Publications by authors named "Cong Li"

944 Publications

The Facilitatory Effects of Adjuvant Pharmaceutics to Prolong the Duration of Local Anesthetic for Peripheral Nerve Block: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.

Anesth Analg 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Peripheral nerve block (PNB) with perineural local anesthetic is used for anesthesia or analgesia with many benefits. To extend these benefits, various adjuvant drugs have been used to prolong the duration of analgesia. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of various adjuvants at prolonging the duration of sensory and motor blockade for PNB.

Methods: A network meta-analysis of placebo-controlled and active randomized controlled trials was performed comparing 10 adjuvants. Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane library were searched, with articles before May 21, 2020 included. Two authors independently selected studies and extracted data. The primary outcomes were sensory block (SB) and motor block (MB) time, and the secondary outcome was time of first analgesia rescue (FAR). Effect size measures were described as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Confidence in evidence was assessed using Confidence in Network Meta-Analysis (CINeMA). The study protocol was preregistered with the prospectively registered systematic reviews in health and social care international database (PROSPERO), as number CRD42020187866.

Results: Overall 16,364 citations were identified, of which 53 studies were included with data for 3649 patients. In network meta-analyses, 4 of 7 included treatment strategies were associated with more efficacious analgesia compared with placebo therapy, including dexamethasone (SB time: 5.73 hours, 95% CI, 4.16-7.30; MB time: 4.20 hours, 95% CI, 2.51-5.89; time of FAR: 8.71 hours, 95% CI, 6.63-10.79), dexmedetomidine (SB time: 4.51 hours, 95% CI, 3.52-5.50; MB time: 4.04 hours, 95% CI, 2.98-5.11; time of FAR: 5.25 hours, 95% CI, 4.08-6.43), fentanyl (SB time: 3.59 hours, 95% CI, 0.11-7.06; MB time: 4.42 hours, 95% CI, 0.78-8.06), and clonidine (SB time: 2.75 hours, 95% CI, 1.46-4.04; MB time: 2.93 hours, 95% CI, 1.69-4.16; time of FAR: 3.35 hours, 95% CI, 1.82-4.87). In a subgroup analysis, addition of dexamethasone to ropivacaine significantly increased the time of FAR when compared to dexmedetomidine (time of FAR: 5.23 hours, 95% CI, 2.92-7.54) or clonidine (time of FAR: 6.61 hours, 95% CI, 4.29-8.92) with ropivacaine.

Conclusions: These findings provide evidence for the consideration of dexmedetomidine, dexamethasone, and clonidine as adjuvants to prolong the duration of PNB. The addition of dexamethasone to ropivacaine has a longer time of FAR compared with clonidine or dexmedetomidine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005640DOI Listing
June 2021

Nano-/Micro-confined Water in Graphene Hydrogel as Superadsorbents for Water Purification.

Nanomicro Lett 2019 Dec 12;12(1). Epub 2019 Dec 12.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai, 200092, People's Republic of China.

Confined water has been proven to be of great importance due to its pervasiveness and contribution to life and many fields of scientific research. However, the control and characterization of confined water are a challenge. Herein, a confined space is constructed by flexibly changing the pH of a graphene oxide dispersion under the self-assembly process of a graphene hydrogel (GH), and the confined space is adjusted with variation from 10.04 to 3.52 nm. Confined water content in GH increases when the pore diameter of the confined space decreases; the corresponding adsorption capacity increases from 243.04 to 442.91 mg g. Moreover, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy are utilized to analyze the hydrogen bonding structure qualitatively and quantitatively, and correlation analysis reveals that the improvement in the adsorption capacity is caused by incomplete hydrogen bonding in the confined water. Further, confined water is assembled into four typical porous commercial adsorbents, and a remarkable enhancement of the adsorption capacity is achieved. This research demonstrates the application potential for the extraordinary properties of confined water and has implications for the development of highly effective confined water-modified adsorbents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-019-0336-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770964PMC
December 2019

5-Aminonaphthalene derivatives as selective nonnucleoside nuclear receptor binding SET domain-protein 2 (NSD2) inhibitors for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jun 5;222:113592. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

State Key Laboratory of Drug Research and CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai, 201203, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049, China; School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, UCAS, Hangzhou, 310024, China. Electronic address:

Approximately 20% of multiple myeloma (MM) are caused by a chromosomal translocation t (4; 14) that leads to the overexpression of the nuclear receptor binding SET domain-protein 2 (NSD2) histone methyltransferase. NSD2 catalyzes the methylation of lysine 36 on histone H3 (H3K36me2) and is associated with transcriptionally active regions. Using high-throughput screening (HTS) with biological analyses, a series of 5-aminonaphthalene derivatives were designed and synthesized as novel NSD2 inhibitors. Among all the prepared compounds, 9c displayed a good NSD2 inhibitory activity (IC = 2.7 μM) and selectivity against both SET-domain-containing and non-SET-domain-containing methyltransferases. Preliminary research indicates the inhibition mechanism of compound 9c by significantly suppressed the methylation of H3K36me2. Compound 9c specifically inhibits the proliferation of the human B cell precursor leukemia cell line RS4:11 and the human myeloma cell line KMS11 by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis with little cytotoxicity. It has been reported that the anti-cancer effect of compound 9c is partly achieved by completely suppressing the transcriptional activation of NSD2-targeted genes. When administered intraperitoneally at 25 mg/kg, compound 9c suppressed the tumor growth of RS4:11 xenografts in vivo and no body weight loss was detected in the tested SCID mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113592DOI Listing
June 2021

Quantitative Evaluation of Photoreceptor Density in Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Using the Spectralis High Magnification Module.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jun 17:102410. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the photoreceptor density in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC) using the Spectralis High Magnification Module (HMM).

