Publications by authors named "Connie Mennella"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Outbreak of COVID-19 and interventions in a large jail - Cook County, IL, United States, 2020.

Am J Infect Control 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Division of Viral Hepatitis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Electronic address:

Background: Correctional and detention facilities are disproportionately affected by COVID-19 due to shared space, contact between staff and detained persons, and movement within facilities. On March 18, 2020, Cook County Jail, one of the United States' largest, identified its first suspected case of COVID-19 in a detained person.

Methods: This analysis includes SARS-CoV-2 cases confirmed by molecular detection among detained persons and Cook County Sheriff's Office staff. We examined occurrence of symptomatic cases in each building and proportions of asymptomatic detained persons testing positive, and timing of interventions including social distancing, mask use, and expanded testing and show outbreak trajectory in the jail compared to case counts in Chicago.

Results: During March 1-April 30, 907 symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were detected among detained persons (n = 628) and staff (n = 279). Among asymptomatic detained persons in quarantine, 23.6% tested positive. Programmatic activity and visitation stopped March 9, cells were converted into single occupancy beginning March 26, and universal masking was implemented for staff (April 2) and detained persons (April 13). Cases at the jail declined while cases in Chicago increased.

Discussion/conclusions: Aggressive intervention strategies coupled with widespread diagnostic testing of detained and staff populations can limit introduction and mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection in correctional and detention facilities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2021.03.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8016534PMC
April 2021

Identification of Presymptomatic and Asymptomatic Cases Using Cohort-Based Testing Approaches at a Large Correctional Facility-Chicago, Illinois, USA, May 2020.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 03;72(5):e128-e135

Cermak Health Services, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Correctional and detention facilities are at high risk of experiencing outbreaks. We aimed to evaluate cohort-based testing among detained persons exposed to laboratory-confirmed cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in order to identify presymptomatic and asymptomatic cases.

Methods: During 1-19 May 2020, 2 testing strategies were implemented in 12 tiers or housing units of the Cook County Jail, Chicago, Illinois. Detained persons were approached to participate in serial testing (n = 137) and offered tests at 3 time points over 14 days (day 1, days 3-5, and days 13-14). The second group was offered a single test and interview at the end of a 14-day quarantine period (day 14 group) (n = 87).

Results: 224 detained persons were approached for participation and, of these, 194 (87%) participated in ≥1 interview and 172 (77%) had ≥1 test. Of the 172 tested, 19 were positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the serial testing group, 17 (89%) new cases were detected, 16 (84%) on day 1, 1 (5%) on days 3-5, and none on days 13-14; in the day 14 group, 2 (11%) cases were identified. More than half (12/19; 63%) of the newly identified cases were presymptomatic or asymptomatic.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight the utility of cohort-based testing promptly after initiating quarantine within a housing tier. Cohort-based testing efforts identified new SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic and presymptomatic infections that may have been missed by symptom screening alone.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799274PMC
March 2021

Network Characteristics and Visualization of COVID-19 Outbreak in a Large Detention Facility in the United States - Cook County, Illinois, 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Nov 6;69(44):1625-1630. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Correctional and detention facilities have been disproportionately affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because of shared space and movement of staff members and detained persons within facilities (1,2). During March 1-April 30, 2020, at Cook County Jail in Chicago, Illinois, >900 COVID-19 cases were diagnosed across all 10 housing divisions, representing 13 unique buildings. Movement within the jail was examined through network analyses and visualization, a field that examines elements within a network and the connections between them. This methodology has been used to supplement contact tracing investigations for tuberculosis and to understand how social networks contribute to transmission of sexually transmitted infections (3-5). Movements and connections of 5,884 persons (3,843 [65%] detained persons and 2,041 [35%] staff members) at the jail during March 1-April 30 were analyzed. A total of 472 (12.3%) COVID-19 cases were identified among detained persons and 198 (9.7%) among staff members. Among 103,701 shared-shift connections among staff members, 1.4% occurred between persons with COVID-19, a percentage that is significantly higher than the expected 0.9% by random occurrence alone (p<0.001), suggesting that additional transmission occurred within this group. The observed connections among detained persons with COVID-19 were significantly lower than expected (1.0% versus 1.1%, p<0.001) when considering only the housing units in which initial transmission occurred, suggesting that the systematic isolation of persons with COVID-19 is effective at limiting transmission. A network-informed approach can identify likely points of high transmission, allowing for interventions to reduce transmission targeted at these groups or locations, such as by reducing convening of staff members, closing breakrooms, and cessation of contact sports.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6944a3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643900PMC
November 2020

