Publications by authors named "Cong Zhang"

678 Publications

Infrared Small Target Detection Method with Trajectory Correction Fuze Based on Infrared Image Sensor.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 1;21(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Science and Technology on Electromechanical Dynamic Control Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

Due to the complexity of background and diversity of small targets, robust detection of infrared small targets for the trajectory correction fuze has become a challenge. To solve this problem, different from the traditional method, a state-of-the-art detection method based on density-distance space is proposed to apply to the trajectory correction fuze. First, parameters of the infrared image sensor on the fuze are calculated to set the boundary limitations for the target detection method. Second, the density-distance space method is proposed to detect the candidate targets. Finally, the adaptive pixel growth (APG) algorithm is used to suppress the clutter so as to detect the real targets. Three experiments, including equivalent detection, simulation and hardware-in-loop, were implemented to verify the effectiveness of this method. Results illustrated that the infrared image sensor on the fuze has a stable field of view under rotation of the projectile, and could clearly observe the infrared small target. The proposed method has superior anti-noise, different size target detection, multi-target detection and various clutter suppression capability. Compared with six novel algorithms, our algorithm shows a perfect detection performance and acceptable time consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21134522DOI Listing
July 2021

Mode converter with C+L band coverage based on the femtosecond laser inscribed long period fiber grating.

Opt Lett 2021 Jul;46(14):3340-3343

The mode converter (MC) is one of the key components for mode division multiplexing (MDM). Here, we experimentally demonstrate an all-fiber long period grating (LPG) based MC inscribed in the few-mode fiber (FMF) with the line-by-line femtosecond laser irradiation technique. Experimental characterization results agree well with the theoretical calculations, and a clear mode evolution from the mode to the mode is observed with the tuning of the operation wavelength. An average mode conversion efficiency of more than 90% and an average insertion loss of less than 5 dB, together with a polarization-dependent loss of less than 3 dB, are achieved over the C+L band with a good repeatability. The proposed MC based on the LPG inscribed into the FMF has the advantages of mode scalability, compact size, and wideband operation, which is desired for the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and MDM hybrid transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.431760DOI Listing
July 2021

Severe complications and management of a patient with myasthenia gravis undergoing anterior cervical spinal surgery: a case report.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Orthopedics, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Surgical management of patients with comorbid long-term myasthenia gravis (MG) is particularly challenging and MG thus represents an independent risk factor for perioperative complications. However, few studies have reported on the perioperative assessment, prevention measures, and risks in MG patients undergoing major surgery, especially for anterior cervical spine surgery. We herein report the rare case of a 62-year-old man with a 20-year history of MG, who was admitted to our hospital with diagnosis of degenerative cervical spondylosis. He safely underwent anterior cervical corpectomy of C4, discectomy of C5-6, and fusion of C3-6. Intraoperative motor evoked potential was recorded to detect significant improvement after decompression. However, the patient suffered from progressive dysphagia, bucking, and hyperpyrexia 20 days after the initial operation. Imaging revealed titanium cage sliding and graft dislodgement. Secondary surgery was performed for posterior internal fixation from C2-7 and anterior revision from C3-6 after Halo-Vest traction, antibiotic treatment, and immunoglobulin therapy. He underwent a series of postoperative treatments, including cervicothoracolumbosacral orthosis, atomization inhalation, chest physiotherapy, antibiotics, and nutritional support. His condition improved markedly and he had no recurrence of symptoms during the 6-month follow-up. It is the rare reported case of anterior cervical spinal surgery in a patient with MG. This rare case indicates a relative contraindication to anterior-only approaches especially with multiple levels for MG patients with cervical spondylosis. Posterior approach, intraoperative monitoring, osteoporosis, postoperative strong brace protection, and supportive management should be considered for patients who were on large doses of steroids for long duration of time, given the lack of sufficient bone mineral density.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-695DOI Listing
June 2021

Integrated Multiomic Analysis Reveals the High-Fat Diet Induced Activation of the MAPK Signaling and Inflammation Associated Metabolic Cascades via Histone Modification in Adipose Tissues.

Front Genet 2021 28;12:650863. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Institute of Precision Medicine, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: The number of diet induced obese population is increasing every year, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes is also on the rise. Histone methylation and acetylation have been shown to be associated with lipogenesis and obesity by manipulating gene expression via the formation of repression or activation domains on chromosomes.

Objective: In this study, we aimed to explore gene activation or repression and related biological processes by histone modification across the whole genome on a high-fat diet (HFD) condition. We also aimed to elucidate the correlation of these genes that modulated by histone modification with energy metabolism and inflammation under both short-term and long-term HFD conditions.

Method: We performed ChIP-seq analysis of H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 in brown and white adipose tissues (WATs; subcutaneous adipose tissue) from mice fed with a standard chow diet (SCD) or HFD and a composite analysis of the histone modification of H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K4me1 and H3K27ac throughout the whole genome. We also employed and integrated two bulk RNA-seq and a single-nuclei RNA sequencing dataset and performed western blotting (WB) to confirm the gene expression levels in adipose tissue of the SCD and HFD groups.

Results: The ChIP-seq and transcriptome analysis of mouse adipose tissues demonstrated that a series of genes were activated by the histone modification of H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K4me1, and H3K27ac in response to HFD condition. These genes were enriched in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways involved in lipogenesis, energy metabolism and inflammation. Several genes in the activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway might be related to both inflammation and energy metabolism in mice, rats and humans fed with HFD for a short or long term, as showed by bulk RNA-seq and single nuclei RNA-seq datasets. Western blot analyses further confirmed the increased expression of , and the enhanced phosphorylation ratio of p44/42 MAPK upon HFD treatment.