Methods: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with resolved cCSC, 24 fellow eyes from 24 other patients with unilateral cCSC, and 24 normal eyes of 24 healthy clients were enrolled in this observational case study. Photoreceptor densities of the retina in the nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior areas 500 μm from the central fovea were counted manually through the High Magnification Module (HMM) images using ImageJ software, and the average values were taken for further analysis.

Results: The mean photoreceptor density 500 μm from the central fovea in the normal eyes (17217 ± 1144/mm) was significantly higher than that of both affected eyes (9721 ± 1699/mm) and fellow eyes (15667 ± 1909/mm) (P < 0.001; P = 0.002, respectively). The mean photoreceptor density was significantly correlated with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, r = -0.432, P = 0.035), duration of symptoms (r = -0.537, P = 0.007), retinal sensitivity (RS) and fixation stability P2 in eyes with resolved cCSC (r = 0.430, P = 0.036; r = 0.420, P = 0.041, respectively).

Conclusions: The HMM images revealed significant photoreceptor loss in patients with cCSC. The findings suggest that early intervention of the affected eyes, with short duration and good visual function, might be beneficial in preserving photoreceptor cells. As a novel imaging modality producing fast, high-resolution images, HMM shows great potential to detect microstructural impairments in retinal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102410DOI Listing
June 2021

A pH ratiometrically responsive surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering probe for tumor acidic margin delineation and image-guided surgery.

Chem Sci 2020 Apr 7;11(17):4397-4402. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University Shanghai 201203 China

Surgery remains the mainstay for most solid tumor treatments. However, surgeons face challenges in intra-operatively identifying invasive tumor margins due to their infiltrative nature. Incomplete excision usually leads to early recurrence, while aggressive resection may injure adjacent functional tissues. Herein, we report a pH responsive ratiometric surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERRS) probe that determined physiological pHs with a high sensitivity and tissue penetration depth an innovative mechanism named spatial orientation induced intramolecular energy transfer (SOIET). Due to the positive correlation between tumor acidity and malignancy, an acidic margin-guided surgery strategy was implemented in live animal models by intra-operatively assessing tissue pH/malignancy of the suspicious tissues in tumor cutting edges. This surgery remarkably extended the survival of animal models and minimized their post-surgical complications, showing promise in precisely identifying invasive tumor boundaries and achieving a balance between maximum tumor debulking and minimal functional impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc00844cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159485PMC
April 2020

The complete mitochondrial genome of (Linnaeus, 1767) (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae: Microminae) with phylogenetic analysis.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Jun 3;6(7):1842-1843. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of (Linnaeus, 1767) (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae: Microminae) was assembled and the phylogenetic analysis of Chrysopoidea was conducted. The mt genome was 16,607 bp long including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region (CR). Twelve PCGs started with typical ATN, but initiated with TCG. The control region was 1335 bp long and the base composition was 89.66% of A + T. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that was the sister group to sp. . Hemerobiinae and Microminae were recovered monophyletic with high support values. However, the monophyly of Drepanepteryginae was not recovered, which needed more samplings from this subfamily in the further study. The closer relationship between Microminae and Drepanepteryginae was supported. Hemerobiidae was demonstrated monophyletic and being the sister group to Chrysopidae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1934169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183544PMC
June 2021

Reprogramming the immunosuppressive microenvironment of IDH1 wild-type glioblastoma by blocking Wnt signaling between microglia and cancer cells.

Oncoimmunology 2021 Jun 6;10(1):1932061. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The vast majority (>90%) of glioblastoma (GBM) patients belong to the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 wild type (IDH1) group which exhibits a poor prognosis with a median survival of less than 15 months. This study demonstrated numerous immunosuppressive genes as well as β-catenin gene, pivotal for Wnt/β-catenin signaling, were upregulated in 206 IDH1 glioma patients using the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) database. The increase in microglia with an immunosuppressive phenotype and the overexpression of β-catenin protein were further verified in IDH1 GBM patients and IDH1 GL261 glioma allografts. Subsequently, we found that IDH1 GL261 cell-derived conditioned medium activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in primary microglia and triggered their transition to an immunosuppressive phenotype. Blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling not only attenuated microglial polarization to the immunosuppressive subtype but also reactivated immune responses in IDH1 GBM allografts by simultaneously enhancing cytotoxic CD8 T cell infiltration and downregulating regulatory T cells. Positron emission tomography imaging demonstrated enhanced proinflammatory activities in IDH1 GBM allografts after the blockade of Wnt signaling. Finally, gavage administration of a Wnt signaling inhibitor significantly restrained tumor proliferation and improved the survival of model mice bearing IDH1 GBM allografts. Depletion of CD8 T cells remarkably abrogated the therapeutic efficacy induced by the Wnt signaling inhibitor. Overall, the present work indicates that the crosstalk between IDH1 glioma cells and immunosuppressive microglia is important in maintaining the immunosuppressive glioma microenvironment. Blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a promising complement for IDH1 GBM treatment by improving the hostile immunosuppressive microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2021.1932061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183516PMC
June 2021

