Publications by authors named "Constanze Scheel"

2 Publications

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The cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase 2 Contributes to Cone Photoreceptor Degeneration in the -Deficient Mouse Model of Achromatopsia.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 23;22(1). Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Pharmacy-Center for Drug Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, 81377 Munich, Germany.

Mutations in the gene, which encodes the A subunit of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-gated cation channel in cone photoreceptor outer segments, cause total colour blindness, also referred to as achromatopsia. Cones lacking this channel protein are non-functional, accumulate high levels of the second messenger cGMP and degenerate over time after induction of ER stress. The cell death mechanisms that lead to loss of affected cones are only partially understood. Here, we explored the disease mechanisms in the knockout (KO) mouse model of achromatopsia. We found that another important effector of cGMP, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 (Prkg2) is crucially involved in cGMP cytotoxicity of cones in KO mice. Virus-mediated knockdown or genetic ablation of in KO mice counteracted degeneration and preserved the number of cones. Analysis of markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response confirmed that induction of these processes in KO cones also depends on Prkg2. In conclusion, we identified Prkg2 as a novel key mediator of cone photoreceptor degeneration in achromatopsia. Our data suggest that this cGMP mediator could be a novel pharmacological target for future neuroprotective therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793084PMC
December 2020

Synthesis of Galactosyl-Queuosine and Distribution of Hypermodified Q-Nucleosides in Mouse Tissues.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 07 21;59(30):12352-12356. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Butenandtstr. 5-13, 81377, Munich, Germany.

Queuosine (Q) is a hypermodified RNA nucleoside that is found in tRNA , tRNA , tRNA , and tRNA . It is located at the wobble position of the tRNA anticodon loop, where it can interact with U as well as C bases located at the respective position of the corresponding mRNA codons. In tRNA and tRNA of higher eukaryotes, including humans, the Q base is for yet unknown reasons further modified by the addition of a galactose and a mannose sugar, respectively. The reason for this additional modification, and how the sugar modification is orchestrated with Q formation and insertion, is unknown. Here, we report a total synthesis of the hypermodified nucleoside galactosyl-queuosine (galQ). The availability of the compound enabled us to study the absolute levels of the Q-family nucleosides in six different organs of newborn and adult mice, and also in human cytosolic tRNA. Our synthesis now paves the way to a more detailed analysis of the biological function of the Q-nucleoside family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202002295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7384130PMC
July 2020