2021 10;138(16):1429-1440

Hematology Department, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Omidubicel is an ex vivo expanded hematopoietic progenitor cell and nonexpanded myeloid and lymphoid cell product derived from a single umbilical cord blood unit. We report results of a phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy of omidubicel compared with standard umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). Between January 2017 and January 2020, 125 patients age 13 to 65 years with hematologic malignancies were randomly assigned to omidubicel vs standard UCBT. Patients received myeloablative conditioning and prophylaxis with a calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate mofetil for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The primary end point was time to neutrophil engraftment. The treatment arms were well balanced and racially diverse. Median time to neutrophil engraftment was 12 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 10-14 days) for the omidubicel arm and 22 days (95% CI, 19-25 days) for the control arm (P < .001). The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 96% for patients receiving omidubicel and 89% for patients receiving control transplants. The omidubicel arm had faster platelet recovery (55% vs 35% recovery by 42 days; P = .028), had a lower incidence of first grade 2 to 3 bacterial or invasive fungal infection (37% vs 57%; P = .027), and spent more time out of hospital during the first 100 days after transplant (median, 61 vs 48 days; P = .005) than controls. Differences in GVHD and survival between the 2 arms were not statistically significant. Transplantation with omidubicel results in faster hematopoietic recovery and reduces early transplant-related complications compared with standard UCBT. The results suggest that omidubicel may be considered as a new standard of care for adult patients eligible for UCBT. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02730299.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011719DOI Listing
October 2021

National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: III. The 2020 Treatment of Chronic GVHD Report.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 09 11;27(9):729-737. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Clinical Division of Hematology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Positive results from recent clinical trials have significantly expanded current therapeutic options for patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, new insights into the associations between clinical characteristics of chronic GVHD, pathophysiologic mechanisms of disease, and the clinical and biological effects of novel therapeutic agents are required to allow for a more individualized approach to treatment. The current report is focused on setting research priorities and direction in the treatment of chronic GVHD. Detailed correlative scientific studies should be conducted in the context of clinical trials to evaluate associations between clinical outcomes and the biological effect of systemic therapeutics. For patients who require systemic therapy but not urgent initiation of glucocorticoids, clinical trials for initial systemic treatment of chronic GVHD should investigate novel agents as monotherapy without concurrently starting glucocorticoids, to avoid confounding biological, pathological, and clinical assessments. Clinical trials for treatment-refractory disease should specifically target patients with incomplete or suboptimal responses to most recent therapy who are early in their disease course. Close collaboration between academic medical centers, medical societies, and industry is needed to support an individualized, biology-based strategic approach to chronic GVHD therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.004DOI Listing
September 2021

Biologic Assignment Trial of Reduced-Intensity Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Based on Donor Availability in Patients 50-75 Years of Age With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndrome.

J Clin Oncol 2021 10 9;39(30):3328-3339. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Purpose: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only potentially curative therapy for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), although it is infrequently offered to older patients. The relative benefits of HCT over non-HCT therapy in older patients with higher-risk MDS have not been defined.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter biologic assignment trial comparing reduced-intensity HCT to hypomethylating therapy or best supportive care in subjects 50-75 years of age with intermediate-2 or high-risk de novo MDS. The primary outcome was overall survival probability at 3 years. Between January 2014 and November 2018, we enrolled 384 subjects at 34 centers. Subjects were assigned to the Donor or No-Donor arms according to the availability of a matched donor within 90 days of study registration.

Results: The median follow-up time for surviving subjects was 34.2 months (range: 2.3-38 months) in the Donor arm and 26.9 months (range: 2.4-37.2 months) in the No-Donor arm. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the adjusted overall survival rate at 3 years in the Donor arm was 47.9% (95% CI, 41.3 to 54.1) compared with 26.6% (95% CI, 18.4 to 35.6) in the No-Donor arm ( = .0001) with an absolute difference of 21.3% (95% CI, 10.2 to 31.8). Leukemia-free survival at 3 years was greater in the Donor arm (35.8%; 95% CI, 29.8 to 41.8) compared with the No-Donor arm (20.6%; 95% CI, 13.3 to 29.1; = .003). The survival benefit was seen across all subgroups examined.