Conclusion: This study expanded our understanding of the influence of eating behavior on obesity and could assist the identification of putative therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.650863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273343PMC
June 2021

Ferrite-encapsulated nanoparticles with stable photothermal performance for multimodal imaging-guided atherosclerotic plaque neovascularization therapy.

Biomater Sci 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Cardiovascular Institute, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, P. R. China. and Department of Pathophysiology and Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Medicine Research (Harbin Medical University), Ministry of Education, Harbin 150086, P. R. China.

Pathological angiogenesis is a critical contributor to atherosclerotic plaque rupture. However, there are few effective theranostic strategies to stabilize plaques by suppressing neovascularization. In this study, we fabricated a polymeric nanosystem using 3 nm manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) and perfluorohexane (PFH) stabilized by polylactic acid-glycolic acid (PLGA) shells and conjugated to the surface of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) antibody [ramucirumab (Ram)]. The [email protected]/MnFe2O4-Ram nanoparticles (NPs) were used as atherosclerotic plaque angiogenesis theranostics for multimodal imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT). Three-nanometer MnFe2O4 is an excellent magnetic resonance imaging T1 and photoacoustic imaging contrast agent. Upon exposure to near-infrared (NIR) light, MnFe2O4 in the NPs could transform NIR light into thermal energy for the photothermal elimination of plaque angiogenesis. Additionally, optical droplet vaporization of PFH in the NPs triggered by the thermal effect to form gas bubbles enhanced ultrasound imaging. Our in vitro experiments revealed that [email protected]/MnFe2O4-Ram NPs actively accumulated in rabbit aortic endothelial cells, and NP-mediated PTT promoted endothelial cell apoptosis while inhibiting their proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis. Notably, the [email protected]/MnFe2O4-Ram NPs possessed excellent photostability and biocompatibility. In the rabbit advanced atherosclerotic plaque model, [email protected]/MnFe2O4-Ram NP-guided PTT significantly induced apoptosis of neovascular endothelial cells and improved the hypoxia status in the plaque 3 days after treatment. On day 28, PTT significantly reduced the density of neovessels and subsequently stabilized rabbit plaques by inhibiting plaque hemorrhage and macrophage infiltration. Collectively, these results suggest that [email protected]/MnFe2O4-Ram NP-guided PTT is a safe and effective theranostic strategy for inhibiting atherosclerotic plaque angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm00343gDOI Listing
July 2021

Antisolvent- and Annealing-Free Deposition for Highly Stable Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells via Modified ZnO.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jul 7;8(13):2002860. Epub 2021 May 7.

Materials Science and Engineering Pennsylvania State University University Park PA 16802 USA.

Even though ZnO is commonly used as the ETL in the perovskite solar cell (PSC), the reactivity of perovskite deposited thereupon limits its performance. Herein, an ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid-complexed ZnO (E-ZnO) is successfully developed as a significantly improved electron selective layer (ESLs) in perovskite device. It is found that E-ZnO exhibits higher electron mobility and better matched energy level with perovskite compared to ZnO. In addition, in order to eliminate the proton transfer reaction at the ZnO/perovskite interface, a high quality perovskite film fabrication process that requires neither annealing nor antisolvent is developed. By taking advantages of both E-ZnO and the new process, the highest efficiency of 20.39% is obtained for PSCs based on E-ZnO. Moreover, the efficiency of unencapsulated PSCs with E-ZnO retains 95% of its initial value exposed in an ambient atmosphere after 3604 h. This work provides a feasible path toward high performance of PSCs, and it is believed that the present work will facilitate transition of perovskite photovoltaics in flexible and tandem devices since the annealing- and antisolvent-free technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202002860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261502PMC
July 2021

Hypoxia-alleviated nanoplatform to enhance chemosensitivity and sonodynamic effect in pancreatic cancer.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jul 8;520:100-108. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310009, China; Research Center of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biomedical Engineering, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310009, China. Electronic address:

Pancreatic cancer is a severe disease that threatens human health. The hypoxic tumor microenvironment in pancreatic cancer leads to resistance to conventional therapies and helps to maintain tumor malignancy. First-line drugs present the disadvantage of systemic side effects, and a synergistic method with sonodynamic therapy (SDT) has been established as an emerging approach. In this study, we produced hypoxia-alleviating nanoplatforms (denoted as PZGI NPs) with zeolitic imidazolate frameworks-90 (ZIF-90) nanoparticles nucleating on platinum (Pt) nanoparticles and co-loaded with gemcitabine and IR780. This platform can catalyze peroxide to oxygen with loaded Pt nanoparticles to alleviate tumor hypoxia. Moreover, the loaded drugs could be quickly released in the lysosome microenvironment, which has a low pH value and high ATP level microenvironment in the mitochondria. This strategy could enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Further, under ultrasound exposure, it could transfer the produced oxygen into a highly cytotoxic singlet oxygen for the augmented sonodynamic effect. Therefore, this multifunctional hypoxia-alleviating nanoplatform offers a promising strategy for chemo-sonodynamic therapy against pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.07.008DOI Listing
July 2021

A simulation study investigating potential diffusion-based MRI signatures of microstrokes.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 9;11(1):14229. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Laboratory of Optical and Molecular Imaging, École Polytechnique de Montréal, 2900 Edouard Montpetit Blvd, Montreal, QC, H3T 1J4, Canada.