Nano-cell and nano-pollutant interactions constitute key elements in nanoparticle-pollutant combined cytotoxicity.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 2;418:126259. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China; Key Laboratory for Water Quality and Conservation of the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Institute of Environmental Research at Greater Bay, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, China. Electronic address:

As the wide application of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs), as well as ubiquitous chromium (Cr(VI)) pollution in environment, the chance of human exposure to CNPs/ZnONPs and their Cr(VI) adducts is enhanced. We therefore investigated the impacts of nano-cell and nano-Cr(VI) interactions on nanoparticle-Cr(VI) combined cytotoxicity in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Our results showed that nano-cell and nano-pollutant interactions were the key elements in NP-pollutant combined cytotoxicity, as determined by cell death, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. A strong adsorption of Cr(VI) on CNPs and reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) were confirmed, resulting in the reduced cytotoxicity of CNP-Cr(VI) adducts. In contrast, ZnONPs caused the destruction of cell membranes so that more ZnONP-Cr(VI) adducts could enter the cells. Meantime, more Cr contents could be released from ZnONP-Cr(VI) adducts once entering cells and locating in lysosomes than that from CNP-Cr(VI) adducts. These two reasons together caused the enhanced cytotoxicity of ZnONP-Cr(VI) adducts. These findings indicate that the in-depth investigations on the interaction mechanisms are crucial to comprehensively understand the combined cytotoxicity of different NPs and pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126259DOI Listing
June 2021

Multi-focus Network to Decode Imaging Phenotype for Overall Survival Prediction of Gastric Cancer Patients.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Jun 8;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer-associated deaths globally. Accurate risk prediction of the overall survival (OS) for GC patients shows significant prognostic value, which helps identify and classify patients into different risk groups to benefit from personalized treatment. Many methods based on machine learning algorithms have been widely explored to predict the risk of OS accurately. However, the accuracy of risk prediction has been limited and remains a challenge with existing methods. Few studies have proposed a framework and pay attention to the low-level and high-level features separately for the risk prediction of OS based on computed tomography images of GC patients. To achieve high accuracy, we propose a multi-focus fusion convolutional neural network. The network focuses on low-level and high-level features, where a subnet to focus on lower-level features and the other enhanced subnet with lateral connection to focus on higher-level semantic features. Three independent datasets of 640 GC patients are used to assess our method. Our proposed network is evaluated by metrics of the concordance index and hazard ratio. Our network outperforms existing methods with the highest concordance index and hazard ratio in independent validation and test sets. Our results prove that our architecture can unify the separate low-level and high-level features into a single framework, and can be a powerful method for accurate risk prediction of OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2021.3087634DOI Listing
June 2021

Can artificial intelligence help reduce unnecessary bladder biopsies? Comment on "Assessing treatment response after intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin induction cycle: are routine bladder biopsies necessary".

World J Urol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department and Institute of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No.1095Jiefang Avenue, 430030, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03748-9DOI Listing
June 2021

GTPBP2 positively regulates the invasion, migration and proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer.

J Cancer 2021 5;12(13):3819-3826. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pathology, The Fourth Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning. 110032 People's Republic of China.

Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world, and the mortality rate ranks first among various malignant tumors. GTP-binding proteins (guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding proteins, GTPBPs) are a type of protein with signal transduction function, have GTP hydrolase activity, and play an important role in cell signal transmission, cytoskeletal regulation, protein synthesis and other activities. GTPBP2 is one of the members of the G protein superfamily. Research on GTPBP2 is currently focused on human genetics, and its research in tumors has not been reported. First, Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR were used to analyze the expression differences of 12 cases of GTPBP2 in human NSCLC fresh cancer tissues and adjacent tissues. Then we selected 112 cases of NSCLC cancer tissues and 65 adjacent tissues for immunohistochemistry experiments to analyze the relationships between the expression of GTPBP2 and clinical pathological parameters and prognosis, we found that GTPBP2 is highly expressed in NSCLC cancer tissues, and the high expression of GTPBP2 is related to pTNM stage and lymph node metastasis. In addition, after GTPBP2 knockdown, GTPBP2 can promote the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cell lines by up-regulating RhoC and MMP-9, and up-regulate cyclinD1, CDK4 and c-myc, and down-regulate P27 to promote the invasion of NSCLC cell lines. In addition, GTPBP2 negatively regulates Axin to promote β-catenin expression, thereby activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and promoting the occurrence of NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.48340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176249PMC
May 2021

Metabolomic and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) Analyses Reveal the Important Function of Flavonoids in Pall Leaves With Temporal Changes.

Front Plant Sci 2021 19;12:648277. Epub 2021 May 19.

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Chemistry Education, Northwest University, Xi'an, China.