Conclusion: We observed a significant survival advantage in older subjects with higher-risk MDS who have a matched donor identified and underwent reduced-intensity HCT, when compared with those without a donor. HCT should be included as an integral part of MDS management plans in fit older adults with higher-risk MDS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03380DOI Listing
October 2021

The clinical and functional effects of TERT variants in myelodysplastic syndrome.

Blood 2021 09;138(10):898-911

Division of Hematological Malignancies, Department of Medical Oncology, and.

Germline pathogenic TERT variants are associated with short telomeres and an increased risk of developing myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) among patients with a telomere biology disorder. We identified TERT rare variants in 41 of 1514 MDS patients (2.7%) without a clinical diagnosis of a telomere biology disorder who underwent allogeneic transplantation. Patients with a TERT rare variant had shorter telomere length (P < .001) and younger age at MDS diagnosis (52 vs 59 years, P = .03) than patients without a TERT rare variant. In multivariable models, TERT rare variants were associated with inferior overall survival (P = .034) driven by an increased incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM; P = .015). Death from a noninfectious pulmonary cause was more frequent among patients with a TERT rare variant. Most variants were missense substitutions and classified as variants of unknown significance. Therefore, we cloned all rare missense variants and quantified their impact on telomere elongation in a cell-based assay. We found that 90% of TERT rare variants had severe or intermediate impairment in their capacity to elongate telomeres. Using a homology model of human TERT bound to the shelterin protein TPP1, we inferred that TERT rare variants disrupt domain-specific functions, including catalysis, protein-RNA interactions, and recruitment to telomeres. Our results indicate that the contribution of TERT rare variants to MDS pathogenesis and NRM risk is underrecognized. Routine screening for TERT rare variants in MDS patients regardless of age or clinical suspicion may identify clinically inapparent telomere biology disorders and improve transplant outcomes through risk-adapted approaches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432045PMC
September 2021

Efficacy and Safety of 1% Progesterone Gel to the Forehead for Ocular Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 05 14;27(5):433.e1-433.e8. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

There is no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD) to date, and current therapeutic options are limited. Forehead application of 1% progesterone gel provides corneal antinociception in preclinical models, suggesting it may be useful in alleviating ocular irritations. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 1% progesterone gel in treating moderate to severe symptomatic oGVHD. Thirty-three patients with oGVHD following allogeneic stem cell transplantation were enrolled in this single-center, sponsor-initiated, prospective exploratory randomized double-masked placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial. The inclusion criteria included a National Institutes of Health consensus score of ≥2, moderate to severe ocular discomfort level, and receipt of a stable immunosuppression regimen. Twenty-one of the 22 patients in the progesterone arm and all 11 patients in the placebo arm completed the course of twice-daily forehead drug application for 10 weeks. The changes from baseline of self-reported ocular symptom scores and physician-recorded cornea fluorescein staining scores were analyzed using mixed-model repeated-measures regression model in an intention-to-treat population. The 33 patients included 12 women and 21 men, with a median age of 66 years (range, 24 to 75 years). At 10 weeks, there was a significant reduction in ocular symptoms from baseline in the progesterone group compared with the placebo group in symptom frequency (-30.7 versus -2.2; P < .001) and severity (-19.8 versus +1.6; P = .005). At 10 weeks, there was also greater reduction of cornea fluorescein staining centrally (-1.2 versus +.1; P = .001) and inferiorly (-1.4 versus -0.2; P = .005). No difference was noted in superior cornea staining. There were no severe adverse events in the progesterone group. Forehead application of 1% progesterone gel significantly improved ocular signs and symptoms within 10 weeks. It appears to be a safe and effective new therapy for oGVHD, and a novel mechanism for neuroaxis drug delivery. A multicenter phase III clinical trial is planned for further validation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.008DOI Listing
May 2021