Recent studies suggested that cerebrovascular micro-occlusions, i.e. microstokes, could lead to ischemic tissue infarctions and cognitive deficits. Due to their small size, identifying measurable biomarkers of these microvascular lesions remains a major challenge. This work aims to simulate potential MRI signatures combining arterial spin labeling (ASL) and multi-directional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Driving our hypothesis are recent observations demonstrating a radial reorientation of microvasculature around the micro-infarction locus during recovery in mice. Synthetic capillary beds, randomly- and radially-oriented, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiograms, acquired in the barrel cortex of mice (n = 5) before and after inducing targeted photothrombosis, were analyzed. Computational vascular graphs combined with a 3D Monte-Carlo simulator were used to characterize the magnetic resonance (MR) response, encompassing the effects of magnetic field perturbations caused by deoxyhemoglobin, and the advection and diffusion of the nuclear spins. We quantified the minimal intravoxel signal loss ratio when applying multiple gradient directions, at varying sequence parameters with and without ASL. With ASL, our results demonstrate a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the signal-ratios computed at baseline and 3 weeks after photothrombosis. The statistical power further increased (p < 0.005) using angiograms measured at week 4. Without ASL, no reliable signal change was found. We found that higher ratios, and accordingly improved significance, were achieved at lower magnetic field strengths (e.g., B0 = 3T) and shorter echo time TE (< 16 ms). Our simulations suggest that microstrokes might be characterized through ASL-DWI sequence, providing necessary insights for posterior experimental validations, and ultimately, future translational trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93503-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271016PMC
July 2021

Comparing acoustic analyses of speech data collected remotely.

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 06;149(6):3910

Faculty of Arts, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Gelderland, 6500 HD, The Netherlands.

Face-to-face speech data collection has been next to impossible globally as a result of the COVID-19 restrictions. To address this problem, simultaneous recordings of three repetitions of the cardinal vowels were made using a Zoom H6 Handy Recorder with an external microphone (henceforth, H6) and compared with two alternatives accessible to potential participants at home: the Zoom meeting application (henceforth, Zoom) and two lossless mobile phone applications (Awesome Voice Recorder, and Recorder; henceforth, Phone). F0 was tracked accurately by all of the devices; however, for formant analysis (F1, F2, F3), Phone performed better than Zoom, i.e., more similarly to H6, although the data extraction method (VoiceSauce, Praat) also resulted in differences. In addition, Zoom recordings exhibited unexpected drops in intensity. The results suggest that lossless format phone recordings present a viable option for at least some phonetic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0005132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269758PMC
June 2021

Bidirectional role of reactive oxygen species during inflammasome activation in acrolein-induced human EAhy926 cells pyroptosis.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2021 Jul 8:1-28. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, the Affiliated Zhong Shan Hospital of Dalian University, Dalian, 116001, Liaoning, PR China.

Acrolein, a known toxin in tobacco smoke, has been demonstrated to be associated with inflammatory cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. However, the definite mechanism of acrolein-induced inflammation remains unclear. Here, we report that acrolein induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in EAhy926 cells. Additionally, acrolein induces EAhy926 cells inflammatory response and pyroptosis by activating NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Also, acrolein-induced cytotoxicity could be attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, acrolein upregulates the level of autophagy which can be reversed by NAC. Notably, the present study also indicates that autophagy inhibited by inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MA) and siAtg7 exacerbate acrolein-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis. In summary, acrolein induced cytotoxicity by ROS-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and ROS upregulates the level of autophagy to inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome excessive activation, indicating the bidirectional role of ROS in acrolein-induced cellular inflammation. Our results may provide novel mechanistic insights into acrolein-induced cardiovascular toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2021.1953204DOI Listing
July 2021

MEHP induces pyroptosis and autophagy alternation by cathepsin B activation in INS-1 cells.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, School of Public Health, College of Public Health, Dalian Medical University, No.9, West Segment of South lvshun Road, Dalian, 116044, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is a primary metabolite of di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the organism, which is a major component of plasticizers used worldwide. Exposure to DEHP causes pancreatic beta-cell (INS-1 cells) dysfunction, which is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The present study shows that MEHP decreases the cell viability of INS-1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner and induces pyroptosis at 400 μM. Furthermore, the 400 μM MEHP causes increased lysosomal membrane permeability and cathepsin B (CTSB) release, resulting in NLRP3 activation and pyroptosis. Additionally, low concentration of MEHP (50-200 μM) induces upregulation of autophagy, while 400 μM MEHP reduces autophagy level in INS-1 cells via altering mTORC1 phosphorylation. Surprisingly, CTSB contributes to mTORC1 activation in INS-1 cells treated with 400 μM MEHP. Furthermore, autophagy can alleviate inflammatory response by reducing CTSB activation in MEHP-treated INS-1 cells. These results indicate that exposure to MEHP induces pyroptosis and upregulates autophagy levels in a CTSB-dependent manner, and autophagy plays an essential role in pyroptosis onset in INS-1 cells. Our findings provide a new perspective of the connection between CTSB and autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14997-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluation of the value of Preoperative Sialic Acid Levels in Diagnosis and Localization of Urothelial Tumors.

J Cancer 2021 16;12(16):5066-5075. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Urology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Wenhuaxi Road 107#, Jinan, 250012, P.R. China.

