Publications by authors named "Connie N Hess"

65 Publications

Acute Aortic Syndromes.

Cardiol Clin 2021 Nov;39(4):495-503

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado, School of Medicine, Section of Vascular Medicine, Mail Stop B132, Leprino Building, 12401 East 17th Avenue, Room 560, Aurora, CO 80045, USA; CPC Clinical Research, 2115 North Scranton Street Suite 2040, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Acute aortic syndromes, classified into aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, and penetrating aortic ulcer, are associated with high early mortality for which early diagnosis and management are crucial to optimize outcomes. Patients often present with nonspecific clinical symptoms and signs; therefore, it is important for providers to maintain a high index of suspicion for acute aortic syndromes. Electrocardiogram-gated computed tomographic angiography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis is currently the most practical imaging modality for diagnosis and identification of complications. Evolution in surgical techniques and the development of aortic endografts have improved patient outcomes, but randomized trials are still needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccl.2021.06.002DOI Listing
November 2021

Reduction in Acute Limb Ischemia with Rivaroxaban versus Placebo in Peripheral Artery Disease after Lower Extremity Revascularization: Insights from VOYAGER PAD.

Circulation 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO; CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO.

Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at heightened risk of acute limb ischemia (ALI), a thrombotic event associated with amputation, disability, and mortality. Prior lower extremity revascularization (LER) is associated with increased ALI risk in chronic PAD. However, the pattern of risk, clinical correlates, and outcomes after ALI early after LER are not well-studied, and effective therapies to reduce ALI post-LER are lacking. VOYAGER PAD (NCT02504216) randomized patients with PAD undergoing LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily or placebo on a background of low-dose aspirin. The primary outcome was a composite of ALI, major amputation of vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. ALI was prospectively ascertained and adjudicated by a blinded committee. The cumulative incidence of ALI was calculated using Kaplan Meier estimates, and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to generate hazard ratios and associated confidence intervals. Analyses were performed as intention-to-treat. Among 6,564 patients followed for a median of 2.3 years, 382 (5.8%) had a total of 508 ALI events. In placebo patients, the 3-year cumulative incidence of ALI was 7.8%. After multivariable modeling, prior LER, baseline ABI <0.50, surgical LER, and longer target lesion length were associated with increased risk of ALI. Incident ALI was associated with subsequent all-cause mortality (HR 2.59, 95% CI 1.98-3.39) and major amputation (HR 24.87, 95% CI 18.68-33.12). Rivaroxaban reduced ALI relative to placebo by 33% (absolute risk reduction 2.6% at 3 years, HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.55-0.82, P=0.0001), with benefit starting early (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.85, P=0.0068 at 30 days). Benefit was present for severe ALI (associated with death, amputation, or prolonged hospitalization and ICU stay, HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.83, P=0.003) and regardless of LER type (surgical vs endovascular revascularization, p-interaction=0.42) or clopidogrel use (p-interaction=0.59). After LER for symptomatic PAD, ALI is frequent, particularly early after LER, and is associated with poor prognosis. Low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduces ALI after LER, including ALI events associated with the most severe outcomes. The benefit of rivaroxaban for ALI appears early, continues over time, and is consistent regardless of revascularization approach or clopidogrel use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055146DOI Listing
October 2021

Low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin in older patients with peripheral artery disease undergoing acute limb revascularization: insights from the VOYAGER PAD trial.

Eur Heart J 2021 10;42(39):4040-4048

CPC Clinical Research, 2115 N Scranton Street, Suite 2040, Aurora, CO, USA.

Aims: In this secondary analysis of the VOYAGER trial, rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice/day plus aspirin 100 mg/day was assessed in older adults. Advanced age is associated with elevated bleeding risk and unfavourable net benefit for dual antiplatelet therapy in chronic coronary artery disease. The risk-benefit of low-dose rivaroxaban in patients ≥75 years with peripheral artery disease (PAD) after lower extremity revascularization (LER) has not been described.

Methods And Results: The primary endpoint was a composite of acute limb ischaemia, major amputation, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety outcome was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major bleeding analysed by the pre-specified age cut-off of 75 years. Of 6564 patients randomized, 1330 (20%) were >75 years. Absolute 3-year Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence rates for primary efficacy (23.4% vs. 19.0%) and safety (3.5% vs. 1.5%) endpoints were higher in elderly vs. non-elderly patients. Efficacy of rivaroxaban (P-interaction 0.83) and safety (P-interaction 0.38) was consistent irrespective of age. The combination of intracranial and fatal bleeding was not increased in patients >75 years (2 rivaroxaban vs. 8 placebo). Overall, benefits (absolute risk reduction 3.8%, number needed to treat 26 for the primary endpoint) exceeded risks (absolute risk increase 0.81%, number needed to harm 123 for TIMI major bleeding).

Conclusion: Patients ≥75 years with PAD are at both heightened ischaemic and bleeding risk after LER. No excess harm with respect to major, intracranial or fatal bleeding was seen in older patients yet numerically greater absolute benefits were observed. This suggests that low-dose rivaroxaban combined with aspirin should be considered in PAD after LER regardless of age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab408DOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Surgical Revascularization: Insights From the VOYAGER PAD Trial.

