Publications by authors named "Colin Butter"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Functional Alleles of Chicken BG Genes, Members of the Butyrophilin Gene Family, in Peripheral T Cells.

Front Immunol 2018 1;9:930. Epub 2018 May 1.

Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

γδ T cells recognize a wide variety of ligands in mammals, among them members of the butyrophilin (BTN) family. Nothing is known about γδ T cell ligands in chickens, despite there being many such cells in blood and lymphoid tissues, as well as in mucosal surfaces. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of chickens was discovered because of polymorphic BG genes, part of the BTN family. All but two BG genes are located in the BG region, oriented head-to-tail so that unequal crossing-over has led to copy number variation (CNV) as well as hybrid (chimeric) genes, making it difficult to identify true alleles. One approach is to examine BG genes expressed in particular cell types, which likely have the same functions in different BG haplotypes and thus can be considered "functional alleles." We cloned nearly full-length BG transcripts from peripheral T cells of four haplotypes (B2, B15, B19, and B21), and compared them to the BG genes of the B12 haplotype that previously were studied in detail. A dominant BG gene was found in each haplotype, but with significant levels of subdominant transcripts in three haplotypes (B2, B15, and B19). For three haplotypes (B15, B19, and B21), most sequences are closely-related to BG8, BG9, and BG12 from the B12 haplotype. We found that variation in the extracellular immunoglobulin-variable-like (Ig-V) domain is mostly localized to the membrane distal loops but without evidence for selection. However, variation in the cytoplasmic tail composed of many amino acid heptad repeats does appear to be selected (although not obviously localized), consistent with an intriguing clustering of charged and polar residues in an apparent α-helical coiled-coil. By contrast, the dominantly-expressed BG gene in the B2 haplotype is identical to BG13 from the B12 haplotype, and most of the subdominant sequences are from the BG5-BG7-BG11 clade. Moreover, alternative splicing leading to intron read-through results in dramatically truncated cytoplasmic tails, particularly for the dominantly-expressed BG gene of the B2 haplotype. The approach of examining "functional alleles" has yielded interesting data for closely-related genes, but also thrown up unexpected findings for at least one haplotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5938342PMC
July 2019

A Versatile Panel of Reference Gene Assays for the Measurement of Chicken mRNA by Quantitative PCR.

PLoS One 2016 18;11(8):e0160173. Epub 2016 Aug 18.

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, United Kingdom.

Quantitative real-time PCR assays are widely used for the quantification of mRNA within avian experimental samples. Multiple stably-expressed reference genes, selected for the lowest variation in representative samples, can be used to control random technical variation. Reference gene assays must be reliable, have high amplification specificity and efficiency, and not produce signals from contaminating DNA. Whilst recent research papers identify specific genes that are stable in particular tissues and experimental treatments, here we describe a panel of ten avian gene primer and probe sets that can be used to identify suitable reference genes in many experimental contexts. The panel was tested with TaqMan and SYBR Green systems in two experimental scenarios: a tissue collection and virus infection of cultured fibroblasts. GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms were able to select appropriate reference gene sets in each case. We show the effects of using the selected genes on the detection of statistically significant differences in expression. The results are compared with those obtained using 28s ribosomal RNA, the present most widely accepted reference gene in chicken work, identifying circumstances where its use might provide misleading results. Methods for eliminating DNA contamination of RNA reduced, but did not completely remove, detectable DNA. We therefore attached special importance to testing each qPCR assay for absence of signal using DNA template. The assays and analyses developed here provide a useful resource for selecting reference genes for investigations of avian biology.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0160173PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4990416PMC
July 2017

Host genetics determine susceptibility to avian influenza infection and transmission dynamics.

Sci Rep 2016 06 9;6:26787. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

Avian Viral Diseases program, The Pirbright Institute, Compton Laboratory, Newbury, United Kingdom.