To explore SA levels in the serum of urothelial tumor patients and their correlation with clinical pathological features and localization. Our research retrospectively collected data from 591 patients with urothelial tumors between July 2014 and April 2018. The SA levels in the serum of urothelial tumor patients and their correlation with clinical pathological features and localization were investigated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were further performed to identify independent associations. The levels of SA were significantly associated with the malignant degree (tumor grade and infiltration) of bladder cancer and tumor localization (all < 0.05). The multivariate logistic regression model showed that SA levels were independently associated with the presence of high-grade urothelial carcinoma (BUC: HR = 1.941, UTUC: HR = 3.820, all <0.05) and upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (HR = 2.047, < 0.05). Finally, we validated the diagnosis and localization value of SA in an independent cohort from another institutions. Elevated serum SA levels are an independent predictor of high-grade urothelial carcinoma and upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma, indicating that SA levels may be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis and localization of urothelial tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.45648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247387PMC
June 2021

Eight months follow-up study on pulmonary function, lung radiographic, and related physiological characteristics in COVID-19 survivors.

Sci Rep 2021 07 5;11(1):13854. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care MedicineTongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

To describe the long-term health outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and investigate the potential risk factors. Clinical data during hospitalization and at a mean (SD) day of 249 (15) days after discharge from 40 survivors with confirmed COVID-19 (including 25 severe cases) were collected and analyzed retrospectively. At follow-up, severe cases had higher incidences of persistent symptoms, DLCO impairment, and higher abnormal CT score as compared with mild cases. CT score at follow-up was positively correlated with age, LDH level, cumulative days of oxygen treatment, total dosage of glucocorticoids used, and CT peak score during hospitalization. DLCO% at follow-up was negatively correlated with cumulative days of oxygen treatment during hospitalization. DLCO/VA% at follow-up was positively correlated with BMI, and TNF-α level. Among the three groups categorized as survivors with normal DLCO, abnormal DLCO but normal DLCO/VA, and abnormal DLCO and DLCO/VA, survivors with abnormal DLCO and DLCO/VA had the lowest serum IL-2R, IL-8, and TNF-α level, while the survivors with abnormal DLCO but normal DLCO/VA had the highest levels of inflammatory cytokines during hospitalization. Altogether, COVID-19 had a greater long-term impact on the lung physiology of severe cases. The long-term radiological abnormality maybe relate to old age and the severity of COVID-19. Either absent or excess of inflammation during COVID-19 course would lead to the impairment of pulmonary diffusion function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93191-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257634PMC
July 2021

Hypofunction of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Aggravated Severity in Elderly Male Patients With Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Its Association With Systemic Inflammation.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 17;8:687590. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Emergency, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Aging patients easily suffer from non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Our previous studies revealed declined function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the elderly. However, the impact of aging on EPC function and severity in male NSTEMI patients and its possible mechanism is unclear until now. We measured the circulating EPC function including migration, proliferation, and adhesion in aging or young male patients with NSTEMI. The GRACE and TIMI risk score were evaluated. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) were also detected in all patients. Compared with the young group, the old male patients with NSTEMI had higher GRACE score and TIMI score and decreased function of circulating EPCs. EPC function was negatively correlated with GRACE score and TIMI score. IL-6 and IL-17 level were higher in the old group than those in the young group. There was a significant negative correlation between EPC function and IL-6 or IL-17. Moreover, IL-6 and IL-17 positively correlated with GRACE and TIMI score. Age was positively related with GRACE or TIMI score and plasma level of IL-6 or IL-17, but inversely correlated with EPC function. The current study firstly illustrates that the age-related decrement in EPC function is related to the severity of NSTEMI in male patients, which may be connected with systemic inflammation. These findings provide novel insights into the pathogenetic mechanism and intervention target of aging NSTEMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.687590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247906PMC
June 2021

SAVSDN: A Scene-Aware Video Spark Detection Network for Aero Engine Intelligent Test.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 29;21(13). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

AECC Sichuan Gas Turbine Establishment, Mianyang 621000, China.

Due to carbon deposits, lean flames, or damaged metal parts, sparks can occur in aero engine chambers. At present, the detection of such sparks deeply depends on laborious manual work. Considering that interference has the same features as sparks, almost all existing object detectors cannot replace humans in carrying out high-precision spark detection. In this paper, we propose a scene-aware spark detection network, consisting of an information fusion-based cascading video codec-image object detector structure, which we name SAVSDN. Unlike video object detectors utilizing candidate boxes from adjacent frames to assist in the current prediction, we find that efforts should be made to extract the spatio-temporal features of adjacent frames to reduce over-detection. Visualization experiments show that SAVSDN can learn the difference in spatio-temporal features between sparks and interference. To solve the problem of a lack of aero engine anomalous spark data, we introduce a method to generate simulated spark images based on the Gaussian function. In addition, we publish the first simulated aero engine spark data set, which we name SAES. In our experiments, SAVSDN far outperformed state-of-the-art detection models for spark detection in terms of five metrics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21134453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271832PMC
June 2021

Silicone Elastomer with Self-Generating Zwitterions for Antifouling Coatings.

Langmuir 2021 07 30;37(27):8253-8260. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, P. R. China.