Predominance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections in a large urban jail: risk factors and recurrence rates.

J Clin Microbiol 2008 Oct 6;46(10):3222-7. Epub 2008 Aug 6.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC 6054, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

In the 1990s, community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains emerged as pathogens outside of the health care environment. Epidemic foci of CA-MRSA infections were reported in jails and prisons, but risk factors for MRSA infection there are not known. All skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) cultured in the Cook County Jail in March 2004 to August 2005 were reviewed. Demographic and clinical risk factors were compared among patients with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) SSTIs and those with MRSA SSTIs. Antibiotic susceptibilities were recorded, and we performed multilocus sequence typing on a sample of MRSA isolates. There were 378 SSTIs from different patients requiring culture, of which 240 (63.5%) were of MRSA and 43 (11.4%) were of MSSA; 84.8% of S. aureus isolates were MRSA. MRSA- and MSSA-infected patients were similar with regard to age, gender, ethnicity, previous exposure to the jail, and comorbidities. In the 12 months prior to the index culture, MRSA patients were more likely to have received a beta-lactam antibiotic (25% versus 9%; P = 0.02). Among 26 MRSA strains, 24 (92%) had the sequence type 8 (ST8) genotype. Within 6 months, 14% (95% confidence interval, 8.7% to 22.3%) of MRSA SSTI patients in the jail had a recurrent SSTI compared with 8.8% (95% confidence interval, 2.1% to 32.6%) of MSSA SSTI patients (P = 0.004). MRSA is the predominant cause of SSTIs requiring culture in the jail. Few risk factors differentiated MRSA from MSSA SSTIs, and detainee patients with MRSA SSTIs are at high risk for recurrent SSTIs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01423-08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2566069PMC
October 2008

Deaths in the Cook County jail: 10-year report, 1995-2004.

J Urban Health 2007 Jan;84(1):70-84

Division of Epidemiology/Biostatistics, University of Illinois at Chicago, School of Public Health, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

The aims of this study were to describe causes of death during the 10-year period between 1995 and 2004 in a large urban jail in Chicago; to compare disease specific mortality rates between the jail population and the general population; to explore demographic and incarceration characteristics of the inmates who died in the jail by cause of death; and to examine gender difference in demographic characteristics, incarceration patterns, and causes of death. A total of 178 deaths occurring in the jail over a 10-year period (1995-2004) were reviewed. Age-adjusted disease-specific mortality rates were computed for the jail population and compared with the rates in the US general population. Cause of death, demographic variables, and incarceration related factors were retrieved from multiple computerized databases. Descriptive analyses were performed to examine demographic and incarceration-related patterns by cause of death and gender. Heart disease was the most frequent cause of death in the jail population, followed by cerebrovascular disease and suicide. Mortality rates for heart diseases, infectious/inflammatory conditions and suicide were higher for jail inmates than the general population. Black inmates accounted for the majority of deaths due to illnesses and homicide, and a much higher proportion of white and Hispanic inmates were involved in suicide deaths. Deaths due to drug overdose or withdrawal were disproportionately higher among female inmates compared with male inmates. Consistent review of mortality rates and causes of deaths in jail can be a useful tool to better understand health issues and needs of jail inmates. Surveillance of acute and chronic illnesses and strategic reengineering of jail health care is a key to quality improvement for incarcerated populations for whom the jail system becomes their primary care provider.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11524-006-9115-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2078256PMC
January 2007
-->