Host-genetic control of influenza virus infection has been the object of little attention. In this study we determined that two inbred lines of chicken differing in their genetic background , Lines 0 and C-B12, were respectively relatively resistant and susceptible to infection with the low pathogenicity influenza virus A/Turkey/England/647/77 as defined by substantial differences in viral shedding trajectories. Resistant birds, although infected, were unable to transmit virus to contact birds, as ultimately only the presence of a sustained cloacal shedding (and not oropharyngeal shedding) was critical for transmission. Restriction of within-bird transmission of virus occurred in the resistant line, with intra-nares or cloacal infection resulting in only local shedding and failing to transmit fully through the gastro-intestinal-pulmonary tract. Resistance to infection was independent of adaptive immune responses, including the expansion of specific IFNγ secreting cells or production of influenza-specific antibody. Genetic resistance to a novel H9N2 virus was less robust, though significant differences between host genotypes were still clearly evident. The existence of host-genetic determination of the outcome of influenza infection offers tools for the further dissection of this regulation and also for understanding the mechanisms of influenza transmission within and between birds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep26787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4899695PMC
June 2016

Expression levels of MHC class I molecules are inversely correlated with promiscuity of peptide binding.

Elife 2015 Apr 10;4:e05345. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are at the heart of adaptive immune responses, playing crucial roles in many kinds of disease and in vaccination. We report that breadth of peptide presentation and level of cell surface expression of class I molecules are inversely correlated in both chickens and humans. This relationship correlates with protective responses against infectious pathogens including Marek's disease virus leading to lethal tumours in chickens and human immunodeficiency virus infection progressing to AIDS in humans. We propose that differences in peptide binding repertoire define two groups of MHC class I molecules strategically evolved as generalists and specialists for different modes of pathogen resistance. We suggest that differences in cell surface expression level ensure the development of optimal peripheral T cell responses. The inverse relationship of peptide repertoire and expression is evidently a fundamental property of MHC molecules, with ramifications extending beyond immunology and medicine to evolutionary biology and conservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4420994PMC
April 2015

Analysis of the early immune response to infection by infectious bursal disease virus in chickens differing in their resistance to the disease.

J Virol 2015 Mar 10;89(5):2469-82. Epub 2014 Dec 10.

The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, United Kingdom.

Unlabelled: Chicken whole-genome gene expression arrays were used to analyze the host response to infection by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Spleen and bursal tissue were examined from control and infected birds at 2, 3, and 4 days postinfection from two lines that differ in their resistance to IBDV infection. The host response was evaluated over this period, and differences between susceptible and resistant chicken lines were examined. Antiviral genes, including IFNA, IFNG, MX1, IFITM1, IFITM3, and IFITM5, were upregulated in response to infection. Evaluation of this gene expression data allowed us to predict several genes as candidates for involvement in resistance to IBDV.

Importance: Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is of economic importance to the poultry industry and thus is also important for food security. Vaccines are available, but field strains of the virus are of increasing virulence. There is thus an urgent need to explore new control solutions, one of which would be to breed birds with greater resistance to IBD. This goal is perhaps uniquely achievable with poultry, of all farm animal species, since the genetics of 85% of the 60 billion chickens produced worldwide each year is under the control of essentially two breeding companies. In a comprehensive study, we attempt here to identify global transcriptomic differences in the target organ of the virus between chicken lines that differ in resistance and to predict candidate resistance genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02828-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4325706PMC
March 2015

An infected chicken kidney cell co-culture ELISpot for enhanced detection of T cell responses to avian influenza and vaccination.

J Immunol Methods 2015 Jan 7;416:40-8. Epub 2014 Nov 7.