Circulation 2021 Oct 12;144(14):1104-1116. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO (M.R.N., N.G., W.H.C., T.B., N.J., C.N.H., W.R.H., M.P.B.).

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease requiring lower extremity revascularization (LER) are at high risk of adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The VOYAGER PAD trial (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [Acetylsalicylic Acid] Along With Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD) demonstrated that rivaroxaban significantly reduced this risk. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban has not been described in patients who underwent surgical LER.

Methods: The VOYAGER PAD trial randomized patients with peripheral artery disease after surgical and endovascular LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin or matching placebo plus aspirin and followed for a median of 28 months. The primary end point was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major vascular amputation, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety outcome was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding. International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis bleeding was a secondary safety outcome. All efficacy and safety outcomes were adjudicated by a blinded independent committee.

Results: Of the 6564 randomized, 2185 (33%) underwent surgical LER and 4379 (67%) endovascular. Compared with placebo, rivaroxaban reduced the primary end point consistently regardless of LER method (-interaction, 0.43). After surgical LER, the primary efficacy outcome occurred in 199 (18.4%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 242 (22.0%) patients in the placebo group with a cumulative incidence at 3 years of 19.7% and 23.9%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-0.98]; =0.026). In the overall trial, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding and International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding were increased with rivaroxaban. There was no heterogeneity for Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding (-interaction, 0.17) or International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding (-interaction, 0.73) on the basis of the LER approach. After surgical LER, the principal safety outcome occurred in 11 (1.0%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 13 (1.2%) patients in the placebo group; 3-year cumulative incidence was 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.39-1.95]; =0.75) Among surgical patients, the composite of fatal bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage (=0.95) and postprocedural bleeding requiring intervention (=0.93) was not significantly increased.

Conclusions: The efficacy of rivaroxaban is associated with a benefit in patients who underwent surgical LER. Although bleeding was increased with rivaroxaban plus aspirin, the incidence was low, with no significant increase in fatal bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, or postprocedural bleeds requiring intervention. Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT02504216.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.054835DOI Listing
October 2021

Ventricular Fibrillation Due to Aortocoronary Vein Graft Spasm During Angiography: Case Report and Literature Review.

JACC Case Rep 2021 Mar 17;3(3):388-391. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Duke University Medical Center, Division of Cardiology, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

A 69-year-old man underwent coronary angiography 7 years after coronary artery bypass. Saphenous vein graft spasm was observed during contrast injection, resulting in ventricular fibrillation. Angiography 6 years later showed graft patency. Vein graft spasm after coronary artery bypass grafting is rarely described. Further investigation is needed regarding incidence, mechanism, and clinical outcomes. ().
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccas.2020.12.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8311046PMC
March 2021

Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease: Contemporary Epidemiology, Management Gaps, and Future Directions: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

Circulation 2021 Aug 28;144(9):e171-e191. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects >230 million adults worldwide and is associated with increased risk of various adverse clinical outcomes (other cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease and stroke and leg outcomes such as amputation). Despite its prevalence and clinical importance, PAD has been historically underappreciated by health care professionals and patients. This underappreciation seems multifactorial (eg, limited availability of the first-line diagnostic test, the ankle-brachial index, in clinics; incorrect perceptions that a leg vascular disease is not fatal and that the diagnosis of PAD would not necessarily change clinical practice). In the past several years, a body of evidence has indicated that these perceptions are incorrect. Several studies have consistently demonstrated that many patients with PAD are not receiving evidence-based therapies. Thus, this scientific statement provides an update for health care professionals regarding contemporary epidemiology (eg, prevalence, temporal trends, risk factors, and complications) of PAD, the present status of diagnosis (physiological tests and imaging modalities), and the major gaps in the management of PAD (eg, medications, exercise therapy, and revascularization). The statement also lists key gaps in research, clinical practice, and implementation related to PAD. Orchestrated efforts among different parties (eg, health care providers, researchers, expert organizations, and health care organizations) will be needed to increase the awareness and understanding of PAD and improve the diagnostic approaches, management, and prognosis of PAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000001005DOI Listing
August 2021

Effectiveness of Blood Lipid Management in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jun;77(24):3016-3027

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA; CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Background: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is associated with heightened risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and major adverse limb events (MALE) in peripheral artery disease (PAD). Lipid-lowering therapies (LLT) that reduce LDL-C decrease this risk.

Objectives: The authors examined LLT use and actual achieved LDL-C in PAD.