Silicone elastomer-based fouling release coatings have been gaining increased attention in marine antibiofouling. However, the lack of fouling resistance limits their application. Introducing a zwitterionic polymer into silicone enhances its fouling resistance, but their incompatibility makes this challenging. In this work, a silicone elastomer with zwitterionic pendant chains has been prepared by grafting a telomer of tertiary carboxybetaine dodecafluoroheptyl ester ethyl acrylate (TCBF) and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane to the bis-silanol-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The fluorocarbon groups drive the telomer onto the surface in the film formation process, while the TCBF groups hydrolyze and generate zwitterions on the surface, which is confirmed by attenuated total reflection infrared spectra analysis and water contact angle measurements. Bioassays using marine bacteria ( sp.) and diatoms () demonstrate that the antifouling efficacy is improved as the telomer content increases. The bacteria and diatom adhesion decreases by 95 and 81%, respectively, for the PDMS with 30 wt % telomer compared with the unmodified PDMS control. Meanwhile, the fouling release performance of PDMS is maintained with a pseudobarnacle removal strength of ∼0.1 MPa. This work provides a facile way to fabricate efficient silicone-based antifouling coatings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00984DOI Listing
July 2021

SNORA42 promotes oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma development through triggering the DHX9/p65 axis.

Genomics 2021 Jun 26;113(5):3015-3029. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Research Center, the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050011, Hebei, China. Electronic address:

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are an important group of non-coding RNAs that have been reported to play a key role in the occurrence and development of various cancers. Here we demonstrate that Small nucleolar RNA 42 (SNORA42) enhanced the proliferation and migration of Oesophageal squamous carcinoma cells (ESCC) via the DHX9/p65 axis. Our results found that SNORA42 was significantly upregulated in ESCC cell lines, tissues and serum of ESCC patients. The high expression level of SNORA42 was positively correlated with malignant characteristics and over survival probability of patients with ESCC. Through in vitro and in vivo approaches, we demonstrated that knockdown of SNORA42 significantly impeded ESCC growth and metastasis whereas overexpression of SNORA42 got opposite effects. Mechanically, SNORA42 promoted DHX9 expression by attenuating DHX9 transports into the cytoplasm, to protect DHX9 from being ubiquitinated and degraded. From the KEGG analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing, the NF-κB pathway was one of the most regulated pathways by SNORA42. SNORA42 enhanced phosphorylation of p65 and this effect could be reversed by NF-κB inhibitor, BAY11-7082. Moreover, SNORA42 activated NF-κB signaling through promoting the transcriptional co-activator DHX9 interacted with p-p65, inducing NF-κB downstream gene expression. In summary, our study highlights the potential of SNORA42 is up-regulated in ESCC and promotes ESCC development partly via interacting with DHX9 and triggering the DHX9/p65 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.06.036DOI Listing
June 2021

US-Based Deep Learning Model for Differentiating Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) From Other Malignancy in Cirrhotic Patients.

Front Oncol 2021 8;11:672055. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Ultrasound, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

The aim was to build a predictive model based on ultrasonography (US)-based deep learning model (US-DLM) and clinical features (Clin) for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from other malignancy (OM) in cirrhotic patients. 112 patients with 120 HCCs and 60 patients with 61 OMs were included. They were randomly divided into training and test cohorts with a 4:1 ratio for developing and evaluating US-DLM model, respectively. Significant Clin predictors of OM in the training cohort were combined with US-DLM to build a nomogram predictive model (US-DLM+Clin). The diagnostic performance of US-DLM and US-DLM+Clin were compared with that of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) liver imaging and reporting system category M (MRI LR-M). US-DLM was the best independent predictor for evaluating OMs, followed by clinical information, including high cancer antigen 199 (CA199) level and female. The US-DLM achieved an AUC of 0.74 in the test cohort, which was comparable with that of MRI LR-M (AUC=0.84, p=0.232). The US-DLM+Clin for predicting OMs also had similar AUC value (0.81) compared with that of LR-M+Clin (0.83, p>0.05). US-DLM+Clin obtained a higher specificity, but a lower sensitivity, compared to that of LR-M +Clin (Specificity: 82.6% 73.9%, p=0.007; Sensitivity: 78.6% 92.9%, p=0.006) for evaluating OMs in the test set. The US-DLM+Clin model is valuable in differentiating HCC from OM in the setting of cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.672055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217663PMC
June 2021

Mechanisms of COVID-19 thrombosis in an inflammatory environment and new anticoagulant targets.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(5):3925-3941. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Hematology, The First Hospital of Harbin, Harbin Medical University Harbin, China.

COVID-19 is widely epidemic in the world and poses a great threat to our life. Coagulopathy is one of the major characteristics in the COVID-19 patients. A growing number of studies have found that the severe COVID-19 patients have thrombotic microangiopathy and thromboembolism. Coagulopathy associated with increased risk of death in the patients. Unfortunately, the mechanism of coagulopathy is not clearly addressed. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanism of COVID-19 thrombosis and improving the coagulopathy through efficient treatment may help to stop disease progression, reduce mortality and sequelae. In severe COVID-19 patients, inflammation, cytokine storm, and coagulation are closely related, which together cause blood congestion and thrombosis. Many cytokines activate blood cells, expressing activating factors or releasing activated microparticles, and then accelerating thrombosis. However, the role of blood cells is not well understood in COVID-19 patients. In addition, cytokines stimulate endothelial cells, transforming them into a procoagulant phenotype. Therefore, determine their role and propose new strategies for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis in severe COVID-19 patients. We outline the major events of coagulopathies, discuss the role of blood and endothelial cells in thrombosis, to formulate a new anticoagulation protocol.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205677PMC
May 2021