The Pirbright Institute, Compton Laboratory, Compton, Newbury, Berkshire RG20 7NN, UK. Electronic address:

A better understanding of the immune responses of chickens to the influenza virus is essential for the development of new strategies of vaccination and control. We have developed a method incorporating infected chicken kidney cells (CKC) in culture with splenocytes in an IFNγ ELISpot assay to enumerate ex vivo responses against influenza virus antigens. Splenocytes from birds challenged with influenza showed specific responses to the influenza virus, with responding cells being mainly CD8 positive. The utility of the assay was also demonstrated in the detection of an antigen specific enhancement of IFNγ producing cells from birds vaccinated with recombinant Fowlpox vectored influenza nucleoprotein and matrix protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2014.10.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4334094PMC
January 2015

Evolution of an expanded mannose receptor gene family.

PLoS One 2014 12;9(11):e110330. Epub 2014 Nov 12.

The Pirbright Institute, Compton, United Kingdom.

Sequences of peptides from a protein specifically immunoprecipitated by an antibody, KUL01, that recognises chicken macrophages, identified a homologue of the mammalian mannose receptor, MRC1, which we called MRC1L-B. Inspection of the genomic environment of the chicken gene revealed an array of five paralogous genes, MRC1L-A to MRC1L-E, located between conserved flanking genes found either side of the single MRC1 gene in mammals. Transcripts of all five genes were detected in RNA from a macrophage cell line and other RNAs, whose sequences allowed the precise definition of spliced exons, confirming or correcting existing bioinformatic annotation. The confirmed gene structures were used to locate orthologues of all five genes in the genomes of two other avian species and of the painted turtle, all with intact coding sequences. The lizard genome had only three genes, one orthologue of MRC1L-A and two orthologues of the MRC1L-B antigen gene resulting from a recent duplication. The Xenopus genome, like that of most mammals, had only a single MRC1-like gene at the corresponding locus. MRC1L-A and MRC1L-B genes had similar cytoplasmic regions that may be indicative of similar subcellular migration and functions. Cytoplasmic regions of the other three genes were very divergent, possibly indicating the evolution of a new functional repertoire for this family of molecules, which might include novel interactions with pathogens.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0110330PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4229073PMC
July 2015

A B-cell targeting virus disrupts potentially protective genomic methylation patterns in lymphoid tissue by increasing global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels.

Vet Res 2014 Oct 23;45:108. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

Avian Viral Diseases (AVD), Compton Laboratory, The Pirbright Institute, Compton, Berkshire, RG20 7NN, UK.

The mechanisms by which viruses modulate the immune system include changes in host genomic methylation. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is the catalytic product of the Tet (Ten-11 translocation) family of enzymes and may serve as an intermediate of DNA demethylation. Recent reports suggest that 5hmC may confer consequences on cellular events including the pathogenesis of disease; in order to explore this possibility further we investigated both 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5hmC levels in healthy and diseased chicken bursas of Fabricius. We discovered that embryonic B-cells have high 5mC content while 5hmC decreases during bursa development. We propose that a high 5mC level protects from the mutagenic activity of the B-cell antibody diversifying enzyme activation induced deaminase (AID). In support of this view, AID mRNA increases significantly within the developing bursa from embryonic to post hatch stages while mRNAs that encode Tet family members 1 and 2 reduce over the same period. Moreover, our data revealed that infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) disrupts this genomic methylation pattern causing a global increase in 5hmC levels in a mechanism that may involve increased Tet 1 and 2 mRNAs. To our knowledge this is the first time that a viral infection has been observed to cause global increases in genomic 5hmC within infected host tissues, underlining a mechanism that may involve the induction of B-cell genomic instability and cell death to facilitate viral egress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-014-0108-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4258027PMC
October 2014

Sequence of a complete chicken BG haplotype shows dynamic expansion and contraction of two gene lineages with particular expression patterns.

PLoS Genet 2014 Jun 5;10(6):e1004417. Epub 2014 Jun 5.