A positive psychology intervention to promote health outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: the PATH proof-of-concept trial.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 09 20;56(9):2276-2279. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients often experience deficits in positive psychological well-being (PPWB) due to intensive treatment and follow-up care. Positive psychology interventions (PPIs) that promote PPWB via deliberate and systematic exercises (e.g., writing a gratitude letter) have consistently improved PPWB in medical populations, yet have never been studied in early HSCT recovery. In this single-arm, proof-of-concept study, we assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a novel eight-session, telephone-delivered PPI in early HSCT recovery. A priori, we defined feasibility as >50% of eligible patients enrolling in the study and >50% of participants completing 5/8 sessions, and acceptability as mean ease and utility scores of weekly participant ratings of PP exercises as 7/10. Of 45 eligible patients, 25 (55.6%) enrolled, 20 (80%) completed baseline assessments, 15 (75%) started the intervention, and 12 (60%) completed the intervention and follow-up assessments. The intervention was feasible (55.6% of eligible participants enrolled; 60% of baseline assessment completers finished 5/8 sessions) and led to very small-to-medium effect-size improvements in patient-reported outcomes. A novel, eight-week, telephone-delivered PPI was feasible and acceptable in allogeneic HSCT recipients. Larger, randomized studies are needed to examine the efficacy of PPIs for improving outcomes in this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01296-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416696PMC
September 2021

National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: I. The 2020 Etiology and Prevention Working Group Report.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 06 2;27(6):452-466. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Division of Hematological Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Preventing chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains challenging because the unique cellular and molecular pathways that incite chronic GVHD are poorly understood. One major point of intervention for potential prevention of chronic GVHD occurs at the time of transplantation when acute donor anti-recipient immune responses first set the events in motion that result in chronic GVHD. After transplantation, additional insults causing tissue injury can incite aberrant immune responses and loss of tolerance, further contributing to chronic GVHD. Points of intervention are actively being identified so that chronic GVHD initiation pathways can be targeted without affecting immune function. The major objective in the field is to continue basic studies and to translate what is learned about etiopathology to develop targeted prevention strategies that decrease the risk of morbid chronic GVHD without increasing the risks of cancer relapse or infection. Development of strategies to predict the risk of developing debilitating or deadly chronic GVHD is a high research priority. This working group recommends further interrogation into the mechanisms underpinning chronic GVHD development, and we highlight considerations for future trial design in prevention trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217141PMC
June 2021

Treating Inflammation and Fibrosis in Chronic GVHD: Two Birds, One ROCK.

Authors:
Corey Cutler

J Clin Oncol 2021 06 20;39(17):1942-1945. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00214DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of depth of clinical response on outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia patients in first complete remission who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 09 16;56(9):2108-2117. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Haematology Research Centre, Department of Immunology and Inflammation, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) in first complete remission (CR). We examined the effect of depth of clinical response, including incomplete count recovery (CRi) and/or measurable residual disease (MRD), in patients from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research (CIBMTR) registry. We identified 2492 adult patients (1799 CR and 693 CRi) who underwent alloHCT between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2015. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Multivariable analysis was performed to adjust for patient-, disease-, and transplant-related factors. Baseline characteristics were similar. Patients in CRi compared to those in CR had an increased likelihood of death (HR: 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.43). Compared to CR, CRi was significantly associated with increased non-relapse mortality (NRM), shorter disease-free survival (DFS), and a trend toward increased relapse. Detectable MRD was associated with shorter OS, shorter DFS, higher NRM, and increased relapse compared to absence of MRD. The deleterious effects of CRi and MRD were independent. In this large CIBMTR cohort, survival outcomes differ among AML patients based on depth of CR and presence of MRD at the time of alloHCT. Further studies should focus on optimizing post-alloHCT outcomes for patients with responses less than CR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01261-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425595PMC
September 2021

Use of Prescription Sialagogues for Management of Xerostomia in Chronic Graft-versus-Host-Disease.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 06 25;27(6):480.e1-480.e5. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Oral Medicine, Infection, and Immunity, Brigham and Women's Hospital Division of Oral Medicine and Dentistry, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA.