Methods: PAD patients in MarketScan from 2014 to 2018 were identified. Outcomes included LLT use, defined as high-intensity (HI) (high-intensity statin, statin plus ezetimibe, or PCSK9 inhibitor), low-intensity (any other lipid regimen), or no therapy, and follow-up LDL-C. Factors associated with LDL-C <70 mg/dl were identified with multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Among 250,103 PAD patients, 20.5% and 39.5% were treated at baseline with HI and low-intensity LLT, respectively; 40.0% were on no LLT. Over a 15-month median follow-up period, HI LLT use increased by 1.5%. Among 18,747 patients with LDL-C data, at baseline, 25.1% were on HI LLT, median LDL-C was 91 mg/dl, and 24.5% had LDL-C <70 mg/dl. Within the HI LLT subgroup, median LDL-C was 81 mg/dl, and 64% had LDL-C ≥70 mg/dl. At follow-up, HI LLT use increased by 3.7%, median LDL-C decreased by 4.0 mg/dl, and an additional 4.1% of patients had LDL-C <70 mg/dl. HI LLT use was greater after follow-up MACE (55.0%) or MALE (41.0%) versus no ischemic event (26.1%). After MACE or MALE, LDL-C was <70 mg/dl in 41.5% and 36.1% of patients, respectively, versus 27.1% in those without an event. Factors associated with follow-up LDL-C <70 mg/dl included smoking, hypertension, diabetes, prior lower extremity revascularization, and prior myocardial infarction but not prior acute or critical limb ischemia.

Conclusions: In PAD, LLT use is suboptimal, LDL-C remains elevated, and LLT intensity is a poor surrogate for achieved LDL-C. Less aggressive lipid management was observed in PAD versus cardiovascular disease, highlighting missed opportunities for implementation of proven therapies in PAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.060DOI Listing
June 2021

Total Ischemic Event Reduction With Rivaroxaban After Peripheral Arterial Revascularization in the VOYAGER PAD Trial.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jul 16;78(4):317-326. Epub 2021 May 16.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing lower extremity revascularization (LER) are at high risk of major adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The VOYAGER PAD (Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban in Reducing the Risk of Major Thrombotic Vascular Events in Subjects With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Peripheral Revascularization Procedures of the Lower Extremities) trial demonstrated that rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily reduced first events by 15%. The benefit of rivaroxaban on total (first and subsequent) events in this population is unknown.

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the total burden of vascular events in patients with PAD after LER and the efficacy of low-dose rivaroxaban on total events.

Methods: VOYAGER PAD randomized patients with PAD undergoing LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin or aspirin alone. The primary endpoint was time to first event of acute limb ischemia, major amputation of a vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The current analysis considered all events (first and subsequent) for components of the primary endpoint as well as additional vascular events including peripheral revascularizations and venous thromboembolism. HRs were estimated by marginal proportional hazards models.

Results: Among 6,564 randomized events, there were 4,714 total first and subsequent vascular events including 1,614 primary endpoint events and 3,100 other vascular events. Rivaroxaban reduced total primary endpoint events (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75-0.98; P = 0.02) and total vascular events (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79-0.95; P = 0.003). An estimated 4.4 primary and 12.5 vascular events per 100 participants were avoided with rivaroxaban over 3 years.

Conclusions: Patients with symptomatic PAD who are undergoing LER have a high total event burden that is significantly reduced with rivaroxaban. Total event reduction may be a useful metric to quantify the efficacy of rivaroxaban in this setting. (Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban in Reducing the Risk of Major Thrombotic Vascular Events in Subjects With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Peripheral Revascularization Procedures of the Lower Extremities [VOYAGER PAD]; NCT02504216).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.05.003DOI Listing
July 2021

Incidence of Major Atherothrombotic Vascular Events among Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease after Revascularization.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Aug 2;75:217-226. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

University of Colorado School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Denver, Colorado; CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado.

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) treated with lower extremity revascularization are at increased risk of major atherothrombotic vascular events (acute limb ischemia (ALI), major non-traumatic lower-limb amputation, myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, and cardiovascular (CV)-related death). This study assessed the incidence of major atherothrombotic vascular events, venous thromboembolism (VTE) events and rates of subsequent lower extremity revascularizations in the real-world among patients with PAD after revascularization.

Methods: Patients aged ≥50 years with PAD who underwent peripheral revascularization were identified from Optum Clinformatics Data Mart claims database (Q1/2014-Q2/2019). The first lower extremity revascularization after PAD diagnosis was defined as index date. Incidence rates of major atherothrombotic vascular events (i.e., composite of ALI, major non-traumatic lower-limb amputation, MI, ischemic stroke, and CV-related death) and VTE were assessed during follow-up as the number of events divided by patient-years of observation (censored at the first event). Rates of subsequent revascularizations and VTE were estimated overall and compared between patients with major atherothrombotic vascular events and those without.

Results: Of the 38,439 patients included, 6,675 (17.4%) had a major atherothrombotic vascular event during a median follow-up of 1.0 year. The composite major atherothrombotic vascular and VTE incidence rates were 13.81/100 patient years and 1.77/100 patient years, respectively, and 40.2% of patients experienced subsequent revascularizations. Patients with a post-revascularization major atherothrombotic vascular event had significantly higher rates of subsequent revascularizations (64.6% vs. 35.1%, standardized difference [SD] ≥10%) and VTE (4.6% vs. 2.1%, SD ≥10%) versus those without.

Conclusion: One-in-six PAD patients aged ≥50 years who underwent peripheral revascularization experienced a major atherothrombotic vascular event within one year, and consequently, experienced higher rates of subsequent revascularizations compared with those without a major atherothrombotic vascular event post-revascularization. These findings highlight the need to improve strategies to prevent major atherothrombotic vascular events after revascularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2021.02.025DOI Listing
August 2021

Healthcare resource utilization and costs of major atherothrombotic vascular events among patients with peripheral artery disease after revascularization.