The protective effect of nnano-selenium against cadmium-induced cerebellar injury via the heat shock protein pathway in chicken.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Aug 9;154:112332. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, PR China; Key Laboratory of the Provincial Education Department of Heilongjiang for Common Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, PR China; Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Laboratory Animals and Comparative Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, PR China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the toxic environmental heavy metals that poses health hazard to animals due to its toxicity. Nano-Selenium (Nano-Se) is a Nano-composite form of Se, which has emerged as a promising therapeutic agent for its protective roles against heavy metals-induced toxicity. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play a critical role in cellular homeostasis. However, the potential protective effects of Nano-Se against Cd-induced cerebellar toxicity remain to be illustrated. To investigate the toxic effects of Cd on chicken's cerebellum, and the protective effects of Nano-Se against Cd-induced cerebellar toxicity, a total of 80 male chicks were divided into four groups and treated as follows: (A) 0 mg/kg Cd, (B) 1 mg/kg Nano-Se (C) 140 mg/kg Cd + 1 mg/kg Nano-Se (D) 140 mg/kg Cd for 90 days. We tested heat shock protein pathway-related factors including heat shock factors (HSFs) HSF1, HSF2, HSF3 and heat shock proteins (HSPs) HSP10, HSP25, HSP27, HSP40, HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 expressions. Histopathological results showed that Cd treatment caused degradation of Purkinje cells. In addition, HSFs and HSPs expression decreased significantly in the Cd group. Nano-Se co-treatment with Cd enhanced the expression of HSFs and HSPs. In summary, our findings explicated a potential protective effect of Nano-Se against Cd-induced cerebellar injury in chicken, suggesting that Nano-Se is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of Cd toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112332DOI Listing
August 2021

Downregulation of decidual SKP2 is associated with human recurrent miscarriage.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2021 Jun 11;19(1):88. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200135, China.

Background: Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is a very frustrating problem for both couples and clinicians. To date, the etiology of RM remains poorly understood. Decidualization plays a critical role in implantation and the maintenance of pregnancy, and its deficiency is closely correlated with RM. The F-box protein S-phase kinase associated protein 2 (SKP2) is a key component of the SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which is critically involved in ErbB family-induced Akt ubiquitination, aerobic glycolysis and tumorigenesis. SKP2 is pivotal for reproduction, and SKP2-deficient mice show impaired ovarian development and reduced fertility.

Methods: Here, we investigated the expression and function of SKP2 in human decidualization and its relation with RM. A total of 40 decidual samples were collected. Quantitative PCR analysis, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed to analyze the differential expression of SKP2 between RM and control cells. For in vitro induction of decidualization, both HESCs (human endometrial stromal cells) cell line and primary ESCs (endometrial stromal cells) were used to analyze the effects of SKP2 on decidualization via siRNA transfection.

Results: Compared to normal pregnant women, the expression of SKP2 was reduced in the decidual tissues from individuals with RM. After in vitro induction of decidualization, knockdown of SKP2 apparently attenuated the decidualization of HESCs and resulted in the downregulation of HOXA10 and FOXM1, which are essential for normal human decidualization. Moreover, our experiments demonstrated that SKP2 silencing reduced the expression of its downstream target GLUT1.

Conclusions: Our study indicates a functional role of SKP2 in RM: downregulation of SKP2 in RM leads to impaired decidualization and downregulation of GLUT1 and consequently predisposes individuals to RM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12958-021-00775-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194034PMC
June 2021

Analysis of sagittal curvature and its influencing factors in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26274

Department of Anatomy, Inner Mongolia Medical University.

Abstract: This study aimed to explore the characteristics of changes in the sagittal arrangement of the spine between adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and normal adolescents, the risk factors for AIS and the factors affecting the progress of AIS.X-ray images of the full length of the spine in standing position were taken in AIS patients and normal adolescents. Radiographic measurements made at intermediate follow-up included the following:C1 and C2 cervical lordosis and C2 - C7 curvature of cervical lordosis, C2-C7sagittal horizontal distance (C2-C7SagittalVerticalAxis, C2-C7SVA), TS-CL, after thoracic lobe (Thoracic Kyphosis, TK), thoracic lumbar segment Angle (thoracolumbar kyphosis, [TLK]), lumbar lordosis Angle (Lumbar Lordosis, LL), sacral slope Angle (Sacrum Slope, SS), pelvic tilt Angle (Pelvic Tilt, PT), pelvic incidence (PI), L5 Incidence (Lumbar5 Slope (L5S), L5 incidence (Lumbar5 Incidence (L5I), sagittal horizontal distance (CSVA), lower depression Angle of the 2nd cervical spine. The difference of sagittal plane parameters between AIS group and normal adolescent group was compared. To evaluate the progress of AIS, correlation analysis was conducted between diagonal 2 and other parameters. The main risk factors of AIS were determined by binary Logistic analysis.The CSVA of AIS patients was higher than that of healthy adolescents (AIS: 27.64 ± 19.56) mm. Healthy adolescents: (17.74 ± 12.8) mm), L5S (AIS: 19.93°= 7.07° and healthy adolescents: 15.38°= 7.78°, P = .024 < .05), C2 downward sag Angle (AIS: 15.12°= 2.7°;Healthy adolescents: 12.97°= 4.56°); AIS patients had lower TS-CL (AIS: 22.48 ± 6.09 and healthy adolescents: 28.26°= 10.32°), PT (AIS: 10.42°= 4.53° and healthy adolescents: 15.80°=7.68°), (AIS: 41.87°=9.72° and healthy adolescents: 48.75°= 8.22°). The main risk factor for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents was L5 (OR = 1.239, 95%CI = 1.049-1.463, P = .012 < .05).L5S is a major risk factor for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents. The larger PI is, the higher the risk of scoliosis progression is. In AIS patients, lumbar lordosis is increased, cervical lordosis is reduced, and even cervical kyphosis occurs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202640PMC
June 2021

Necroptosis pathway blockage attenuates PFKFB3 inhibitor-induced cell viability loss and genome instability in colorectal cancer cells.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(5):2062-2080. Epub 2021 May 15.