The aim of this study is to analyze utilization patterns of prescription sialagogues for management of xerostomia in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHSCT). There have been several small reports describing the clinical use of sialagogue therapy in the management of patients with cGVHD. While these reports suggest that sialagogue therapy is safe and effective in this unique patient population, the numbers of patients reported, and overall evidence base, remain limited. The objective of this study was to characterize medication utilization and treatment outcomes in a cohort of patients with cGVHD and xerostomia who were prescribed sialagogue therapy. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients who were diagnosed with cGVHD and prescribed sialagogue therapy for xerostomia from 2005 to 2019. Data collected included patient demographics, date of alloHSCT, date of oral cGVHD diagnosis, concurrent immunosuppressive medications, sialagogue regimen, worst xerostomia score (on a 1 to 10 scale), and patient-reported outcomes. The study included 70 patients managed with pilocarpine (n = 57) and cevimeline (n = 13), with a median age of 62 years (range: 24 to 82). Overall median duration of therapy was 7 months (range: 1 to 154). The baseline median self-reported worst xerostomia score was 6 of 10. Median percent reported improvement was 10%, 40%, and 50% for FU1 (<6 months), FU2 (6 to 12 months), and FU3 (>12 months) accordingly. Most patients who reported lower percentage improvement utilized the medication for less than 6 months, and those with moderate response were compliant for longer than 6 months. When all patients were considered, there was a significant reduction (median of 1.5 points; range: 0 to 7) in the xerostomia score from pre (median: 6.5; range: 1 to 10) to post (median: 5; range: 0 to 10) (P< .001). Most common side effects were nausea (2.9%) and diarrhea (1.4%). Patients with cGVHD and xerostomia reported improvement in symptoms with sialagogue therapy and remained on medication for a median of 7 months with infrequent side effects. The sustained duration of therapy suggests perceived benefits, though prospective, blinded, and randomized studies are needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.020DOI Listing
June 2021

Outcomes for Patients With IDH-Mutated Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 06 25;27(6):479.e1-479.e7. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Center for Leukemia, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Disease relapse after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a major cause of treatment failure for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Maintenance therapy after HCT for patients with targetable mutations such as mutated IDH1 or IDH2 may improve outcomes, and clinical trials evaluating this strategy are ongoing. However, clinical outcomes of IDH1- and IDH2-mutated AML patients after HCT have not been well described. The primary objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and post-HCT outcomes of IDH-mutated AML patients. Survival outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, and cumulative incidences of relapse and nonrelapse mortality. In this multicenter retrospective analysis, 112 adult patients with IDH1- or IDH2-mutated AML who underwent HCT and did not receive an IDH inhibitor as maintenance therapy after HCT were identified at Massachusetts General Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, and Ohio State University. Mutation testing was performed using next-generation sequencing panels. Patient characteristics were collected retrospectively, and their survival outcomes were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The median patient age was 64.1 years. The median follow-up was 27.5 months. Among patients, 78.5% had intermediate- or adverse-risk disease by European LeukemiaNET criteria. Fifty-eight percent of patients received intensive induction chemotherapy, 82% of patients underwent HCT during first complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi), and 34% of patients received myeloablative conditioning. Frequently detected co-mutations were DNMT3A (35.7%), NPM1 (33.1%), and FLT3-ITD (13.4%); TP53 mutations were detected in 3.6% of patients. For IDH1-mutated patients transplanted during first CR/CRi, the 1- and 2-year PFS was 75% and 58%, respectively. For IDH2-mutated patients transplanted in first CR/CRi, the 1- and 2-year PFS was 64% and 58%, respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 31% and 25% for IDH1- and IDH2-mutated cohorts, respectively. Multivariable analysis suggested first CR/CRi and age ≤60 was associated with improved outcomes for IDH2-mutated patients. To date, this is the largest multicenter study of outcomes of IDH-mutated AML patients after HCT. Our analysis provides important benchmarks for analysis and interpretation of results emerging from clinical trials evaluating maintenance IDH1 and IDH2 inhibitor therapy for AML patients after HCT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.028DOI Listing
June 2021