J Med Econ 2021 Jan-Dec;24(1):402-409

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO, USA.

Aims: Peripheral artery disease (PAD), often treated with lower extremity revascularization, is associated with risk of major atherothrombotic vascular events (acute limb ischemia [ALI], major non-traumatic lower-limb amputation, myocardial infarction [MI], ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death). This study aims to assess healthcare resource utilization and costs of such events among patients with PAD after revascularization.

Materials And Methods: Patients aged ≥50 years with PAD who were treated with lower-extremity revascularization were identified from Optum Clinformatics Data Mart claims database (01/2014-06/2019). The first lower extremity revascularization after PAD diagnosis was defined as the index date. Patients had ≥6 months of health plan enrollment before the index date. Patients were followed until the earliest of 1) end of enrollment or data; 2) diagnosis of atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism; or 3) oral anticoagulant use. All-cause healthcare resource use per-patient-year was compared before and after a major atherothrombotic vascular event post-revascularization among those with an event. Additionally, event-related healthcare costs per-patient-year were reported for each event type.

Results: Of the 38,439 PAD patients meeting the study criteria, 6,675 (17.4%) had a major atherothrombotic vascular event. On average, patients were observed for 7.3 months before an event and 6.2 months after an event. Patients with an event had significantly higher all-cause healthcare resource use versus similar metrics pre-event (e.g. inpatient visits among those with ALI: 3.5 ± 5.8 post-event vs. 2.0 ± 8.1 pre-event,  < .05). Event-related costs ranged from $57,825±$131,810 per-patient-year for ischemic stroke to $108,302±$150,168 for major non-traumatic lower-limb amputation.

Limitations: Data do not contain clinical information. Additionally, results are limited to commercially insured and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries.

Conclusion: Patients with PAD who experience major atherothrombotic vascular events post-revascularization have considerably higher healthcare resource use and costs compared with similar metrics pre-event. Therefore, reducing the rate of such events could reduce overall healthcare costs for this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13696998.2021.1891089DOI Listing
September 2021

Long-term safety of drug-coated devices for peripheral revascularisation.

EuroIntervention 2021 Sep;17(7):590-598

Smith Center for Outcomes Research in Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Bolton, MA, USA.

Background: Meta-analyses of randomised trials of paclitaxel-coated peripheral devices found an association with worse long-term survival.

Aims: We aimed to assess long-term mortality in patients treated with drug-coated versus non-drug-coated devices who are insured by Medicare Advantage (MA), an alternative to traditional Medicare that represents >30% of the Medicare eligible population. We analysed data from an MA administrative claims data source that includes both inpatient and outpatient femoropopliteal artery revascularisation procedures.

Methods: Patients treated with or without drug-coated devices for femoropopliteal artery revascularisation from 4/2015-12/2017 were studied using Optum's De-identified Clinformatics Datamart Database. Mortality was assessed up to December 2019 using Kaplan-Meier cumulative mortality curves and Cox proportional hazard models. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to adjust for differences between groups.

Results: Of 16,796 patients revascularised, 4,427 (26.4%) were treated with drug-coated devices: 3,600 (81.3%) balloons and 827 (18.7%) stents. The median follow-up was 2.66 years (IQR 2.02-3.52). Treatment with drug-coated devices was associated with similar long-term mortality to non-drug-coated devices (adjusted HR 1.03, 95% CI: 0.96-1.10; p=0.39). Results were comparable for patients treated with balloons alone (adjusted HR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.92-1.08; p=0.96) or stents (adjusted HR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.88-1.18; p=0.78). These findings did not differ based on treatment setting, disease severity, age, sex or comorbidity burden (interaction p>0.05 for all).

Conclusions: In this large cohort, there was no evidence of increased long-term mortality following treatment with drug-coated devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-20-01018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217425PMC
September 2021

Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Peripheral Artery Disease Lower Extremity Revascularization: Impact of Concomitant Clopidogrel on Efficacy and Safety.

Circulation 2020 12 3;142(23):2219-2230. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, Germany (R.B.).

Background: The VOYAGER PAD trial (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA Along With Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for Peripheral Artery Disease) demonstrated superiority of rivaroxaban plus aspirin versus aspirin to reduce major cardiac and ischemic limb events after lower extremity revascularization. Clopidogrel is commonly used as a short-term adjunct to aspirin after endovascular revascularization. Whether clopidogrel modifies the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban has not been described.

Methods: VOYAGER PAD was a phase 3, international, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with symptomatic PAD undergoing lower extremity revascularization randomized to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus 100 mg aspirin daily or rivaroxaban placebo plus aspirin. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major amputation of a vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety end point was TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) major bleeding, with International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding a secondary safety outcome. Clopidogrel use was allowed at the discretion of the investigator for up to 6 months after the qualifying revascularization.