Pall [Rosaceae, Prunus, (Pall.) Maxim.] belongs to the Rosaceae family and is resistant to cold and drought. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and metabolomics were used to track the changes in bioactive metabolites during several stages of growth. A total of 827 different metabolites were detected, including 169 flavonoids, 68 organic acids, 35 terpenoids and 2 tannins. Flavonoid biosynthesis and flavone and flavonol biosynthesis were the main synthetic sources of flavonoids. Quercetin, isoquercitrin, and epicatechin as biomarkers related to growth and development were found. Quercetin connects the biosynthesis of flavonoids and the biosynthesis of flavones and flavonols. The contents of isoquercitrin and epicatechin increased uniformly during the whole growth process from the flowering stage to the fruit ripening stage, indicating that play key roles in the fruit growth and ripening stages of this plant. The tissue location and quantitative analysis of flavonoids in leaves at different stages were performed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The flavonoids were mainly distributed in the palisade tissue and spongy tissue, indicating the need for protection of these sensitive tissues in particular. Through comprehensive and systematic analysis, the temporal distribution of flavonoids in the process of their leaves growth was determined. These results clarify the important role of flavonoids in the developmental process of Pall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.648277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170035PMC
May 2021

Carbon Quantum Dots Derived from Different Carbon Sources for Antibacterial Applications.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 May 24;10(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

University of Groningen and University Medical Center of Groningen, Department of Orthodontics, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Nanoparticles possess unique features due to their small size and can be composed of different surface chemistries. Carbon quantum dots possess several unique physico-chemical and antibacterial activities. This review provides an overview of different methods to prepare carbon quantum dots from different carbon sources in order to provide guidelines for choosing methods and carbon sources that yield carbon quantum dots with optimal antibacterial efficacy. Antibacterial activities of carbon quantum dots predominantly involve cell wall damage and disruption of the matrix of infectious biofilms through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation to cause dispersal of infecting pathogens that enhance their susceptibility to antibiotics. Quaternized carbon quantum dots from organic carbon sources have been found to be equally efficacious for controlling wound infection and pneumonia in rodents as antibiotics. Carbon quantum dots derived through heating of natural carbon sources can inherit properties that resemble those of the carbon sources they are derived from. This makes antibiotics, medicinal herbs and plants or probiotic bacteria ideal sources for the synthesis of antibacterial carbon quantum dots. Importantly, carbon quantum dots have been suggested to yield a lower chance of inducing bacterial resistance than antibiotics, making carbon quantum dots attractive for large scale clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10060623DOI Listing
May 2021

Identify glioma recurrence and treatment effects with triple-tracer PET/CT.

BMC Med Imaging 2021 May 31;21(1):92. Epub 2021 May 31.

Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, 510060, China.

Background: Differential diagnosis of tumour recurrence (TuR) from treatment effects (TrE), mostly induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is still difficult by using conventional computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We have investigated the diagnostic performance of PET/CT with 3 tracers, N-NH, F-FDOPA, and F-FDG, to identify TuR and TrE in glioma patients following treatment.

Methods: Forty-three patients with MR-suspected recurrent glioma were included. The maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) of the lesion and the lesion-to-normal grey-matter cortex uptake (L/G) ratio were obtained from each tracer PET/CT. TuR or TrE was determined by histopathology or clinical MR follow-up for at least 6 months.

Results: In this cohort, 34 patients were confirmed to have TuR, and 9 patients met the diagnostic standard of TrE. The SUVmax and SUVmean of N-NH and F-FDOPA PET/CT at TuR lesions were significantly higher compared with normal brain tissue (N-NH 0.696 ± 0.558, 0.625 ± 0.507 vs 0.486 ± 0.413; F-FDOPA 0.455 ± 0.518, 0.415 ± 0.477 vs 0.194 ± 0.203; both P < 0.01), but there was no significant difference in F-FDG (6.918 ± 3.190, 6.016 ± 2.807 vs 6.356 ± 3.104, P = 0.290 and 0.493). L/G ratios of N-NH and F-FDOPA were significantly higher in TuR than in TrE group (N-NH 1.573 ± 0.099 vs 1.025 ± 0.128, P = 0.008; F-FDOPA, 2.729 ± 0.131 vs 1.514 ± 0.141, P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and AUC (area under the curve) by ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analysis were 57.7%, 100% and 0.803, for N-NH; 84.6%, 100% and 0.938, for F-FDOPA; and 80.8%, 100%, and 0.952, for the combination, respectively.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that although multiple tracer PET/CT may improve differential diagnosis efficacy, for glioma TuR from TrE, F-FDOPA PET-CT is the most reliable. The combination of F-FDOPA and N-NH does not increase the diagnostic efficiency, while F-FDG is not worthy for differential diagnosis of glioma TuR and TrE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12880-021-00624-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165792PMC
May 2021

NO reduction during denitrifying phosphorus removal with propionate as carbon source.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, 221116, Jiangsu, China.

Denitrifying phosphorus removal was realized in sequencing batch reactors using different carbon sources (acetate, propionate, and a mixture of acetate/propionate). Nutrient removal and nitrous oxide (NO) production were investigated, and the factors affecting NO production were explored. Nitrogen removal was 40.6% lower when propionate was used as the carbon source instead of acetate, while phosphorus removal was not significantly different. NO production was greatly reduced when propionate was used as the carbon source instead of acetate. The emission factor in the propionate system was only 0.43%, while those in the acetate and mixed-carbon source system were 16.3% and 1.9%, respectively. Compared to the propionate system, ordinary heterotrophic organisms (i.e., glycogen-accumulating organisms) were enriched in the acetate system, explaining the higher NO production in the acetate system. The lower nitrite accumulation in the propionate system compared to the acetate system was the dominant factor leading to the lower NO production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14629-4DOI Listing
May 2021

A NARMS Survey of Antimicrobial Resistant Foodborne Bacteria Isolated from Retail Veal in the United States.