National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: IIa. The 2020 Clinical Implementation and Early Diagnosis Working Group Report.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 07 9;27(7):545-557. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Recognition of the earliest signs and symptoms of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) that lead to severe manifestations remains a challenge. The standardization provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) 2005 and 2014 consensus projects has helped improve diagnostic accuracy and severity scoring for clinical trials, but utilization of these tools in routine clinical practice is variable. Additionally, when patients meet the NIH diagnostic criteria, many already have significant morbidity and possibly irreversible organ damage. The goals of this early diagnosis project are 2-fold. First, we provide consensus recommendations regarding implementation of the current NIH diagnostic guidelines into routine transplant care, outside of clinical trials, aiming to enhance early clinical recognition of chronic GVHD. Second, we propose directions for future research efforts to enable discovery of new, early laboratory as well as clinical indicators of chronic GVHD, both globally and for highly morbid organ-specific manifestations. Identification of early features of chronic GVHD that have high positive predictive value for progression to more severe manifestations of the disease could potentially allow for future pre-emptive clinical trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.033DOI Listing
July 2021

National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: IIb. The 2020 Preemptive Therapy Working Group Report.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08 6;27(8):632-641. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) commonly occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) despite standard prophylactic immune suppression. Intensified universal prophylaxis approaches are effective but risk possible overtreatment and may interfere with the graft-versus-malignancy immune response. Here we summarize conceptual and practical considerations regarding preemptive therapy of chronic GVHD, namely interventions applied after HCT based on evidence that the risk of developing chronic GVHD is higher than previously appreciated. This risk may be anticipated by clinical factors or risk assignment biomarkers or may be indicated by early signs and symptoms of chronic GVHD that do not fully meet National Institutes of Health diagnostic criteria. However, truly preemptive, individualized, and targeted chronic GVHD therapies currently do not exist. In this report, we (1) review current knowledge regarding clinical risk factors for chronic GVHD, (2) review what is known about chronic GVHD risk assignment biomarkers, (3) examine how chronic GVHD pathogenesis intersects with available targeted therapeutic agents, and (4) summarize considerations for preemptive therapy for chronic GVHD, emphasizing trial development, including trial design and statistical considerations. We conclude that robust risk assignment models that accurately predict chronic GVHD after HCT and early-phase preemptive therapy trials represent the most urgent priorities for advancing this novel area of research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.029DOI Listing
August 2021

Molecular and cellular features of CTLA-4 blockade for relapsed myeloid malignancies after transplantation.

Blood 2021 06;137(23):3212-3217

Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD; and.

Relapsed myeloid disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains largely incurable. We previously demonstrated the potent activity of immune checkpoint blockade in this clinical setting with ipilimumab or nivolumab. To define the molecular and cellular pathways by which CTLA-4 blockade with ipilimumab can reinvigorate an effective graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) response, we integrated transcriptomic analysis of leukemic biopsies with immunophenotypic profiling of matched peripheral blood samples collected from patients treated with ipilimumab following HSCT on the Experimental Therapeutics Clinical Trials Network 9204 trial. Response to ipilimumab was associated with transcriptomic evidence of increased local CD8+ T-cell infiltration and activation. Systemically, ipilimumab decreased naïve and increased memory T-cell populations and increased expression of markers of T-cell activation and costimulation such as PD-1, HLA-DR, and ICOS, irrespective of response. However, responding patients were characterized by higher turnover of T-cell receptor sequences in peripheral blood and showed increased expression of proinflammatory chemokines in plasma that was further amplified by ipilimumab. Altogether, these data highlight the compositional T-cell shifts and inflammatory pathways induced by ipilimumab both locally and systemically that associate with successful GVL outcomes. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01822509.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021010867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351891PMC
June 2021

Alternative donor transplantation for myelodysplastic syndromes: haploidentical relative and matched unrelated donors.