Results: Of the randomized patients, 3313 (50.6%) received clopidogrel for a median duration of 29.0 days. Over 3 years, the hazard ratio for the primary outcome of rivaroxaban versus placebo was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.71-1.01) with clopidogrel and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.73-1.01) without clopidogrel without statistical heterogeneity ( for interaction=0.92). Rivaroxaban resulted in an early apparent reduction in acute limb ischemia within 30 days (hazard ratio, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.14-1.46] with clopidogrel; hazard ratio, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.22-1.01] without clopidogrel; for interaction=0.93). Compared with aspirin, rivaroxaban increased TIMI major bleeding similarly regardless of clopidogrel use ( for interaction=0.71). With clopidogrel use >30 days, rivaroxaban was associated with more International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding within 365 days (hazard ratio, 3.20 [95% CI, 1.44-7.13]) compared with shorter durations of clopidogrel ( for trend=0.06).

Conclusions: In the VOYAGER PAD trial, rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced the risk of adverse cardiovascular and limb events with an early benefit for acute limb ischemia regardless of clopidogrel use. The safety of rivaroxaban was consistent regardless of clopidogrel use but with a trend for more International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding with clopidogrel use >30 days than with a shorter duration. These data support the addition of rivaroxaban to aspirin after lower extremity revascularization regardless of concomitant clopidogrel, with a short course (≤30 days) associated with less bleeding. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02504216.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.050465DOI Listing
December 2020

Contemporary Review of Antithrombotic Therapy in Peripheral Artery Disease.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2020 10 7;13(10):e009584. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine and CPC Clinical Research, Aurora.

Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at heightened risk for ischemic events related to atherothrombosis. Antithrombotic therapies can reduce the risk of atherothrombotic events but increase bleeding. Importantly, there is growing appreciation of the heterogeneity in risk profile and effect of antithrombotic therapies in different populations, including those with PAD. Further, patients with PAD are at risk for not only major adverse cardiovascular events but also major adverse limb events, and the drivers of risk for each are different. Within PAD populations, data from trials may be difficult to interpret due to differences among the studies with regards to patient population, clinical settings, and outcomes examined. The acute setting of peripheral revascularization which involves plaque rupture and endothelial disruption confers very high risk of major adverse limb events early postprocedure. Among patients with chronic PAD for whom the goal of antithrombotic therapy is secondary prevention, concomitant coronary artery disease, particularly with prior myocardial infarction, is associated with greatest risk for major adverse cardiovascular events, while prior peripheral revascularization or amputation is associated with greatest risk for major adverse limb events. Understanding of the potential impact of clinical setting and patient risk profile is important to guide evidence-based decisions regarding antithrombotic therapy in patients with PAD. In this article, we provide a contemporary review of data supporting the use of antithrombotic therapy in PAD, as well as a clinical framework for analysis and translation of these data into practice, highlighting areas in need of further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.009584DOI Listing
October 2020

ASCVD Risk and Statin Use in PAD: Implementing a New Approach to an Old Problem.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 07;76(3):265-267

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado; CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.06.009DOI Listing
July 2020

Rivaroxaban in Peripheral Artery Disease after Revascularization.

N Engl J Med 2020 05 28;382(21):1994-2004. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

From Colorado Prevention Center (CPC) Clinical Research (M.P.B., M.R.N., W.H.C., L.D., N.J., C.N.H., W.R.H.), the Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine (M.P.B., C.N.H., W.R.H.), the Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery (M.R.N.), and the Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology (W.H.C.), University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, and the Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health (J.M.K.) - all in Aurora; the Department of Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt, Darmstadt, and Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University of Mainz, Mainz (R.M.B.), the Department of Vascular Medicine, Vascular Surgery-Angiology-Endovascular Therapy, University of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (E.S.D.), and Bayer, Wuppertal (A.F.P., E.M.) - all in Germany; the Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences and McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada (S.S.A.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Division of Cardiology, Duke University, Durham, NC (M.R.P.); the Vascular and Interventional Radiology Department, Careggi University Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy (F.F.); Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine (I.G.); B-A-Z County University Teaching Hospital, Miskolc, Hungary (L.M.); University of Latvia, Pauls Stradins University Hospital, Riga (D.K.K.); ECLA (Estudios Clínicos Latino América), ICR (Instituto Cardiovascular de Rosario), Rosario, Argentina (R.D.); the Division of Angiology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria (M.B.); and Janssen Research and Development, Raritan (L.P.H.), and Thrombosis Group Head, Clinical Development, Bayer U.S., Whippany (S.D.B.) - both in New Jersey.

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease who have undergone lower-extremity revascularization are at high risk for major adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in this context are uncertain.

Methods: In a double-blind trial, patients with peripheral artery disease who had undergone revascularization were randomly assigned to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin or placebo plus aspirin. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major amputation for vascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes. The principal safety outcome was major bleeding, defined according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) classification; major bleeding as defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) was a secondary safety outcome.