Key Laboratory of Precision Oncology of Shandong Higher Education, Institute of Precision Medicine, Jining Medical University Jining 272067, China.

Cancer cells prone to utilize aerobic glycolysis other than oxidative phosphorylation to sustain its continuous cell activity in the stress microenvironment. Meanwhile, cancer cells generally suffer from genome instability, and both radiotherapy and chemotherapy may arouse DNA strand break, a common phenotype of genome instability. Glycolytic enzyme PFKFB3 (6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase isoform 3), plays essential roles in variety physiology and pathology processes, and generally maintain high level in cancer cells. Although this protein has been reported to involve in genome instability, its role remains unclear and controversial. Here, we showed that PFK-15, a PFKFB3 inhibitor, obviously induced apoptosis, cell viability loss, and inhibited cell proliferation/migration. Besides, PFK-15 was also found to induce necroptosis, as it not only up-regulated the phosphorylated RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL, but also enhanced the interaction between RIP3 and RIP1/MLKL, all of which are characterization of necroptosis induction. Both genetically and pharmacologically deprivation of necroptosis attenuated the cytotoxic effect of PFK-15. Besides, PFK-15 increased the γ-H2AX level and micronuclei formation, markers for genome instability, and inhibition of necroptosis attenuated these phenotypes. Collectively, the presented data demonstrated that PFK-15 induced genome instability and necroptosis, and deprivation of necroptosis attenuated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of PFK-15 in colorectal cancer cells, thereby revealing a more intimate relationship among PFKFB3, necroptosis and genome instability.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167677PMC
May 2021

Ischemic Stroke: An Underestimated Complication of COVID-19.

Aging Dis 2021 Jun 1;12(3):691-704. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

1Department of Neurology, Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly as a pandemic around the world. In addition to severe acute respiratory syndrome, more and more studies have focused on the complication of COVID-19, especially ischemic stroke. Here, we propose several pathophysiological processes and possible mechanisms underlying ischemic stroke after COVID-19 for early prevention and better treatment of COVID-19-related stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2021.0209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139195PMC
June 2021

Intraocular asymmetry of visual field defects in primary angle-closure glaucoma, high-tension glaucoma, and normal-tension glaucoma in a Chinese population.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;11(1):11674. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Eye Hospital, School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, No. 270 West College Road, Wenzhou, 325027, Zhejiang, China.

Direct comparison data on spatial patterns of visual field (VF) defects among primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), high-tension glaucoma (HTG) and normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) are not available. We aimed to compare the intraocular asymmetry of VF loss among patients with PACG, NTG and HTG across different severity levels. A total of 162 eyes of 114 patients with PACG, 111 eyes of 74 patients with HTG and 148 eyes of 102 patients with NTG were included. VF defects were categorized into 3 stages (early, moderate, and advanced), and each hemifield was divided into 5 regions according to the Glaucoma hemifield test (GHT). The mean total deviation (TD) of each GHT region was calculated. In the early stage, the paracentral, peripheral arcuate 1 and peripheral arcuate 2 regions in the superior hemifield in the NTG group had significantly worse mean TDs than their corresponding regions in the inferior hemifield. In the advanced stage, the central region in the superior hemifield in the PACG group had a significantly worse mean TD than that in the inferior hemifield. There was no significant difference in the mean TD for any of the five regions between hemifields across all severity levels in the in the HTG group. The superior hemifield was affected more severely than the inferior hemifield in all three subtypes of primary glaucoma. This asymmetric tendency was more pronounced in NTG than in PACG and HTG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91173-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175365PMC
June 2021

Tablet-like TiO/C nanocomposites for repeated type I sonodynamic therapy of pancreatic cancer.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jul 31;129:269-279. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, No.88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou 310009, PR China; Research Center of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biomedical Engineering, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009, PR China. Electronic address:

Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) represents a viable approach to overcoming the limited ability of photodynamic therapy to penetrate biological barriers. However, pancreatic tumors contain a hypoxic microenvironment that limits the efficacy of oxygen-dependent type II SDT, complicating efforts to develop reliable, stable, and hypoxia-tolerant sonosensitizer. Herein, a tablet-like TiO/C nanocomposite with a metal-organic-framework (MOF)-derived carbon structure was designed and found to be hypoxia-tolerant and stable in response to repeated ultrasound irradiation, enabling the TiO/C-mediated generation of large quantities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby achieving efficacious type I SDT. Importantly, this nanocomposite continued to generate ROS in response to repeated ultrasound irradiation, and was able to induce tumor cell apoptosis via SDT-induced DNA damage in vitro and in vivo. This TiO/C nanocomposite also exhibited good biocompatibility and did not induce any apparent toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Together, these data highlight TiO/C as a valuable nanocomposite capable of facilitating repeated type I SDT, making it a promising tool for the treatment of hypoxic solid pancreatic tumors. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In this research, a tablet-like TiO/C nanocomposite with a metal-organic-framework (MOF)-derived carbon structure was designed, which exhibited great stability upon repeated ultrasound irradiation, hypoxic-tolerant ability and good biocompatibility. After ultrasound irradiation, TiO/C could efficiently generate reactive oxygen species in an oxygen-independent manner, which overcame the limitation of pure TiO nanoparticles. Therefore, it was applied to repeated type I sonodynamic therapy of hypoxic pancreatic tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.05.029DOI Listing
July 2021

Cell Type-Specific Differentiation Between and Rice Root Tip Responses to Different Environments Based on Single-Cell RNA Sequencing.