J Food Prot 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

FDA: US Food and Drug Administration 8401 Muirkirk Rd UNITED STATES Laurel Maryland 20708 2404025454.

Little is known about the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria in veal meat in the United States.  We estimated the prevalence of bacterial contamination and AMR in various veal meats collected during the 2018 U.S. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) survey of retail outlets in nine states and compared to the frequency of AMR bacteria from other cattle sources sampled for NARMS.  Additionally, we identified genes associated with resistance to medically important antimicrobials and gleaned other genetic details about the resistant organisms. The prevalence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli and Enterococcus in veal meats collected from grocery stores in nine states was 0% (0/358), 0.6% (2/358), 21.1% (49/232) and 53.5% (121/226) respectively, with ground veal posing the highest risk for contamination.  Both Salmonella were resistant to at least one antimicrobial as were 65.3% (32/49) of E. coli and 73.6% (89/121) of Enterococcus isolates. Individual drug and multidrug (MDR) resistance levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in E. coli and Enterococcus from retail veal compared to 2018 NARMS data from sampling dairy cattle ceca and retail ground beef.  Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was conducted on select E. coli and Salmonella from veal. Cephalosporin resistance genes (blaCMY and blaCTX-M), macrolide resistance genes (mph), plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (PMQR, qnr), and gyrA mutations were found. We also identified heavy metal resistance genes (HMRG) ter, ars, and mer, fieF, and gol, and disinfectant resistance genes (DRG) qac and emrE.  An stx1a-containing E. coli was also found. Sequence types were highly varied among the nine E. coli isolates that were sequenced.  Several plasmid types were identified in E. coli and Salmonella, with the majority (9/11) of isolates containing IncF. This study illustrates that veal meat is a carrier of AMR bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/JFP-21-005DOI Listing
May 2021

Ultrahigh-energy photons up to 1.4 petaelectronvolts from 12 γ-ray Galactic sources.

Nature 2021 Jun 17;594(7861):33-36. Epub 2021 May 17.

Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics & Experimental Physics Division & Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The extension of the cosmic-ray spectrum beyond 1 petaelectronvolt (PeV; 10 electronvolts) indicates the existence of the so-called PeVatrons-cosmic-ray factories that accelerate particles to PeV energies. We need to locate and identify such objects to find the origin of Galactic cosmic rays. The principal signature of both electron and proton PeVatrons is ultrahigh-energy (exceeding 100 TeV) γ radiation. Evidence of the presence of a proton PeVatron has been found in the Galactic Centre, according to the detection of a hard-spectrum radiation extending to 0.04 PeV (ref. ). Although γ-rays with energies slightly higher than 0.1 PeV have been reported from a few objects in the Galactic plane, unbiased identification and in-depth exploration of PeVatrons requires detection of γ-rays with energies well above 0.1 PeV. Here we report the detection of more than 530 photons at energies above 100 teraelectronvolts and up to 1.4 PeV from 12 ultrahigh-energy γ-ray sources with a statistical significance greater than seven standard deviations. Despite having several potential counterparts in their proximity, including pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants and star-forming regions, the PeVatrons responsible for the ultrahigh-energy γ-rays have not yet been firmly localized and identified (except for the Crab Nebula), leaving open the origin of these extreme accelerators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03498-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Jacq Extract Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammation via MAPK Signaling Pathway and Protects Rats From Hepatic Fibrosis Caused by Abnormalities in the Gut-Liver Axis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12:683613. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resource and Utilization, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi, China.

The development of liver fibrosis is closely related to the gut microbiota, and the "gut-liver axis" is the most important connection between the two. ethyl acetate extract of Jacq (CGEA) is an herbal extract consisting mainly of sesquiterpenoids. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of CGEA have been reported, but the anti-fibrotic effects of CGEA via intestinal microbes and the "gut-liver axis" cycle have rarely been reported. In this study, we observed that CGEA not only directly attenuated inflammatory factor levels in inflamed mice, but also attenuated liver inflammation as well as liver fibrosis degeneration in rats with liver fibrosis caused by colitis. We observed that CGEA significantly promoted the growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis. Similarly, fecal 16S rDNA sequencing of liver fibrosis rats showed that CGEA intervention significantly altered the composition of the intestinal microbiota of liver fibrosis rats. CGEA increased the abundance of intestinal microbiota, specifically, CGEA increased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, CGEA could significantly increase the levels of Ruminococcus. In addition, CGEA intervention significantly protected intestinal mucosal tissues and improved intestinal barrier function in rats. Lactucin is the main sesquiterpenoid in CGEA, and HPLC results showed its content in CGEA was up to 6%. Lactucin has been reported to have significant anti-inflammatory activity, and in this study, we found that Lactucin decreased p38 kinases (p38), phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (AKT) protein phosphorylation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells, thereby reducing mRNA expression and protein expression of pro-inflammatory factors inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inhibiting the release of inflammatory factors interleukin (IL)-6 and nitric oxide (NO), exerting anti-inflammatory effects. In summary, the prevention of liver fibrosis caused by intestinal inflammation by CGEA may be achieved by regulating the intestinal microbiota and restoring the intestinal barrier thereby improving the "gut-liver axis" circulation, reducing liver inflammation, and ultimately alleviating liver fibrosis. Notably, the direct anti-inflammatory effect of CGEA may be due to its content of Lactucin, which can exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the phosphorylation of Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.683613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117150PMC
April 2021