Results: A total of 6564 patients underwent randomization; 3286 were assigned to the rivaroxaban group, and 3278 were assigned to the placebo group. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 508 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 584 in the placebo group; the Kaplan-Meier estimates of the incidence at 3 years were 17.3% and 19.9%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 0.96; P = 0.009). TIMI major bleeding occurred in 62 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 44 patients in the placebo group (2.65% and 1.87%; hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.97 to 2.10; P = 0.07). ISTH major bleeding occurred in 140 patients in the rivaroxaban group, as compared with 100 patients in the placebo group (5.94% and 4.06%; hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.84; P = 0.007).

Conclusions: In patients with peripheral artery disease who had undergone lower-extremity revascularization, rivaroxaban at a dose of 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin was associated with a significantly lower incidence of the composite outcome of acute limb ischemia, major amputation for vascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes than aspirin alone. The incidence of TIMI major bleeding did not differ significantly between the groups. The incidence of ISTH major bleeding was significantly higher with rivaroxaban and aspirin than with aspirin alone. (Funded by Bayer and Janssen Pharmaceuticals; VOYAGER PAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02504216.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2000052DOI Listing
May 2020

The Pathobiology of Acute Limb Ischemic Events and Stent Failure in Peripheral Artery Disease: A Step in the Right Direction.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 02;13(4):428-430

University of Colorado School of Medicine and CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2019.12.029DOI Listing
February 2020

Sex-Specific Risks of Major Cardiovascular and Limb Events in Patients With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 02;75(6):608-617

Swiss Cardiovascular Centre, Inselspital, Division of Angiology, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have a higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) compared with those without PAD.

Objectives: The aim of this post hoc analysis was to evaluate sex-specific differences in MACE and limb events in the EUCLID (Examining Use of Ticagrelor in PAD) trial.

Methods: Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare time-to-event outcomes stratified by sex. Covariates were introduced after adjusted model selection.

Results: EUCLID enrolled 13,885 patients with PAD (28% women [n = 3,888]). PAD severity and medical treatment were comparable between sexes, whereas prior lower extremity revascularization was reported less frequently in women (54.8% vs. 57.3%; p = 0.006). Women were older (mean ± SD age: 67.8 ± 8.9 vs. 66.1 ± 8.2 years; p < 0.001) and more likely to have diabetes mellitus (p = 0.004), hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and chronic kidney disease (all p < 0.001). Over a mean follow-up of 30 months, women had a lower risk of MACE (9.5% vs. 11.2%; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.77; 95% confidence interval: 0.68 to 0.88; p < 0.001) and all-cause-mortality (7.6% vs. 9.7%; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.61; 95% confidence interval: 0.53 to 0.71; p < 0.001). In contrast, risk for major adverse limb events (2.6% vs. 3.0%) and hospitalization for acute limb ischemia (1.6% vs. 1.7%) were not different by sex.

Conclusions: Although women with PAD are at lower risk for MACE and all-cause mortality, risk for limb events was similar between sexes over a mean follow-up of 30 months. Understanding sex-specific differences and dissociation between baseline cardiovascular risk and subsequent cardiovascular events requires further investigation. (A Study Comparing Cardiovascular Effects of Ticagrelor and Clopidogrel in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease [EUCLID]; NCT01732822).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.11.057DOI Listing
February 2020

Long-Term Outcomes and Associations With Major Adverse Limb Events After Peripheral Artery Revascularization.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 02;75(5):498-508

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado; CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado.

Background: Long-term cardiovascular and limb outcomes after revascularization for peripheral artery disease and, in particular, prognosis after post-procedure major adverse limb events (MALE) are not well-studied.

Objectives: This study sought to describe outcomes after peripheral revascularization and assess relationships between post-procedure MALE hospitalization and subsequent events.

Methods: Patients undergoing peripheral artery revascularization between January 1, 2009, and September 30, 2015, in the Premier Healthcare Database were examined for the co-primary outcomes of interest, composite myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke and composite major amputation or peripheral revascularization. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models with post-procedure MALE hospitalization included as a time-dependent covariate were developed to estimate hazard ratios for outcomes.

Results: Among 393,017 revascularized patients followed for a median of 2.7 years (interquartile range: 1.3 to 4.4 years), the cumulative incidence of MI or stroke was 9.8% and that of major amputation or peripheral revascularization was 41.9%. A total of 50,750 patients (12.9%) had at least 1 post-procedure MALE hospitalization. In time-dependent covariate adjusted models, post-procedure MALE hospitalization was associated with greater risk of subsequent MI or stroke (hazard ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.28 to 1.40) and major amputation or peripheral revascularization (hazard ratio: 8.13; 95% confidence interval: 7.96 to 8.29). After peripheral revascularization with or without post-procedure MALE hospitalization, risk of limb events increased rapidly post-procedure and more slowly after the first year, whereas cardiac risk increased steadily during follow-up.

Conclusions: Revascularized peripheral artery disease patients face earlier limb and later cardiovascular ischemic risk that is heightened among patients with post-procedure MALE hospitalization. Increased provider awareness of these long-term risks may guide efforts to improve post-procedural outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.11.050DOI Listing
February 2020

Progress in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: two steps forward, one step back.

Eur Heart J 2020 05;41(17):1650-1652

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz958DOI Listing
May 2020

Heterogeneity of Risk and Benefit in Subgroups of COMPASS: Relatively Similar But Absolutely Different.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2019 07;73(25):3292-3294

University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, and CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/MarcBonaca.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.05.007DOI Listing
July 2019

Acute Limb Ischemia in Peripheral Artery Disease.

