Publications by authors named "Colin Watanabe"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

ERBB3 and IGF1R Signaling Are Required for Nrf2-Dependent Growth in KEAP1-Mutant Lung Cancer.

Cancer Res 2019 Oct 15;79(19):4828-4839. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Department of Discovery Oncology.

Mutations in and (encoding the protein Nrf2) are prevalent in both adeno and squamous subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer, as well as additional tumor indications. The consequence of these mutations is stabilized Nrf2 and chronic induction of a battery of Nrf2 target genes. We show that knockdown of Nrf2 caused modest growth inhibition of cells growing in two-dimension, which was more pronounced in cell lines expressing mutant KEAP1. In contrast, Nrf2 knockdown caused almost complete regression of established KEAP1-mutant tumors in mice, with little effect on wild-type (WT) KEAP1 tumors. The strong dependency on Nrf2 could be recapitulated in certain anchorage-independent growth environments and was not prevented by excess extracellular glutathione. A CRISPR screen was used to investigate the mechanism(s) underlying this dependence. We identified alternative pathways critical for Nrf2-dependent growth in KEAP1-mutant cell lines, including the redox proteins thioredoxin and peroxiredoxin, as well as the growth factor receptors IGF1R and ERBB3. IGF1R inhibition was effective in KEAP1-mutant cells compared with WT, especially under conditions of anchorage-independent growth. These results point to addiction of KEAP1-mutant tumor cells to Nrf2 and suggest that inhibition of Nrf2 or discrete druggable Nrf2 target genes such as IGF1R could be an effective therapeutic strategy for disabling these tumors. SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies pathways activated by Nrf2 that are important for the proliferation and tumorigenicity of KEAP1-mutant non-small cell lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-2086DOI Listing
October 2019

IRF2 transcriptionally induces expression for pyroptosis.

Sci Signal 2019 05 21;12(582). Epub 2019 May 21.

Department of Physiological Chemistry, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

Gasdermin-D (GSDMD) is cleaved by caspase-1, caspase-4, and caspase-11 in response to canonical and noncanonical inflammasome activation. Upon cleavage, GSDMD oligomerizes and forms plasma membrane pores, resulting in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion, pyroptotic cell death, and inflammatory pathologies, including periodic fever syndromes and septic shock-a plague on modern medicine. Here, we showed that IRF2, a member of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family of transcription factors, was essential for the transcriptional activation of A forward genetic screen with -ethyl--nitrosourea (ENU)-mutagenized mice linked IRF2 to inflammasome signaling. expression was substantially attenuated in deficient macrophages, endothelial cells, and multiple tissues, which corresponded with reduced IL-1β secretion and inhibited pyroptosis. Mechanistically, IRF2 bound to a previously uncharacterized but unique site within the promoter to directly drive transcription for the execution of pyroptosis. Disruption of this single IRF2-binding site abolished signaling by both the canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes. Together, our data illuminate a key transcriptional mechanism for expression of the gene encoding GSDMD, a critical mediator of inflammatory pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.aax4917DOI Listing
May 2019

A CRISPR screen identifies MAPK7 as a target for combination with MEK inhibition in KRAS mutant NSCLC.

PLoS One 2018 18;13(6):e0199264. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Department of Discovery Oncology, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA, United States of America.

Mutant KRAS represents one of the most frequently observed oncogenes in NSCLC, yet no therapies are approved for tumors that express activated KRAS variants. While there is strong rationale for the use of MEK inhibitors to treat tumors with activated RAS/MAPK signaling, these have proven ineffective clinically. We therefore implemented a CRISPR screening approach to identify novel agents to sensitize KRAS mutant NSCLC cells to MEK inhibitor treatment. This approach identified multiple components of the canonical RAS/MAPK pathway consistent with previous studies. In addition, we identified MAPK7 as a novel, strong hit and validated this finding using multiple orthogonal approaches including knockdown and pharmacological inhibition. We show that MAPK7 inhibition attenuates the re-activation of MAPK signaling occurring following long-term MEK inhibition, thereby illustrating that MAPK7 mediates pathway reactivation in the face of MEK inhibition. Finally, genetic knockdown of MAPK7 combined with the MEK inhibitor cobimetinib in a mutant KRAS NSCLC xenograft model to mediate improved tumor growth inhibition. These data highlight that MAPK7 represents a promising target for combination treatment with MEK inhibition in KRAS mutant NSCLC.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0199264PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6005515PMC
April 2019

CRISPR off-target analysis in genetically engineered rats and mice.