Basel Institute for Immunology, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Pirbright Institute (formerly Institute for Animal Health), Compton, United Kingdom; Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Many genes important in immunity are found as multigene families. The butyrophilin genes are members of the B7 family, playing diverse roles in co-regulation and perhaps in antigen presentation. In humans, a fixed number of butyrophilin genes are found in and around the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and show striking association with particular autoimmune diseases. In chickens, BG genes encode homologues with somewhat different domain organisation. Only a few BG genes have been characterised, one involved in actin-myosin interaction in the intestinal brush border, and another implicated in resistance to viral diseases. We characterise all BG genes in B12 chickens, finding a multigene family organised as tandem repeats in the BG region outside the MHC, a single gene in the MHC (the BF-BL region), and another single gene on a different chromosome. There is a precise cell and tissue expression for each gene, but overall there are two kinds, those expressed by haemopoietic cells and those expressed in tissues (presumably non-haemopoietic cells), correlating with two different kinds of promoters and 5' untranslated regions (5'UTR). However, the multigene family in the BG region contains many hybrid genes, suggesting recombination and/or deletion as major evolutionary forces. We identify BG genes in the chicken whole genome shotgun sequence, as well as by comparison to other haplotypes by fibre fluorescence in situ hybridisation, confirming dynamic expansion and contraction within the BG region. Thus, the BG genes in chickens are undergoing much more rapid evolution compared to their homologues in mammals, for reasons yet to be understood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4046983PMC
June 2014

The peptide motif of the single dominantly expressed class I molecule of the chicken MHC can explain the response to a molecular defined vaccine of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).

Immunogenetics 2013 Aug 5;65(8):609-18. Epub 2013 May 5.

Institute for Animal Health, Compton, Reading, Berkshire RG20 7NN, UK.

In contrast to typical mammals, the chicken MHC (the BF-BL region of the B locus) has strong genetic associations with resistance and susceptibility to infectious pathogens as well as responses to vaccines. We have shown that the chicken MHC encodes a single dominantly expressed class I molecule whose peptide-binding motifs can determine resistance to viral pathogens, such as Rous sarcoma virus and Marek's disease virus. In this report, we examine the response to a molecular defined vaccine, fp-IBD1, which consists of a fowlpox virus vector carrying the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) fused with β-galactosidase. We vaccinated parental lines and two backcross families with fp-IBD1, challenged with the virulent IBDV strain F52/70, and measured damage to the bursa. We found that the MHC haplotype B15 from line 15I confers no protection, whereas B2 from line 61 and B12 from line C determine protection, although another locus from line 61 was also important. Using our peptide motifs, we found that many more peptides from VP2 were predicted to bind to the dominantly expressed class I molecule BF2*1201 than BF2*1501. Moreover, most of the peptides predicted to bind BF2*1201 did in fact bind, while none bound BF2*1501. Using peptide vaccination, we identified one B12 peptide that conferred protection to challenge, as assessed by bursal damage and viremia. Thus, we show the strong genetic association of the chicken MHC to a T cell vaccine can be explained by peptide presentation by the single dominantly expressed class I molecule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00251-013-0705-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3710569PMC
August 2013

Improved adjuvanting of seasonal influenza vaccines: preclinical studies of MVA-NP+M1 coadministration with inactivated influenza vaccine.

Eur J Immunol 2013 Jul 10;43(7):1940-52. Epub 2013 Jun 10.

Jenner Institute, Old Road Campus Research Building, Oxford, UK.

Licensed seasonal influenza vaccines induce antibody (Ab) responses against influenza hemagglutinin (HA) that are limited in their ability to protect against different strains of influenza. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognizing the conserved internal nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein (M1) are capable of mediating a cross-subtype immune response against influenza. Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus encoding NP and M1 (MVA-NP+M1) is designed to boost preexisting T-cell responses in adults in order to elicit a cross-protective immune response. We examined the coadministration of HA protein formulations and candidate MVA-NP+M1 influenza vaccines in murine, avian, and swine models. Ab responses postimmunization were measured by ELISA and pseudotype neutralization assays. Here, we demonstrate that MVA-NP+M1 can act as an adjuvant enhancing Ab responses to HA while simultaneously inducing potent T-cell responses to conserved internal Ags. We show that this regimen leads to the induction of cytophilic Ab isotypes that are capable of inhibiting hemagglutination and in the context of H5 exhibit cross-clade neutralization. The simultaneous induction of T cells and Ab responses has the potential to improve seasonal vaccine performance and could be employed in pandemic situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201242922DOI Listing
July 2013

Expression of chicken DEC205 reflects the unique structure and function of the avian immune system.