Circulation 2019 08 26;140(7):556-565. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and CPC Clinical Research, Aurora (C.N.H., W.R.H.).

Background: Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is an important clinical event and an emerging cardiovascular clinical trial outcome. Risk factors for and outcomes after ALI have not been fully evaluated.

Methods: EUCLID (Examining Use of Ticagrelor in Peripheral Artery Disease) randomized patients with peripheral artery disease to ticagrelor versus clopidogrel. Enrollment criteria included an ankle-brachial index ≤0.80 or previous lower extremity revascularization. Patients were grouped according to the primary outcome, postrandomization ALI hospitalization. Baseline factors associated with ALI were identified using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Models with ALI hospitalization as a time-dependent covariate were developed for secondary outcomes of major adverse cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, ischemic stroke), all-cause mortality, and major amputation.

Results: Among 13 885 patients, 1.7% (n=232) had 293 ALI hospitalizations (0.8 per 100 patient-years). Patients with versus without ALI were younger and more often had previous peripheral revascularization and lower baseline ankle-brachial index. Treatment during ALI hospitalization included endovascular revascularization (39.2%, n=115), surgical bypass (24.6%, n=72), and major amputation (13.0%, n=38). After multivariable adjustment, any previous peripheral revascularization (Hazard Ratio [HR] 4.7, 95% CI 3.3-6.8, P<0.01), baseline atrial fibrillation (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.2, P=0.03), and baseline ankle-brachial index ≤0.60 (HR 1.3 per 0.10 decrease, 95% CI 1.1-1.5, P<0.01) were associated with higher ALI risk. Older age (HR 0.8 per 10-year increase, 95% CI 0.7-1.0, P=0.02) and baseline statin use (HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9, P<0.01) were associated with lower risk for ALI. There was no relationship between randomized treatment to ticagrelor or clopidogrel and ALI. Among patients with previous revascularization, surgical versus endovascular procedures performed more than 6 months prior were associated with ALI (adjusted HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.75-3.96). In the overall population, ALI hospitalization was associated with subsequent MACE (adjusted HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-2.1, P=0.04), all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 3.3, 95% CI 2.4-4.6, P<0.01), and major amputation (adjusted HR 34.2, 95% CI 9.7-20.8, P<0.01).

Conclusions: Previous peripheral revascularization, baseline atrial fibrillation, and lower ankle-brachial index identify peripheral artery disease patients at heightened risk for ALI, an event associated with subsequent cardiovascular and limb-related morbidity and mortality.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01732822.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.039773DOI Listing
August 2019

Lost in translation: Why 'lost to follow-up' matters.

Vasc Med 2019 08 13;24(4):339-340. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

1 Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1358863X19853623DOI Listing
August 2019

Comparison of Rates of Bleeding and Vascular Complications Before, During, and After Trial Enrollment in the SAFE-PCI Trial for Women.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2019 05;12(5):e007086

Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (J.A.R., A.K., M.W.K., S.V.R).

Background: SAFE-PCI for Women (Study of Access Site for Enhancement of PCI for Women), a randomized controlled trial comparing radial and femoral access in women undergoing cardiac catheterization or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), was terminated early for lower than expected event rates. Whether this was because of patient selection or better access site practice among trial patients is unknown.

Methods And Results: SAFE-PCI was conducted within the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI registry. Using the National Cardiovascular Research Infrastructure Identification, PCI date, and age, patients enrolled in SAFE-PCI were compared with trial-eligible female CathPCI registry patients 1 year before, during, and 1 year after SAFE-PCI enrollment. Patient and procedure characteristics, predicted bleeding and mortality, and post-PCI bleeding were compared between groups. Enrolled SAFE-PCI patients and registry patients from the 3 time periods were linked to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data to compare 30-day death and unplanned revascularization rates. At 54 SAFE-PCI sites, there were 496 SAFE-PCI trial patients with a PCI visit within the CathPCI registry. There were 24 958 registry patients from 1 year before and 1 year after SAFE-PCI enrollment and 15 904 trial-eligible registry patients during trial enrollment. Trial patients were younger, had lower predicted bleeding and mortality, and had lower rates of post-PCI bleeding within 72 hours compared with registry patients. Among 12 212 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services-linked patients, there were no significant differences in 30-day death and unplanned revascularization among the 4 groups.

Conclusions: Lower predicted risk of bleeding and mortality among SAFE-PCI trial patients compared with registry patients suggests that lower-risk patients were selectively enrolled for the trial. These data demonstrate how registry-based randomized trials may offer methods for enrollment feedback to curb selection bias in recruitment.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01406236.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.118.007086DOI Listing
May 2019

Association of Gout With Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcomes Among Patients With Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease.