Nat Methods 2018 07 21;15(7):512-514. Epub 2018 May 21.

Department of Molecular Biology, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Despite widespread use of CRISPR, comprehensive data on the frequency and impact of Cas9-mediated off-targets in modified rodents are limited. Here we present deep-sequencing data from 81 genome-editing projects on mouse and rat genomes at 1,423 predicted off-target sites, 32 of which were confirmed, and show that high-fidelity Cas9 versions reduced off-target mutation rates in vivo. Using whole-genome sequencing data from ten mouse embryos, treated with a single guide RNA (sgRNA), and from their genetic parents, we found 43 off-targets, 30 of which were predicted by an adapted version of GUIDE-seq.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41592-018-0011-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6558654PMC
July 2018

ASC- and caspase-8-dependent apoptotic pathway diverges from the NLRC4 inflammasome in macrophages.

Sci Rep 2018 02 28;8(1):3788. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Department of Physiological Chemistry, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, California, USA.

The NLRC4 inflammasome recognizes bacterial flagellin and components of the type III secretion apparatus. NLRC4 stimulation leads to caspase-1 activation followed by a rapid lytic cell death known as pyroptosis. NLRC4 is linked to pathogen-free auto-inflammatory diseases, suggesting a role for NLRC4 in sterile inflammation. Here, we show that NLRC4 activates an alternative cell death program morphologically similar to apoptosis in caspase-1-deficient BMDMs. By performing an unbiased genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen with subsequent validation studies in gene-targeted mice, we highlight a critical role for caspase-8 and ASC adaptor in an alternative apoptotic pathway downstream of NLRC4. Furthermore, caspase-1 catalytically dead knock-in (Casp1 C284A KI) BMDMs genetically segregate pyroptosis and apoptosis, and confirm that caspase-1 does not functionally compete with ASC for NLRC4 interactions. We show that NLRC4/caspase-8-mediated apoptotic cells eventually undergo plasma cell membrane damage in vitro, suggesting that this pathway can lead to secondary necrosis. Unexpectedly, we found that DFNA5/GSDME, a member of the pore-forming gasdermin family, is dispensable for the secondary necrosis that follows NLRC4-mediated apoptosis in macrophages. Together, our data confirm the existence of an alternative caspase-8 activation pathway diverging from the NLRC4 inflammasome in primary macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-21998-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5830643PMC
February 2018

CRISPR whole-genome screening identifies new necroptosis regulators and RIPK1 alternative splicing.

Cell Death Dis 2018 02 15;9(3):261. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Department of Discovery Oncology, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA.

The necroptotic cell death pathway is a key component of human pathogen defense that can become aberrantly derepressed during tissue homeostasis to contribute to multiple types of tissue damage and disease. While formation of the necrosome kinase signaling complex containing RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL has been extensively characterized, additional mechanisms of its regulation and effector functions likely remain to be discovered. We screened 19,883 mouse protein-coding genes by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout for resistance to cytokine-induced necroptosis and identified 112 regulators and mediators of necroptosis, including 59 new candidate pathway components with minimal or no effect on cell growth in the absence of necroptosis induction. Among these, we further characterized the function of PTBP1, an RNA binding protein whose activity is required to maintain RIPK1 protein abundance by regulating alternative splice-site selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-018-0301-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5833675PMC
February 2018

Silencing of retrotransposons by SETDB1 inhibits the interferon response in acute myeloid leukemia.