Blood Adv 2021 02;5(4):975-983

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

We compared outcomes in 603 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) after HLA-haploidentical relative (n = 176) and HLA-matched unrelated (n = 427) donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from 2012 to 2017, using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database. All transplantations used reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. Total-body irradiation plus cyclophosphamide and fludarabine was the predominant regimen for HLA-haploidentical relative donor HCT, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was uniformly posttransplantation cyclophosphamide, calcineurin inhibitor, and mycophenolate. Fludarabine with busulfan or melphalan was the predominant regimen for HLA-matched unrelated donor HCT, and GVHD prophylaxis was calcineurin inhibitor with mycophenolate or methotrexate. Results of multivariate analysis revealed higher relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56; P = .0055; 2-year relapse rate, 48% vs 33%) and lower disease-free survival (DFS) rates after HLA-haploidentical relative donor HCT (HR, 1.29; P = .042; 2-year DFS, 29% vs 36%). However, overall survival (OS) rates did not differ between donor type (HR, 0.94; P = .65; 2-year OS, 46% for HLA-haploidentical and 44% for HLA-matched unrelated donor HCT) because of mortality associated with chronic GVHD. Acute grade 2 to 4 GVHD (HR, 0.44; P < .0001) and chronic GVHD (HR, 0.36; P < .0001) were lower after HLA-haploidentical relative donor HCT. By 2 years, probability of death resulting from chronic GVHD was lower after HLA-haploidentical relative compared with HLA-matched unrelated donor HCT (6% vs 21%), negating any potential survival advantage from better relapse control. Both donor types extend access to transplantation for patients with MDS; strategies for better relapse control are desirable for HLA-haploidentical relative donor HCT, and effective GVHD prophylaxis regimens are needed for unrelated donor HCT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903230PMC
February 2021

COVID-19 and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and immune effector cell therapy: a US cancer center experience.

Blood Adv 2021 02;5(3):861-871

Division of Hematologic Oncology, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), identified in late 2019 as the causative agent of COVID-19, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020. Widespread community transmission in the United States triggered a nationwide shutdown, raising major challenges for administration of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapies, leading many centers to delay or cancel operations. We sought to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on operations and clinical outcomes for HSCT and CAR-T cellular therapies at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute by reviewing administration and outcomes in 127 cell therapy patients treated during the initial COVID-19 surge: 62 adult allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT), 38 autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT), and 27 CAR-T patients. Outcomes were compared with 66 allo-HSCT, 43 auto-HSCT, and 33 CAR-T patients treated prior to the pandemic. A second control cohort was evaluated for HSCT groups to reflect seasonal variation in infections. Although there were changes in donor selection and screening as well as cryopreservation patterns of donor products, no differences were observed across groups in 100-day overall survival, progression-free survival, rates of non-COVID-19 infections, including hospital length of stay, neutrophil engraftment, graft failure, acute graft-versus-host disease in allo-HSCT patients, or cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity in CAR-T patients. No HSCT patients contracted COVID-19 between days 0 and 100. One CAR-T patient contracted COVID-19 at day +51 and died of the disease. Altogether, our data indicate that cellular therapies can be safely administered throughout the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic with appropriate safeguards.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869610PMC
February 2021

Impaired T- and NK-cell reconstitution after haploidentical HCT with posttransplant cyclophosphamide.

Blood Adv 2021 01;5(2):352-364

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Administration of posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has significantly expanded the number of patients undergoing HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (haplo-HCT). To examine immune reconstitution in these patients, we monitored T- and natural killer (NK)-cell recovery in 60 patients receiving bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts after haplo-HCT with PTCy and 35 patients receiving HLA-matched donor PBSC grafts with standard graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Compared with HLA-matched recipients, early T-cell recovery was delayed in haplo-HCT patients and skewed toward effector memory T cells with markedly reduced naive T cells. We found higher regulatory T (Treg)-cell/conventional T (Tcon)-cell ratios early after HCT and increased PD-1 expression on memory T cells. Within the haplo-HCT, patients who did not develop chronic GVHD (cGVHD) had higher PD-1 expression on central and effector memory CD4+ Treg cells at 1 month after transplant. These findings suggest an immunologic milieu that promotes immune tolerance in haplo-HCT patients. NK cells were decreased early after haplo-HCT with preferential expansion of immature CD56brightCD16- NK cells compared with matched donor transplants. One month after transplant, mass cytometry revealed enrichment of immature NK-cell metaclusters with high NKG2A, low CD57, and low killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor expression after haplo-HCT, which partially recovered 3 months post-HCT. At 2 months, immature NK cells from both groups were functionally impaired, but interleukin-15 priming corrected these defects in vitro. Increased immature/mature NK-cell ratios were associated with cytomegalovirus reactivation and increased incidence of cGVHD after haplo-HCT. These homeostatic imbalances in T- and NK-cell reconstitution after haplo-HCT reveal opportunities for early immune-based interventions to optimize clinical outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839379PMC
January 2021
-->