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 08;7(16):e009328

2 University of Colorado School of Medicine Aurora CO.

Background Epidemiological studies demonstrating a relationship between gout and cardiovascular disease are older and predate modern cardiovascular preventive therapy. We assessed the contemporary association between gout and cardiovascular disease in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. Methods and Results Data were from the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Diseases, which followed up patients undergoing cardiac catheterization with obstructive coronary artery disease at Duke University Medical Center (1998-2013). We assessed the relationship between gout diagnosis at baseline or during follow-up and the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, adjusting for differences in baseline clinical factors. Secondary end points included cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality. New, postbaseline, gout diagnosis was included as a time-dependent covariate. Among 17 201 patients, 1406 (8.2%) had baseline gout and a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors, but high rates of optimal medical therapy. Over a median follow-up of 6.4 years, gout diagnosis at time of catheterization was not associated with the primary outcome (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.05 [0.96-1.15]; P=0.31) or cardiovascular death (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.10 [0.99-1.22]; P=0.08), but was associated with increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.13 [1.05-1.23]; P=0.002). After including new, postbaseline, gout diagnosis, the instantaneous risk of the primary outcome was significantly associated with prior gout diagnosis (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.15 [1.07-1.25]; P=0.0004). Conclusions A clinical history of gout is associated with worse outcomes in a contemporary population of patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. This increased risk exists despite high levels of optimal baseline cardiovascular disease medical therapy, suggesting that residual cardiovascular risk is not addressed by standard medical therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.009328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6201404PMC
August 2018

Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing PCI: Insights from the TRANSLATE ACS study.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2019 03 23;93(4):E204-E210. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Introduction: Concomitant use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) and P2Y inhibitors increases bleeding risk. How GPIs are being used with faster onset, higher potency P2Y inhibitors are unclear.

Methods And Results: We studied 11,781 myocardial infarction (MI) patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at 233 hospitals in the TRANSLATE ACS study (2010-2012). We used propensity matching to compare 6-week major adverse cardiac events (MACE: death, recurrent MI, stroke, or unplanned revascularization) and BARC 2+ bleeding events between patients who did and did not receive planned GPI. Planned and bailout GPI were used in 4,983 (42.2%) and 229 (4.4%) MI patients undergoing PCI, respectively. Patients receiving planned GPI were younger (58 vs. 61 years), more likely to present with STEMI (62.6% vs. 45.4%) or have stent thrombosis (4.2% vs. 2.1%, all P < 0.001) than those without planned GPI use. Planned GPI was used less often with prasugrel/ticagrelor versus clopidogrel (37.1% vs. 43.3%), or when any P2Y inhibitor was given >6 hr prior to PCI versus earlier (27.8% vs. 44.4%, both P < 0.01). After propensity matching, planned GPI use was not associated with any difference in MACE (6.4% vs. 5.5% OR 1.18; 95% CI: 0.99-1.57), however, the risk of BARC 2+ bleeding was higher in patients who received planned GPI (11.3% vs. 8.7%; OR 1.34; 95% CI: 1.13-1.59).

Conclusion: Planned GPI use as reported by practicing physicians was prevalent between 2010 and 2012 and was associated with increased risk of bleeding but not lower MACE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.27816DOI Listing
March 2019

Major Adverse Limb Events and 1-Year Outcomes After Peripheral Artery Revascularization.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 08;72(9):999-1011

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado; CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado.

Background: Revascularization is important for symptom treatment and limb salvage in peripheral artery disease, yet little data exist on the incidence of post-procedure major adverse limb events (MALE) and longer-term outcomes.

Objectives: This study sought to characterize hospitalizations and outpatient endovascular revascularizations after peripheral artery revascularization, assess temporal trends for outcomes, and identify factors associated with subsequent MALE hospitalization.

Methods: Patients undergoing peripheral artery revascularization between January 1, 2009, and September 30, 2014, in the Premier Healthcare Database were examined for the primary outcome of 1-year MALE hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included 1-year outpatient endovascular revascularization and limb-related, cardiovascular, and all-cause inpatient hospitalizations. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with 1-year MALE hospitalization.

Results: Among 381,415 revascularized patients, within 1 year post-index revascularization, 10.3% (n = 10,182) had a hospitalization for MALE, 11.0% (n = 42,056) had an outpatient endovascular revascularization, 18.8% (n = 71,663) had a limb-related hospitalization, 12.8% (n = 48,875) had a cardiovascular hospitalization, and 38.9% (n = 148,457) had any inpatient hospitalization. Over the study period, limb-related, cardiovascular, and all-cause hospitalizations decreased, whereas rates of outpatient endovascular revascularizations increased. Male sex, black race, Medicare and Medicaid insurance, diabetes, renal insufficiency, heart failure, smoking, baseline critical or acute limb ischemia, surgical revascularization, and noncardiology operator specialty were significantly associated with increased risk of MALE hospitalization.

Conclusions: In contemporary practice, hospitalization for MALE occurs in 1 in 10 patients within 1 year after peripheral revascularization and is associated with patient and procedural factors. These data may inform efforts to improve post-procedure outcomes and limb-related clinical trial design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.06.041DOI Listing
August 2018

Antithrombotic Therapy for Peripheral Artery Disease in 2018.

JAMA 2018 Jun;319(22):2329-2330

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and CPC Clinical Research, Aurora.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.5422DOI Listing
June 2018
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