Rescue immunoadsorption treatment for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder attacks unresponsive to intravenous methylprednisolone.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Jul 7;356:577604. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neurology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630, China. Electronic address:

We aimed to evaluate the value of immunoadsorption (IA) treatment after the failure of intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) therapy for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Sixty-one NMOSD attacks unresponsive to IVMP were included: 22 patients received rescue IA (IVMP+IA), 24 underwent rescue plasma exchange (PE) (IVMP+PE), and 21 received no further rescue therapy (IVMP alone). The improvement frequencies were higher in the IVMP+IA and IVMP+PE groups than in the IVMP-alone group (P = 0.024). The effective period for IA treatment may be longer than previously thought. IA treatment for IVMP-resistant NMOSD attacks was effective and comparable to PE treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577604DOI Listing
July 2021

Spectroscopic evidence of superconductivity pairing at 83 K in single-layer FeSe/SrTiO films.

Nat Commun 2021 May 14;12(1):2840. Epub 2021 May 14.

National Lab for Superconductivity, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Single-layer FeSe films grown on the SrTiO substrate (FeSe/STO) have attracted much attention because of their possible record-high superconducting critical temperature (T) and distinct electronic structures. However, it has been under debate on how high its T can really reach due to the inconsistency of the results from different measurements. Here we report spectroscopic evidence of superconductivity pairing at 83 K in single-layer FeSe/STO films. By preparing high-quality single-layer FeSe/STO films, we observe strong superconductivity-induced Bogoliubov back-bending bands that extend to rather high binding energy ~ 100 meV by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements. They provide a new definitive benchmark of superconductivity pairing that is directly observed up to 83 K. Moreover, we find that the pairing state can be further divided into two temperature regions. These results indicate that either T as high as 83 K is achievable, or there is a pseudogap formation from superconductivity fluctuation in single-layer FeSe/STO films.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23106-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8121788PMC
May 2021

Disinfection byproduct formation from algal organic matters after ozonation or ozone combined with activated carbon treatment with subsequent chlorination.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jun 22;104:233-241. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey 07043, United States.

Algal organic matter (AOM), including extracellular organic matter (EOM) and intracellular organic matter (IOM) from algal blooms, is widely accepted as essential precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). This study evaluated the effect of ozonation or ozone combined with activated carbon (O-AC) treatment on characteristic alternation and DBP formation with subsequent chlorination of Chlorella sp.. The effects of pH and bromide concentration on DBP formation by ozonation or O-AC treatment were also investigated. Results showed that the potential formation of DBPs might be attributed to ozonation, but these DBP precursors could be further removed by activated carbon (AC) treatment. Moreover, the formation of target DBPs was controlled at acidic pH by alleviating the reactions between chlorine and AOM. Besides, the bromide substitution factor (BSF) value of trihalomethanes (THMs) from EOM and IOM remained constant after AC treatment. However, THM precursors could be significantly decreased by AC treatment. The above results indicated that O-AC was a feasible treatment method for algal-impacted water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.12.009DOI Listing
June 2021

Expression and prognostic value of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cellmarkersin primary lesions and liver metastases of colorectal cancers.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jul 27;22(1):499. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center, The State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. China.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers are considered useful indicators associated with metastasis and prognosis of colorectal cancers (CRCs). However, only a few studies have focused on the expression of these useful markers in metastases. Metastasectomy is widely used in advanced CRCs, and thus the postoperative prognostic factors are worth investigating. The present study investigated the consistency and differences of target proteins between primary and metastatic lesions of colorectal cancer, and discussed the prognostic indicators following resection of colorectal liver metastases. Clinical data of 56 patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer were collected and the expression levels of target proteins (Ki-67, CD133, CD44, Snail, E-cadherin and β-catenin) were detected in primary tumor and matched liver metastases via immunohistochemistry analysis. Paired comparison between both tissue types was performed. The prognostic values of the target proteins for resectable colorectal cancer liver metastases were assessed. No significant differences were observed between the primary tissues and metastatic tissues. The consistency rates of these protein expression levels ranged from 51.8-78.6%. The maximum diameter of the liver metastases was <5 cm. Low Snail expression in metastases was associated with a longer overall survival (OS) time following resection of colorectal liver metastases. Furthermore, N0 stage and low carcinoembryonic antigen levels were associated with a longer progression-free survival time. Notably, no significant differences were observed in expression levels of the target proteins between the primary tumors and liver metastases. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that Snail expression in liver metastases may be used as a novel independent prognostic factor for OS following resection of colorectal liver metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108244PMC
July 2021

Lung cancer organoids analyzed on microwell arrays predict drug responses of patients within a week.

Nat Commun 2021 05 10;12(1):2581. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

While the potential of patient-derived organoids (PDOs) to predict patients' responses to anti-cancer treatments has been well recognized, the lengthy time and the low efficiency in establishing PDOs hamper the implementation of PDO-based drug sensitivity tests in clinics. We first adapt a mechanical sample processing method to generate lung cancer organoids (LCOs) from surgically resected and biopsy tumor tissues. The LCOs recapitulate the histological and genetic features of the parental tumors and have the potential to expand indefinitely. By employing an integrated superhydrophobic microwell array chip (InSMAR-chip), we demonstrate hundreds of LCOs, a number that can be generated from most of the samples at passage 0, are sufficient to produce clinically meaningful drug responses within a week. The results prove our one-week drug tests are in good agreement with patient-derived xenografts, genetic mutations of tumors, and clinical outcomes. The LCO model coupled with the microwell device provides a technically feasible means for predicting patient-specific drug responses in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22676-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110811PMC
May 2021

Single-Anastomosis Duodenal Switch: Conceptual Difference between East and West.

