Publications by authors named "Cor Gaasenbeek"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species.

Parasit Vectors 2009 Sep 4;2(1):41. Epub 2009 Sep 4.

Laboratory for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology, National Institute for Public Health and Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, P,O, Box 1, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Background: Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts. Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species, were collected and tested from different vegetation types and from potential reservoir hosts. In one biotope area, the annual and seasonal variability of rickettsiae infections of the different tick stages were determined for 9 years.

Results: The DNA of the human pathogen R. conorii as well as R. helvetica, R. sp. IRS and R. bellii-like were found. Unexpectedly, the DNA of the highly pathogenic R. typhi and R. prowazekii and 4 other uncharacterized Rickettsia spp. related to the typhus group were also detected in I. ricinus. The presence of R. helvetica in fleas isolated from small rodents supported our hypothesis that cross-infection can occur under natural conditions, since R. typhi/prowazekii and R. helvetica as well as their vectors share rodents as reservoir hosts. In one biotope, the infection rate with R. helvetica was ~66% for 9 years, and was comparable between larvae, nymphs, and adults. Larvae caught by flagging generally have not yet taken a blood meal from a vertebrate host. The simplest explanation for the comparable prevalence of R. helvetica between the defined tick stages is, that R. helvetica is vertically transmitted through the next generation with high efficiency. The DNA of R. helvetica was also present in whole blood from mice, deer and wild boar.

Conclusion: Besides R. helvetica, unexpected rickettsiae are found in I. ricinus ticks. We propose that I. ricinus is a major reservoir host for R. helvetica, and that vertebrate hosts play important roles in the further geographical dispersion of rickettsiae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-2-41DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2743653PMC
September 2009

Persistent detection of Babesia EU1 and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus in the Netherlands during a 5-year surveillance: 2003-2007.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2009 Feb 30;9(1):119-22. Epub 2008 Aug 30.

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, the Netherlands.

We report the finding of Babesia EU1 and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Netherlands. During 5 years of surveillance between 2003 and 2007, 1488 ticks were collected in a dune forest area near the North Sea and were screened for Babesia infections. In 17 ticks, DNA of the protozoan parasite genus Babesia was detected using a Babesia-specific 18S rRNA polymerase chain reaction. Further, reverse line blot analysis and DNA sequence analysis showed that 13 of these ticks carried Babesia EU1, two ticks carried B. microti, and one tick carried B. divergens. This study shows that the human pathogenic species Babesia EU1 and B. microti can complete their life cycle in the Netherlands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0047DOI Listing
February 2009

The efficacy of an ivermectin/closantel injection against experimentally induced infections and field infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke in cattle.

Vet Parasitol 2008 Aug 10;155(3-4):235-41. Epub 2008 May 10.

Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen University, P.O. Box 65, NL-8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands.

Three studies were performed to test the efficacy of an ivermectin/closantel injection (200 microg/kg(-1) ivermectin and 5 mg/kg(-1) closantel) in cattle. Two were experimentally induced infections of Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Fasciola hepatica in calves, and the third had natural field infections in cattle with several species of gastrointestinal nematodes and F. hepatica. In the two studies with artificial infections, four groups of 8 calves were used. All calves were infected with metacercariae on Day 0. Infection with the nematodes took place on Day 33 in groups 1 and 2 and on Day 54 in groups 3 and 4. Treatment was given to calves of group 1 on Day 63 and to calves of group 3 on Day 84. Calves of groups 2 and 4 served as untreated control groups. Calves of groups 1 and 2 were sacrificed on Day 84, calves of groups 3 and 4 on Day 105. The field study was carried out on a commercial farm in the Netherlands. Six groups of cattle were used. Groups A and B consisted of 10 parasite free calves, introduced to the farm and grazed for four weeks on pastures naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematode larvae and liver fluke metacercariae. Group C were the farmers own calves (15), group D heifers (10), group E dry cows (6) and group F milking cows (20). Treatment was given to animals of group A, C, D and E 10 weeks after housing of group A and B. Animals of groups B and F served as untreated controls. Calves of groups A and B were sacrificed 14 days after treatment. The efficacy of the treatment was calculated on basis of the post-mortem fluke and nematode worm counts in the first two studies and on a combination of post-mortem fluke and nematode worm counts and faecal egg output in the field study. In the two experimental studies, the efficacy of the treatment against F. hepatica was 99.2% and 94.5% for 9-week-old flukes and 98.4% and 99.5% for 12-week-old flukes. For O. ostertagi in both studies efficacy was 100% and against C. oncophora in both Groups 1 efficacy was 84.9% and 99.0% and in Groups 3 85.0% and 99.4%. In the field study, based on the post mortem fluke and nematode worm counts in groups A and B, efficacy against F. hepatica was 98.4%, O. ostertagi 100%, C. oncophora 99.4%, C. punctata 100%, Nematodirus helvetianus 60.8%, Trichuris spp. 100% and against larval intestinal nematodes 100%. The results of the faecal examinations 14 days after treatment confirmed the post-mortem results with 100% reduction of egg output for O. ostertagi, C. punctata, Trichostrongylus spp. and Trichuris spp. and low egg output of C. oncophora and N. helvetianus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.05.004DOI Listing
August 2008

Longitudinal analysis of tick densities and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitat areas in The Netherlands.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2006 Dec 6;72(12):7594-601. Epub 2006 Oct 6.

Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, Bilthoven 3720 BA, The Netherlands.

From 2000 to 2004, ticks were collected by dragging a blanket in four habitat areas in The Netherlands: dunes, heather, forest, and a city park. Tick densities were calculated, and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species was investigated by reverse line blot analysis. The lowest tick density was observed in the heather area (1 to 8/100 m2). In the oak forest and city park, the tick densities ranged from 26 to 45/100 m2. The highest tick density was found in the dune area (139 to 551/100 m2). The infection rates varied significantly for the four study areas and years, ranging from 0.8 to 11. 5% for Borrelia spp. and 1 to 16% for Ehrlichia or Anaplasma (Ehrlichia/Anaplasma) spp. Borrelia infection rates were highest in the dunes, followed by the forest, the city park, and heather area. In contrast, Ehrlichia/Anaplasma was found most often in the forest and less often in the city park. The following Borrelia species were found: Borrelia sensu lato strains not identified to the species level (2.5%), B. afzelii (2.5%), B. valaisiana (0.9%), B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (0.13%), and B. garinii (0.13%). For Ehrlichia/Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. not identified to the species level (2.5%), Anaplasma schotti variant (3.5%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum variant (0.3%), and Ehrlichia canis (0.19%) were found. E. canis is reported for the first time in ticks in The Netherlands in this study. Borrelia lusitaniae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and the human granylocytic anaplasmosis agent were not detected. About 1.6% of the ticks were infected with both Borrelia and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, which was higher than the frequency predicted from the individual infection rates, suggesting hosts with multiple infections or a possible selective advantage of coinfection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01851-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1694262PMC
December 2006
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