PLoS One 2013 9;8(1):e51799. Epub 2013 Jan 9.

Avian Viral Diseases Programme, The Pirbright Institute, Compton Laboratory, Newbury, Berkshire, United Kingdom.

The generation of appropriate adaptive immune responses relies critically on dendritic cells, about which relatively little is known in chickens, a vital livestock species, in comparison with man and mouse. We cloned and sequenced chicken DEC205 cDNA and used this knowledge to produce quantitative PCR assays and monoclonal antibodies to study expression of DEC205 as well as CD83. The gene structure of DEC205 was identical to those of other species. Transcripts of both genes were found at higher levels in lymphoid tissues and the expression of DEC205 in normal birds had a characteristic distribution in the primary lymphoid organs. In spleen, DEC205 was seen on cells ideally located to trap antigen. In thymus it was found on cells thought to participate in the education of T cells, and in the bursa on cells that may be involved in presentation of antigen to B cells and regulation of B cell migration. The expression of DEC205 on cells other than antigen presenting cells (APC) is also described. Isolated splenocytes strongly expressing DEC205 but not the KUL01 antigen have morphology similar to mammalian dendritic cells and the distinct expression of DEC205 within the avian-specific Bursa of Fabricius alludes to a unique function in this organ of B cell diversification.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0051799PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3541370PMC
July 2013

Towards a universal vaccine for avian influenza: protective efficacy of modified Vaccinia virus Ankara and Adenovirus vaccines expressing conserved influenza antigens in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus.

Vaccine 2013 Jan 28;31(4):670-5. Epub 2012 Nov 28.

The Jenner Institute, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.

Current vaccines targeting surface proteins can drive antigenic variation resulting either in the emergence of more highly pathogenic viruses or of antigenically distinct viruses that escape control by vaccination and thereby persist in the host population. Influenza vaccines typically target the highly mutable surface proteins and do not provide protection against heterologous challenge. Vaccines which induce immune responses against conserved influenza epitopes may confer protection against heterologous challenge. We report here the results of vaccination with recombinant modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Adenovirus (Ad) expressing a fusion construct of nucleoprotein and matrix protein (NP+M1). Prime and boost vaccination regimes were trialled in different ages of chicken and were found to be safe and immunogenic. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) ELISpot was used to assess the cellular immune response post secondary vaccination. In ovo Ad prime followed by a 4 week post hatch MVA boost was identified as the most immunogenic regime in one outbred and two inbred lines of chicken. Following vaccination, one inbred line (C15I) was challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N7 (A/Turkey/England/1977). Birds receiving a primary vaccination with Ad-NP+M1 and a secondary vaccination with MVA-NP+M1 exhibited reduced cloacal shedding as measured by plaque assay at 7 days post infection compared with birds vaccinated with recombinant viruses containing irrelevant antigen. This preliminary indication of efficacy demonstrates proof of concept in birds; induction of T cell responses in chickens by viral vectors containing internal influenza antigens may be a productive strategy for the development of vaccines to induce heterologous protection against influenza in poultry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.11.047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3605591PMC
January 2013

Practical guide to the induction of relapsing progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the Biozzi ABH mouse.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2012 Jan 15;1(1):29-38. Epub 2011 Sep 15.

Neuroimmmunology Unit, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, 4 Newark Street, London E1 2AT, United Kingdom; Department of Pathology, The Royal College of Surgeons of England, London WCA 3PN, United Kingdom.