J Cell Biol 2017 11 8;216(11):3535-3549. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Department of Molecular Biology, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA

A propensity for rewiring genetic and epigenetic regulatory networks, thus enabling sustained cell proliferation, suppression of apoptosis, and the ability to evade the immune system, is vital to cancer cell propagation. An increased understanding of how this is achieved is critical for identifying or improving therapeutic interventions. In this study, using acute myeloid leukemia (AML) human cell lines and a custom CRISPR/Cas9 screening platform, we identify the H3K9 methyltransferase SETDB1 as a novel, negative regulator of innate immunity. SETDB1 is overexpressed in many cancers, and loss of this gene in AML cells triggers desilencing of retrotransposable elements that leads to the production of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). This is coincident with induction of a type I interferon response and apoptosis through the dsRNA-sensing pathway. Collectively, our findings establish a unique gene regulatory axis that cancer cells can exploit to circumvent the immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201612160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5674883PMC
November 2017

Quantitative evaluation of first, second, and third generation hairpin systems reveals the limit of mammalian vector-based RNAi.

RNA Biol 2016 ;13(1):25-33

b Molecular Biology South San Francisco , CA 94080.

Incorporating miRNA-like features into vector-based hairpin scaffolds has been shown to augment small RNA processing and RNAi efficiency. Therefore, defining an optimal, native hairpin context may obviate a need for hairpin-specific targeting design schemes, which confound the movement of functional siRNAs into shRNA/artificial miRNA backbones, or large-scale screens to identify efficacious sequences. Thus, we used quantitative cell-based assays to compare separate third generation artificial miRNA systems, miR-E (based on miR-30a) and miR-3G (based on miR-16-2 and first described in this study) to widely-adopted, first and second generation formats in both Pol-II and Pol-III expression vector contexts. Despite their unique structures and strandedness, and in contrast to first and second-generation RNAi triggers, the third generation formats operated with remarkable similarity to one another, and strong silencing was observed with a significant fraction of the evaluated target sequences within either promoter context. By pairing an established siRNA design algorithm with the third generation vectors we could readily identify targeting sequences that matched or exceeded the potency of those discovered through large-scale sensor-based assays. We find that third generation hairpin systems enable the maximal level of siRNA function, likely through enhanced processing and accumulation of precisely-defined guide RNAs. Therefore, we predict future gains in RNAi potency will come from improved hairpin expression and identification of optimal siRNA-intrinsic silencing properties rather than further modification of these scaffolds. Consequently, third generation systems should be the primary format for vector-based RNAi studies; miR-3G is advantageous due to its small expression cassette and simplified, cost-efficient cloning scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15476286.2015.1128062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4829305PMC
October 2016

CCAT1 is an enhancer-templated RNA that predicts BET sensitivity in colorectal cancer.

J Clin Invest 2016 Feb 11;126(2):639-52. Epub 2016 Jan 11.

Colon tumors arise in a stepwise fashion from either discrete genetic perturbations or epigenetic dysregulation. To uncover the key epigenetic regulators that drive colon cancer growth, we used a CRISPR loss-of-function screen and identified a number of essential genes, including the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein BRD4. We found that BRD4 is critical for colon cancer proliferation, and its knockdown led to differentiation effects in vivo. JQ1, a BET inhibitor, preferentially reduced growth in a subset of epigenetically dysregulated colon cancers characterized by the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Integrated transcriptomic and genomic analyses defined a distinct superenhancer in CIMP+ colon cancers that regulates cMYC transcription. We found that the long noncoding RNA colon cancer-associated transcript 1 (CCAT1) is transcribed from this superenhancer and is exquisitely sensitive to BET inhibition. Concordantly, cMYC transcription and cell growth were tightly correlated with the presence of CCAT1 RNA in a variety of tumor types. Taken together, we propose that CCAT1 is a clinically tractable biomarker for identifying patients who are likely to benefit from BET inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI83265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4731162PMC
February 2016

MBASED: allele-specific expression detection in cancer tissues and cell lines.

Genome Biol 2014 Aug 7;15(8):405. Epub 2014 Aug 7.

Allele-specific gene expression, ASE, is an important aspect of gene regulation. We developed a novel method MBASED, meta-analysis based allele-specific expression detection for ASE detection using RNA-seq data that aggregates information across multiple single nucleotide variation loci to obtain a gene-level measure of ASE, even when prior phasing information is unavailable. MBASED is capable of one-sample and two-sample analyses and performs well in simulations. We applied MBASED to a panel of cancer cell lines and paired tumor-normal tissue samples, and observed extensive ASE in cancer, but not normal, samples, mainly driven by genomic copy number alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-014-0405-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4165366PMC
August 2014

Ablation of isthmus and non-isthmus-dependent flutters in a patient with cor triatriatum dexter.