Front Genet 2021 17;12:659500. Epub 2021 May 17.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Signaling and Disease Research, Translational Medical Center for Stem Cell Therapy and Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Frontier Science Center for Stem Cell Research, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

As ssp. and ssp. are the two major subspecies of Asian cultivated rice, the adaptative evolution of these varieties in divergent environments is an important topic in both theoretical and practical studies. However, the cell type-specific differentiation between and rice varieties in response to divergent habitat environments, which facilitates an understanding of the genetic basis underlying differentiation and environmental adaptation between rice subspecies at the cellular level, is little known. We analyzed a published single-cell RNA sequencing dataset to explore the differentially expressed genes between and rice varieties in each cell type. To estimate the relationship between cell type-specific differentiation and environmental adaptation, we focused on genes in the WRKY, NAC, and BZIP transcription factor families, which are closely related to abiotic stress responses. In addition, we integrated five bulk RNA sequencing datasets obtained under conditions of abiotic stress, including cold, drought and salinity, in this study. Furthermore, we analyzed quiescent center cells in rice root tips based on orthologous markers in . We found differentially expressed genes between and rice varieties with cell type-specific patterns, which were enriched in the pathways related to root development and stress reposes. Some of these genes were members of the WRKY, NAC, and BZIP transcription factor families and were differentially expressed under cold, drought or salinity stress. In addition, _, _, _, and _ may be potential markers of quiescent center cells in rice root tips. These results identified cell type-specific differentially expressed genes between - rice varieties that were related to various environmental stresses and provided putative markers of quiescent center cells. This study provides new clues for understanding the development and physiology of plants during the process of adaptative divergence, in addition to identifying potential target genes for the improvement of stress tolerance in rice breeding applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.659500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166412PMC
May 2021

Convenient Agarose Preparation with Hydrogen Peroxide and Desulfation Process Analysis.

Mar Drugs 2021 May 23;19(6). Epub 2021 May 23.

College of Food and Biological Engineering, Jimei University, Xiamen 361021, China.

Agarose is a natural seaweed polysaccharide and widely used in the medicine, food, and biological fields because of its high gel strength, non-toxicity, and electrical neutrality. The sulfate group is one of the main charged groups that affect the performance of agarose. In the present study, a simple, eco-friendly, and efficient method was explored for agarose preparation. After desulfation with hydrogen peroxide (HO), the sulfate content of agar reached 0.21%. Together with gel strength, electroendosmosis, gelling and melting temperature, the indicators of desulfated agar met the standards of commercially available agarose. Notably, the desulfated agar can be used as an agarose gel electrophoresis medium to separate DNA molecules, and the separation effect is as good as that of commercially available agarose. Further, the HO desulfation process was analyzed. The addition of a hydroxyl radical (HO•) scavenger remarkably decreased the HO desulfation rate, indicating that HO• has a certain role in agar desulfation. Sulfate content detection indicated that sulfur was removed from agar molecules in the form of sulfate ions (SO) and metal sulfate. The band absence at 850 cm indicated that the sulfate groups at C-4 of D-galactose in sulfated galactan were eliminated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19060297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8224637PMC
May 2021

Thermal, Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Carbon Fiber Fabric and Graphene Reinforced Segmented Polyurethane Composites.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 13;11(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Thermal conductive materials with reliable and high performances such as thermal interface materials are crucial for rapid heat transferring in thermal management. In this work, carbon fiber fabric and graphene reinforced segmented polyurethane composites (CFF-G/SPU) were proposed and prepared to obtain superior thermal, mechanical and electrical properties using the hot-pressing method. The composites exhibit excellent tensile strength and can withstand a tensile force of at least 350 N without breaking. The results show that, comparing with the SPU material, the thermal conductivity is increased by 28% for the CFF-G/SPU composite, while the in-plane electrical conductivity is increased by 8 orders of magnitude to 175 S·m. The application of CFF-G/SPU composite as a winding thermal interface material with electric-driven self-heating effect presents good performances of fluidity and interface wettability. The composite has great advantages in phase transition and filling the interfacial gap in the short time of few seconds under the condition of electrical field, with the interface temperature difference between two layers significantly reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11051289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153302PMC
May 2021

Dysfunction of Decidual Macrophages Is a Potential Risk Factor in the Occurrence of Preeclampsia.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:655655. Epub 2021 May 12.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistance Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Ji'nan, China.

Preeclampsia is a multi-factorial and multi-genetic disorder that affects more than eight million mother and baby pairs each year. Currently, most of the attention to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia has been focused on placenta, but recent progresses suggest that excellent decidualization lays foundation for placentation and growth. Moreover, preeclampsia is associated with an imbalance in immunoregulatory mechanisms, however, how the immune regulatory system in the decidua affects preeclampsia is still unclear. In our study, after intersecting the genes of differentially expressed between preeclampsia and the control gotten by conventional expression profile analysis and the genes contained in the ligand receptor network, we found eight differentially expressed genes in a ligand-receptor relationship, and the eight genes have a characteristic: most of them participate in the interaction between decidual macrophages and other decidual immune cells. The results of single-cell sequencing of decidual cells further demonstrated that decidual macrophages affect the functions of other immune cells through export. As a result, abnormal gene expression affects the export function of decidual macrophages, which in turn affects the interaction of decidual macrophages with other immune cells, thereby destroying the original immune regulation mechanism, and ultimately leading to the occurrence of preeclampsia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.655655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152936PMC
May 2021