Obes Surg 2021 07 10;31(7):3296-3302. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing, 210029, Jiangsu, China.

Single-anastomosis duodenal switch (SADS) has become increasingly popular. This review compared the conceptual difference between Eastern (SADS-E) and Western (SADS-W) countries. After searching for SADS through PubMed and high-impact journals, 19 articles with 2280 patients were included for analysis. We found SADS-W was reserved for patients with a high body mass index (BMI) without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Surgeons performing SADS-W used larger bougies and preferred shorter common channels. However, SADS-E was mainly preferred in T2DM patients with a low BMI. SADS-E bypassed less bowel and used smaller bougies. The spectra of major postoperative complications, nutritional deficiencies, and gastrointestinal disorders were different between SADS-E and SADS-W. SADS-W yielded better weight loss and better T2DM remission than SADS-E. SADS are effective bariatric and metabolic procedures with promising therapeutic outcomes and acceptable safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-021-05441-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Inhibition of stromal biglycan promotes normalization of the tumor microenvironment and enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 May 10;23(1):51. Epub 2021 May 10.

Vascular Biology and Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-8586, Japan.

Background: Biglycan is a proteoglycan found in the extracellular matrix. We have previously shown that biglycan is secreted from tumor endothelial cells and induces tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the function of stroma biglycan in breast cancer is still unclear.

Methods: Biglycan gene analysis and its prognostic values in human breast cancers were based on TCGA data. E0771 breast cancer cells were injected into WT and Bgn KO mice, respectively.

Results: Breast cancer patients with high biglycan expression had worse distant metastasis-free survival. Furthermore, biglycan expression was higher in the tumor stromal compartment compared to the epithelial compartment. Knockout of biglycan in the stroma (Bgn KO) in E0771 tumor-bearing mice inhibited metastasis to the lung. Bgn KO also impaired tumor angiogenesis and normalized tumor vasculature by repressing tumor necrosis factor-ɑ/angiopoietin 2 signaling. Moreover, fibrosis was suppressed and CD8+ T cell infiltration was increased in tumor-bearing Bgn KO mice. Furthermore, chemotherapy drug delivery and efficacy were improved in vivo in Bgn KO mice.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that targeting stromal biglycan may yield a potent and superior anticancer effect in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-021-01423-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108358PMC
May 2021

Association of serum uric acid levels with COVID-19 severity.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 May 8;21(1):97. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, China.

Aims: Hyperuricemia has attracted increasing attention. However, limited concern has been paid to the potential dangers of lowering serum uric acid (SUA). We observed lower levels of SUA in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, we aim to explore whether patients with COVID-19 had SUA lower than normal and the relationship of SUA and the severity of COVID-19.

Methods: This was a case-control study based on 91 cases with COVID-19 and 273 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. We first compared SUA levels and uric acid/creatinine (UA/Cr) ratio between patients with COVID-19 and the healthy controls. Then, we examined the association of SUA levels and UA/Cr ratios with COVID-19 severity in COVID-19 cases only, defined according to the fifth edition of China's Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines of COVID-19.

Results: SUA levels in patients with COVID-19 were 2.59% lower, UA/Cr ratios 6.06% lower at admission compared with healthy controls. In sex stratified analysis, levels of SUA and UA/Cr were lower in male patients with COVID-19 while only level of SUA was lower in female patients with COVID-19. Moreover, SUA and UA/Cr values were 4.27 and 8.23% lower in the severe group than that in the moderate group among male COVID-19 patients. Bivariate and partial correlations analysis showed negative correlations between SUA or UA/Cr ratio and COVID-19 after adjusting for age, sex, BMI and eGFR. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection and male sex were independent risk factors associated with lower SUA levels. Male patients with COVID-19 accompanied by low SUA levels had higher risk of developing severe symptoms than those with high SUA levels (incidence rate ratio: 4.05; 95% CI:1.11, 14.72) at admission. Comparing SUA and UA/Cr ratio at three time points (admission, discharge, and follow-up), we found that male patients experienced severe symptoms had lower SUA and UA/Cr ratio levels comparing to moderate patients, but no significant difference between three time points. On the contrary, female patients had lower SUA and UA/Cr ratio at discharge than those at admission, but no significant difference of SUA and UA/Cr ratio between moderate and severe group.

Conclusion: Patients with COVID-19 had SUA and UA/Cr values lower than normal at admission. Male COVID-19 patients with low SUA levels had a significantly higher crude risk of developing severe symptoms than those with high SUA levels. During disease aggravation, the level of SUA gradually decreased until discharge. At the follow-up exam, the level of SUA was similar to the levels at admission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00745-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106517PMC
May 2021

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Can Reduce the Incidence of Sepsis Compared with Flexible Ureteroscopy in Treating Solitary Proximal Ureteral Stone Patients with Positive Urine Culture.

Biomed Res Int 2021 12;2021:9927498. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Sepsis is a potentially lethal complication for both flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). This study is aimed at comparing the sepsis rate after fURS and PCNL and the risk factors for sepsis in patients with solitary proximal ureteral stone.