Europace 2013 Nov 12;15(11):1573. Epub 2013 Apr 12.

Department of Electrophysiology, Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center, Regional Arrhythmia Center, 4867 Sunset Street, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/eut079DOI Listing
November 2013

The mutation spectrum revealed by paired genome sequences from a lung cancer patient.

Nature 2010 May;465(7297):473-7

Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with non-small-cell lung carcinomas in smokers being the predominant form of the disease. Although previous studies have identified important common somatic mutations in lung cancers, they have primarily focused on a limited set of genes and have thus provided a constrained view of the mutational spectrum. Recent cancer sequencing efforts have used next-generation sequencing technologies to provide a genome-wide view of mutations in leukaemia, breast cancer and cancer cell lines. Here we present the complete sequences of a primary lung tumour (60x coverage) and adjacent normal tissue (46x). Comparing the two genomes, we identify a wide variety of somatic variations, including >50,000 high-confidence single nucleotide variants. We validated 530 somatic single nucleotide variants in this tumour, including one in the KRAS proto-oncogene and 391 others in coding regions, as well as 43 large-scale structural variations. These constitute a large set of new somatic mutations and yield an estimated 17.7 per megabase genome-wide somatic mutation rate. Notably, we observe a distinct pattern of selection against mutations within expressed genes compared to non-expressed genes and in promoter regions up to 5 kilobases upstream of all protein-coding genes. Furthermore, we observe a higher rate of amino acid-changing mutations in kinase genes. We present a comprehensive view of somatic alterations in a single lung tumour, and provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of distinct selective pressures present within the tumour environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature09004DOI Listing
May 2010

CanPredict: a computational tool for predicting cancer-associated missense mutations.

Nucleic Acids Res 2007 Jul 30;35(Web Server issue):W595-8. Epub 2007 May 30.

Department of Bioinformatics, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

Various cancer genome projects are underway to identify novel mutations that drive tumorigenesis. While these screens will generate large data sets, the majority of identified missense changes are likely to be innocuous passenger mutations or polymorphisms. As a result, it has become increasingly important to develop computational methods for distinguishing functionally relevant mutations from other variations. We previously developed an algorithm, and now present the web application, CanPredict (http://www.canpredict.org/ or http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/Research/genentech/canpredict/), to allow users to determine if particular changes are likely to be cancer-associated. The impact of each change is measured using two known methods: Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT) and the Pfam-based LogR.E-value metric. A third method, the Gene Ontology Similarity Score (GOSS), provides an indication of how closely the gene in which the variant resides resembles other known cancer-causing genes. Scores from these three algorithms are analyzed by a random forest classifier which then predicts whether a change is likely to be cancer-associated. CanPredict fills an important need in cancer biology and will enable a large audience of biologists to determine which mutations are the most relevant for further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkm405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1933186PMC
July 2007

The effect of variable release kinetics on Paclitaxel efficacy from a drug eluting stent in a porcine model.

EuroIntervention 2005 Aug;1(2):228-35

Cardiovascular Intervention Center, Cedars Sinai Medical Center Los Angeles Ca, USA.

Aims: Paclitaxel is a potent and effective inhibitor of neointimal proliferation after coronary stenting. The Conor stent loaded with Paclitaxel can be programmed with multi-parameter matrix of dose, temporal release profiles and release pathways. The aim of this study was to determine the most efficacious dose and release pattern of Paclitaxel in a porcine model and parallels the PISCES trial.

Methods: 32 farm pigs were implanted with Conor stents loaded with 10 or 30 microg of Paclitaxel with, 10 or 30 day and mural or bidirectional release patterns. Angiographic and histomorphometric analysis was -performed at 30 and 90 days.

Results: All doses of Paclitaxel were angiographically superior to control (P < 0.01). At 30 days, intimal thickness was similar between Pisces D4 (30 microg/10 days, bidirectional release), D5 (10 microg/30 day mural) and D6 (30 microg/30 day, mural) with D4 having the lowest intimal thickness (167+/-59 microm). There was a significant increase in the mural injury associated with D4 in comparison to all other doses (P < 0.00001). At 90 days D4 was significantly worse in comparison to Pisces D5 and D6; (P < 0.01) and Pisces D5 and D6 were similar to controls.