Biozzi ABH mice develop a reproducible, relapsing-remitting form of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) that becomes secondary progressive with disease duration. The relapses observed are T-cell dependent and can be inhibited by immune tolerance induction. In contrast the progressive neurodegeneration is T cell-independent and continues despite the re-induction of immune tolerance. Here we present a practical guide to EAE induction in the ABH mouse and approaches used to control relapses such that both autoimmune-independent and autoimmune-dependent mechanisms of neurodegeneration can be explored. Disease-related weight changes are associated with blood-brain barrier dysfunction and clinical disease. A new method for detecting neurodegeneration is described along with new experimental details that will aid in the undertaking of studies in EAE in mice, with particularly emphasis on ABH mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2011.09.001DOI Listing
January 2012

Generation and characterization of chicken bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

Immunology 2010 Jan 15;129(1):133-45. Epub 2009 May 15.

Institute for Animal Health, Compton, Berkshire RG20 7NN, UK.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are bone marrow-derived professional antigen-presenting cells. The in vitro generation of DCs from either bone marrow or blood is routine in mammals. Their distinct morphology and phenotype and their unique ability to stimulate naïve T cells are used to define DCs. In this study, chicken bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence of recombinant chicken granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and recombinant chicken interleukin-4 (IL-4) for 7 days. The cultured population showed the typical morphology of DCs, with the surface phenotype of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II(+) (high), CD11c(+) (high), CD40(+) (moderate), CD1.1(+) (moderate), CD86(+) (low), CD83(-) and DEC-205(-). Upon maturation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or CD40L, surface expression of CD40, CD1.1, CD86, CD83 and DEC-205 was greatly increased. Endocytosis and phagocytosis were assessed by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran uptake and fluorescent bead uptake, respectively, and both decreased after stimulation. Non-stimulated chicken bone marrow-derived DCs (chBM-DCs) stimulated both allogeneic and syngeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) to proliferate in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). LPS- or CD40L-stimulated chBM-DCs were more effective T-cell stimulators in MLR than non-stimulated chBM-DCs. Cultured chBM-DCs could be matured to a T helper type 1 (Th1)-promoting phenotype by LPS or CD40L stimulation, as determined by mRNA expression levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. We have therefore cultured functional chBM-DCs in a non-mammalian species for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2567.2009.03129.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2807494PMC
January 2010

Cloning and characterisation of the chicken orthologue of dendritic cell-lysosomal associated membrane protein (DC-LAMP).

Dev Comp Immunol 2010 Feb 12;34(2):183-8. Epub 2009 Oct 12.

Institute for Animal Health, Compton, Berkshire, UK.

A cDNA encoding the chicken orthologue of dendritic cell-lysosomal associated membrane protein (DC-LAMP)/CD208 was cloned by RT-PCR from RNA isolated from mature chicken bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (chBM-DCs). The cloned chicken DC-LAMP (chDC-LAMP) cDNA consists of 1281 nucleotides encoding an open reading frame of 426 amino acids (aa). Comparison of the deduced aa sequence of DC-LAMP with orthologous proteins from human and mouse revealed 27 and 24% identity, respectively. The predicted chDC-LAMP protein shares the characteristic features of LAMP family members. ChDC-LAMP mRNA, unlike its mammalian orthologues, was expressed in a wide range of tissues, at highest levels in the lung. Lymphoid tissues including thymus, spleen, bursa, ceacal tonsil and Meckel's diverticulum had high chDC-LAMP mRNA expression levels. ChDC-LAMP mRNA was expressed in all splenocyte subsets with the highest expression in Bu-1(+) B cells and KUL01(+) cells, which would include macrophages and DC. ChDC-LAMP mRNA was highly expressed in chBM-DC, whereas expression levels in chicken monocyte-derived macrophages (chMo-Mac) and the HD11 macrophage cell line were significantly lower. Following CD40L stimulation, chDC-LAMP mRNA expression levels were up-regulated in mature chBM-DC, chMo-Mac and HD11 cells whereas lipopolysaccharide (LPS) only up-regulated chDC-LAMP mRNA expression levels in chBM-DC. ChDC-LAMP is not solely expressed on chicken DC but can be used as a marker to differentiate between immature and mature DC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2009.09.007DOI Listing
February 2010

The BAFF-Interacting receptors of chickens.