Methods: We reviewed the data of patients with calculi between 10 mm to 20 mm who underwent fURS or PCNL surgery from Tongji Hospital's database. A total of 910 patients were eligible with 412 fURS cases and 498 PCNL cases. We used univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the risk factors for sepsis. Subgroup analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis.

Results: In the cohort, 27 (6.6%) and 19 (3.8%) patients developed sepsis after fURS and PCNL, respectively. Multivariate analysis shows that the risk factors for sepsis are fURS (OR = 3.160, = 0.004), serum WBC ≥ 10,000 cells/L (OR = 3.490, = 0.008), albumin - globulin ratio < 1.2 (OR = 2.192, = 0.029), positive urine culture (OR = 6.145, < 0.001), and prolonged operation time (OR = 1.010, = 0.046). Subgroup analysis was conducted using potential risk factors: stone size, serum WBC, urine culture, and albumin-globulin ratio (AGR). In subgroup of positive urine culture, patients were more likely to develop sepsis after fURS than PCNL.

Conclusions: PCNL may be a better choice than fURS to reduce postoperative sepsis, especially for patients with positive urine culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9927498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8057876PMC
May 2021

Interaction between early-life pet exposure and methylation pattern of ADAM33 on allergic rhinitis among children aged 3-6 years in China.

Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2021 May 1;17(1):44. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200336, China.

Background: Recent research has pointed out the important roles of epigenetic modifications in the development and persistence of allergic rhinitis (AR), especially in relation to DNA methylation of disease-associated genes. We investigated whether AR susceptibility genes were epigenetically regulated, and whether methylation modulation of these genes in response to early-life environment could be a molecular mechanism underlying the risk for AR onset in a cohort of children aged 3-6 years in China.

Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected from 130 children patients, aged 3-6 years and diagnosed with AR; and 154 matched controls to detect promoter methylation in 25 AR susceptibility genes with the MethylTarget approach. Methylation levels were compared for each CpG site, each amplified region, and each gene. In addition, the relationship among DNA methylation, early-life environmental risk factors and AR onset were assessed.

Results: Maternal allergic history (P = 0.0390) and pet exposure (P = 0.0339) were significantly associated with increased AR risk. Differential methylation analyses were successfully performed for 507 CpG sites, 34 amplified regions and 17 genes and significant hypomethylation was observed in the promoter region of ADAM33 in AR patients [multiple test-corrected (FDR) P-value < 0.05]. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the hypomethylation of ADAM33 was significantly associated with higher eosinophil counts (Spearman's ρ: - 0.187, P-value = 0.037). According to the results of the multiple regression analysis, after adjusting for cofounders, the interaction of early-life pet exposure with methylation level of ADAM33 increased the risk for AR onset 1.423 times more in children (95% CI = 0.0290-4.109, P-value = 0.005).

Conclusion: This study provides evidence that early-life pet exposure and low methylation level of ADAM33 increase AR risk in children, and the interaction between pet exposure and methylation level of ADAM33 may play an important role in the development of AR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13223-021-00526-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088023PMC
May 2021

Tensile Damage Study of Wind Turbine Tower Material Q345 Based on an Acoustic Emission Method.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114, China.

As essential load-bearing equipment to support the nacelle and blades, the tower is subjected to the whole wind turbine loading. This study proposes a new method of combining acoustic emission and normalized accumulation parameters to characterize wind turbine towers Q345 steel damage. First of all, tendency analysis of the acoustic emission signal parameter was conducted to determine damage degree during the damage stage. Secondly, we normalized the accumulation of amplitude and other parameters to compare the proportion of each accumulation parameter at different stages, while studying the spectra of common acoustic emission signals. Finally, comparing the differences and similarities of the normalized accumulation parameters between three different rates, we analyze the effect of rate on the normalized accumulation parameters. These results indicate that the normalized cumulative duration parameter is suitable for characterizing the yield damage occurrence, the normalized cumulative energy parameter is very sensitive to the fracture stage, the normalized cumulative energy parameter is least influenced by the loading rate, and the energy parameter is a sensitivity factor for normalized expression, which to realizes the stage of damage judgment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122516PMC
April 2021

Comparison of Activation in the Prefrontal Cortex of Native Speakers of Mandarin by Ability of Japanese as a Second Language Using a Novel Speaking Task.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Apr 2;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Human Behavior Science of Occupational Therapy, Health Sciences Major, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima City 734-8551, Japan.

Evidence shows that second language (L2) learning affects cognitive function. Here in this work, we compared brain activation in native speakers of Mandarin (L1) who speak Japanese (L2) between and within two groups (high and low L2 ability) to determine the effect of L2 ability in L1 and L2 speaking tasks, and to map brain regions involved in both tasks. The brain activation during task performance was determined using prefrontal cortex blood flow as a proxy, measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). People with low L2 ability showed much more brain activation when speaking L2 than when speaking L1. People with high L2 ability showed high-level brain activation when speaking either L2 or L1. Almost the same high-level brain activation was observed in both ability groups when speaking L2. The high level of activation in people with high L2 ability when speaking either L2 or L1 suggested strong inhibition of the non-spoken language. A wider area of brain activation in people with low compared with high L2 ability when speaking L2 is considered to be attributed to the cognitive load involved in code-switching L1 to L2 with strong inhibition of L1 and the cognitive load involved in using L2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065755PMC
April 2021