Conclusions: 10 day release of Paclitaxel may be too short a period to inhibit neointimal proliferation after coronary stenting, or the rapid release of Paclitaxel may induce chemical injury causing secondary insult to the artery resulting in a rebound increase in intimal thickness at 90 days. These data parallel clinical findings in the PISCES trial.
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August 2005

GMAP: a genomic mapping and alignment program for mRNA and EST sequences.

Bioinformatics 2005 May 22;21(9):1859-75. Epub 2005 Feb 22.

Department of Bioinformatics Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

Motivation: We introduce GMAP, a standalone program for mapping and aligning cDNA sequences to a genome. The program maps and aligns a single sequence with minimal startup time and memory requirements, and provides fast batch processing of large sequence sets. The program generates accurate gene structures, even in the presence of substantial polymorphisms and sequence errors, without using probabilistic splice site models. Methodology underlying the program includes a minimal sampling strategy for genomic mapping, oligomer chaining for approximate alignment, sandwich DP for splice site detection, and microexon identification with statistical significance testing.

Results: On a set of human messenger RNAs with random mutations at a 1 and 3% rate, GMAP identified all splice sites accurately in over 99.3% of the sequences, which was one-tenth the error rate of existing programs. On a large set of human expressed sequence tags, GMAP provided higher-quality alignments more often than blat did. On a set of Arabidopsis cDNAs, GMAP performed comparably with GeneSeqer. In these experiments, GMAP demonstrated a several-fold increase in speed over existing programs.

Availability: Source code for gmap and associated programs is available at http://www.gene.com/share/gmap

Supplementary Information: http://www.gene.com/share/gmap.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bti310DOI Listing
May 2005

Hand-carried cardiac ultrasound enhances healthcare delivery in developing countries.

Am J Cardiol 2004 Aug;94(4):539-41

Division of Cardiology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.

The availability of cardiac ultrasound is limited in developing countries. We evaluated the feasibility and diagnostic capability of a hand-carried cardiac ultrasound device in 126 patients (age 44 +/- 24 years) referred for consultation to a cardiology clinic in rural Mexico. The hand-carried cardiac ultrasound device identified 86 cardiac findings and obviated the need for further comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation in 90% of patients (113 of 126).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.04.077DOI Listing
August 2004

GEPIS--quantitative gene expression profiling in normal and cancer tissues.

Bioinformatics 2004 Oct 8;20(15):2390-8. Epub 2004 Apr 8.

Department of Bioinformatics, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

Motivation: Expression profiling in diverse tissues is fundamental to understanding gene function as well as therapeutic target identification. The vast collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and the associated tissue source information provides an attractive opportunity for studying gene expression.

Results: To facilitate EST-based expression analysis, we developed GEPIS (gene expression profiling in silico), a tool that integrates EST and tissue source information to compute gene expression patterns in a large panel of normal and tumor samples. We found EST-based expression patterns to be consistent with published papers as well as our own experimental results. We also built a GEPIS Regional Atlas that depicts expression characteristics of all genes in a selected genomic region. This program can be adapted for large-scale screening for genes with desirable expression patterns, as illustrated by our large-scale mining for tissue- and tumor-specific genes.

Availability: The email server version of the GEPIS application is freely available at http://share.gene.com/share/gepis. An interactive version of GEPIS will soon be freely available at http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/Research/genentech/gepis/. The source code, modules, data and gene lists can be downloaded at http://share.gene.com/share/gepis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bth256DOI Listing
October 2004

Genome-wide identification of chromosomal regions of increased tumor expression by transcriptome analysis.

Cancer Res 2003 Sep;63(18):5781-4

Department of Bioinformatics, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.