Dev Comp Immunol 2008 11;32(9):1076-87. Epub 2008 Mar 11.

Institute for Animal Health, Compton, Newbury, Berkshire RG20 7NN, UK.

The TNF superfamily cytokine BAFF has crucial roles in homoeostatic regulation of B cell populations in mammals. Similar effects on peripheral B cells have been reported for chicken as for mammalian BAFF. Unlike mammalian BAFF, chicken BAFF is produced by B cells, implying an autocrine loop and consequent differences in regulation of B cell homoeostasis. Understanding of these mechanisms requires investigation of BAFF-binding receptors in chickens. We identified and characterised chicken receptors BAFFR and TACI, but found that the gene encoding the third BAFF-binding receptor, BCMA, was disrupted, implying differences in mechanisms for maintenance of long-lived antibody responses. A BAFFR-Ig fusion protein expressed in vivo lowered B cell numbers, showing that it was functional under physiological conditions. We found changes in the ratio of BAFFR and TACI mRNAs in the bursa after hatch that may account for the altered requirements for B cell survival at this stage of development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2008.02.004DOI Listing
July 2008

Low frequency of the Mx allele for viral resistance predates recent intensive selection in domestic chickens.

Immunogenetics 2007 Aug 4;59(8):687-91. Epub 2007 Jul 4.

Institute for Animal Health, Compton, Newbury, Berkshire RG20 7NN, UK.

Avian influenza is a serious threat to the poultry industry and, as the potential source of a human pandemic virus, to public health. Different Mx alleles have been reported to confer resistance or susceptibility to influenza virus replication, and so knowledge of their frequencies is important when considering the potential for improvement of modern commercial flocks. We analysed a range of chicken lines and ancestral breeds for the relevant Mx codon that confers resistance or susceptibility to influenza virus replication. We confirmed the high frequency of the susceptibility allele in contemporary meat-type (broiler) birds compared to egg-laying strains and found this difference is present already in ancestral breeds. We sequenced full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) and noted additional substitutions, which may be associated with the resistance haplotypes. High frequencies of the susceptibility allele could be readily reduced by modern breeding techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00251-007-0235-5DOI Listing
August 2007

Route of challenge is critical in determining the clinical outcome of infection with a very virulent oncogenic herpesvirus, Marek's disease virus.

Avian Pathol 2007 Apr;36(2):93-9

The Institute for Animal Health, Compton, Newbury, Berkshire, UK.

The majority of experimental studies examining Marek's disease virus infection have used parenteral injection of cell-associated virus. The aim of this study was to examine whether the route of entry of virus was critical in determining the outcome of infection. Susceptible (L7) and resistant (L6) White Leghorn chickens were infected with a very virulent Marek's disease virus, RB1B, by either the intra-abdominal or intra-tracheal route. Birds infected by the intra-tracheal route had earlier, higher or more sustained blood, spleen and lung viral concentrations than those infected by the intra-abdominal route. L7 birds had higher viral loads than L6 birds infected by the same route. Clinical outcomes reflected these data. Resistant birds infected by the intra-tracheal route had an increased prevalence of tumours and shorter survival times compared with those infected by the intra-abdominal route. Susceptible birds infected by the intra-tracheal route became paralysed 10 days after infection. L7 birds had shorter survival times and increased prevalences of tumours than L6 birds. The pathology and viraemia seen with intra-tracheal infection could not be fully replicated by increasing the dose in intra-abdominal infections. We conclude that instillation of infective dust produces a more aggressive infection that depends on the route of entry and form of virus, and not just on the challenge dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079450601156075DOI Listing
April 2007