Genes up-regulated in tumor cells provide attractive anticancer therapeutic targets. Although the general underlying mechanism for the increased expression in tumors is unknown, tumor-specific up-regulation of some genes can be attributed to aberrant DNA amplification, a phenomenon common to many tumors. Using a computational method, we constructed a general transcriptome map with the human genomic sequences and expressed sequence tags in the public database. The transcriptome map revealed nonrandom chromosomal regions (termed region of increased tumor expression) where clusters of genes exhibited increased expression in the 10 tumor tissue types tested. These genomic regions often correspond to experimentally verified tumor amplicons. Our large-scale transcriptome analysis led to identification of many additional chromosomal regions with increased tumor expression, regions that represent potential tumor amplicons.
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September 2003

The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment.

Genome Res 2003 Oct 15;13(10):2265-70. Epub 2003 Sep 15.

Departments of Bioinformatics, Molecular Biology and Protein Chemistry, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.

A large-scale effort, termed the Secreted Protein Discovery Initiative (SPDI), was undertaken to identify novel secreted and transmembrane proteins. In the first of several approaches, a biological signal sequence trap in yeast cells was utilized to identify cDNA clones encoding putative secreted proteins. A second strategy utilized various algorithms that recognize features such as the hydrophobic properties of signal sequences to identify putative proteins encoded by expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from human cDNA libraries. A third approach surveyed ESTs for protein sequence similarity to a set of known receptors and their ligands with the BLAST algorithm. Finally, both signal-sequence prediction algorithms and BLAST were used to identify single exons of potential genes from within human genomic sequence. The isolation of full-length cDNA clones for each of these candidate genes resulted in the identification of >1000 novel proteins. A total of 256 of these cDNAs are still novel, including variants and novel genes, per the most recent GenBank release version. The success of this large-scale effort was assessed by a bioinformatics analysis of the proteins through predictions of protein domains, subcellular localizations, and possible functional roles. The SPDI collection should facilitate efforts to better understand intercellular communication, may lead to new understandings of human diseases, and provides potential opportunities for the development of therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.1293003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC403697PMC
October 2003

Protein identification: the origins of peptide mass fingerprinting.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2003 Sep;14(9):931-42

Protein Chemistry Department and Bioinformatics Department, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California, USA.

Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) grew from a need for a faster, more efficient method to identify frequently observed proteins in electrophoresis gels. We describe the genesis of the idea in 1989, and show the first demonstration with fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Despite its promise, the method was seldom used until 1992, with the coming of significantly more sensitive commercial instrumentation based on MALDI-TOF-MS. We recount the evolution of the method and its dependence on a number of technical breakthroughs, both in mass spectrometry and in other areas. We show how it laid the foundation for high-throughput, high-sensitivity methods of protein analysis, now known as proteomics. We conclude with recommendations for further improvements, and speculation of the role of PMF in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1044-0305(03)00214-9DOI Listing
September 2003

Short-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention: effects of stenting and institutional volume shifts.

Am Heart J 2002 Aug;144(2):310-4

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash, USA.

Background: This study examines how the dissemination of stenting and procedural shifts to high-volume facilities have affected short-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: Discharge information from the 1994 and 1997 US Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used. Data from 1994 involved 84,036 angioplasties, 27.3% of which were performed for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), at a time when stents were generally unavailable. Data from 1997 included 118,548 angioplasties, 30.2% of which were performed for AMI and 59% of which involved stenting. Outcomes included same-admission mortality and same-admission bypass grafting surgery (CABG).

Results: Compared with 1994, in 1997 stents were in widespread use, and there was a significant shift in PCI procedures to high-volume facilities. There was no significant difference in overall mortality rates between 1994 and 1997. However, same-admission CABG rates were lower in 1997 than in 1994 for the AMI group (2.9% vs 4.7%, P <.0001) and for the no-AMI group (1.8% vs 3.0%, P <.0001), which was attributable almost entirely to stenting. For 1997 only, patients receiving stents had a lower mortality rate than patients undergoing PCI without stenting (AMI 2.7% vs 4.7%, P <.0001, no AMI 0.7% vs 0.9%, P =.004).

Conclusions: Despite the dissemination of stenting and shifts to high-volume facilities, overall mortality rates after PCI have not significantly changed. However, patients undergoing stenting in 1997 had a significantly lower mortality rate than patients who did not undergo stenting, suggesting that stents may prevent inhospital deaths. Furthermore, same-admission CABG rates have decreased dramatically, an association seen with the introduction of stenting, but not with volume shifts.
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August 2002