Publications by authors named "Clotilde Cangialosi"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Daratumumab as Single Agent in Relapsed/Refractory Myeloma Patients: A Retrospective Real-Life Survey.

Front Oncol 2021 5;11:624405. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Division of Hematology, University Hospital Policlinico Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Italy.

Background: The anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody daratumumab is approved as a single agent for the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) who received at least three prior lines of therapy, including proteasome inhibitor and immunomodulatory agent. A retrospective multicentric study was designed to evaluate feasibility, tolerability, and efficacy of daratumumab in monotherapy in RRMM.

Methods: This study included 44 consecutive RRMM patients that underwent daratumumab monotherapy after a median number of four prior therapies (range 2-9). Patients were treated in seven Sicilian centers, as part of Sicilian Myeloma Network and three Calabrian centers outside of controlled clinical trials from August 2016 through July 2020.

Results: The regimen was well tolerated with few grade 3-4 haematological and rare non-haematological adverse events, such as pneumonia. Definitive discontinuation was due to disease progression in 25 (57%) patients. Since three patients did not complete at least one full cycle, a total of 41 patients was evaluated for response. Overall response rate was 37%, and the disease control rate (stable disease or better) was high (73%). The best achieved responses within 6 months were very good partial remission or better (27%), partial remission (10%), minimal response (14%) and stable disease (22%). After a median follow up of 7.8 months, median progression free survival (PFS) was 7.2 months and overall survival (OS) 7.8 months. Univariate analysis showed that patients with PR or better after 6 months of therapy had longer median PFS and OS (respectively 29.5 vs 3.6 months, p=0.0001 and 30.6 vs 3.9 months p=0.0001), confirmed by multivariate analysis. Furthermore, standard cytogenetic risk and biochemical relapse type had prolonged median PFS, but not OS (respectively unreached vs 2.6, p=0.03 and 23.9 vs 6.2, p=0.05) in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Additionally, univariate analysis showed that patients treated with carfilzomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone prior to daratumumab had significantly shorter PFS compared to pomalidomide-dexamethasone (3.4 months vs 9.3 months, p=0.03), that multivariate analysis failed to confirm.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that daratumumab as single agent is safe and well-tolerated regimen in real-life, associated to prolonged PFS and OS in responding patients. No new safety signals were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.624405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982826PMC
March 2021

Bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone followed by double autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (GIMEMA-MMY-3006): long-term follow-up analysis of a randomised phase 3, open-label study.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Dec;7(12):e861-e873

Istituto di Ematologia "Seràgnoli", Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: The phase 3 GIMEMA-MMY-3006 trial, which compared bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (VTD) combination therapy with thalidomide and dexamethasone (TD) as induction therapy before and consolidation therapy after double autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, showed the superiority of the triplet regimen over the doublet in terms of increased complete response rate and improved progression-free survival. We report the results from the final analysis of the study.

Methods: In this randomised, open-label, phase 3 study, patients aged 18-65 years with previously untreated symptomatic multiple myeloma and a Karnofsky Performance Status of 60% or higher were enrolled at 73 centres in Italy. Patients were randomised (1:1) by a web-based system to receive three 21-day cycles of thalidomide (100 mg daily orally for the first 14 days and 200 mg daily thereafter) plus dexamethasone (total 320 mg per cycle; 40 mg on days 1-2, 4-5, 8-9, and 11-12 in the VTD regimen, and 40 mg on days 1-4 and 9-12 in the TD regimen), either alone (TD group) or with bortezomib (1·3 mg/m intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11; VTD group). After double autologous HSCT, patients received two 35-day cycles of either the VTD or TD regimen, according to random assignment, as consolidation therapy. The primary outcome was the rate of complete response and near complete response after induction (already reported). In this updated analysis we assessed long-term progression-free survival and overall survival (secondary endpoints of the study) with an extended 10-year median follow-up, and analysed the variables influencing survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01134484.

Findings: Between May 10, 2006, and April 30, 2008, 480 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive VTD (241 patients) or TD (239 patients). Six patients withdrew consent before start of treatment. 236 (99 [42%] women) in the VTD group and 238 (102 [43%] women) in the TD group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The data cutoff date for this analysis was May 31, 2018. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 124·1 months (IQR 117·2-131·7). The 10-year progression-free survival estimate for patients in the VTD group was 34% (95% CI 28-41) compared with 17% (13-23) for the TD group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·62 [95% CI 0·50-0·77]; p<0·0001). 60% (95% CI 54-67) of patients in the VTD group were alive at 10 years versus 46% (40-54) of patients in the TD group (HR 0·68 [95% CI 0·51-0·90]; p=0·0068). VTD was an independent predictor of improved progression-free survival (HR 0·60 [95% CI 0·48-0·76]; p<0·0001) and overall survival (HR 0·68 [0·50-0·91]; p=0·010). The incidence of second primary malignancies per 100 person-years was 0·87 (95% CI 0·49-1·44) in the VTD group compared with 1·41 (0·88-2·13) in the TD group.

Interpretation: Incorporation of VTD into double autologous HSCT resulted in clinically meaningful improvements in long-term progression-free survival and overall survival, confirming that a regimen including bortezomib and an immunomodulatory drug is the gold standard treatment for patients with newly diagnosed myeloma who are fit for high-dose chemotherapy.

Funding: Seràgnoli Institute of Haematology, University of Bologna, and BolognAIL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30323-9DOI Listing
December 2020

Lenalidomide Maintenance with or without Prednisone in Newly Diagnosed Myeloma Patients: A Pooled Analysis.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Nov 5;11(11). Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Myeloma Unit, Division of Hematology, University of Torino, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, via Genova 3, 10126 Torino, Italy.

We conducted a pooled analysis of two phase III trials, RV-MM-EMN-441 and EMN01, to compare maintenance with lenalidomide-prednisone vs. lenalidomide in newly diagnosed transplant-eligible and -ineligible myeloma patients. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival, progression-free survival 2 and overall survival with both regimens. A secondary aim was to evaluate the impact of duration of maintenance on overall survival and on outcome after relapse. A total of 625 patients (lenalidomide-prednisone arm, = 315; lenalidomide arm, = 310) were analyzed. The median follow-up was 58 months. Median progression-free survival (25 vs. 19 months; = 0.08), progression-free survival 2 (56 vs. 49 months; = 0.9) and overall survival (73 months vs. NR; = 0.08) were not significantly different between the two arms. Toxicity profiles of lenalidomide-prednisone and lenalidomide were similar, with the exception of neutropenia that was higher in the lenalidomide arm (grade ≥ 3: 9% vs. 19%, < 0.001), without an increase in the rate of infections. Overall survival (median NR vs. 49 months, < 0.001), progression-free survival from relapse (median 35 vs. 24 months, = 0.004) and overall survival from relapse (median not reached vs. 41 months, = 0.002) were significantly longer in patients continuing maintenance for ≥2 years. We showed that the addition of prednisone at 25 or 50 mg every other day (eod) to lenalidomide maintenance did not induce any significant advantage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11111735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6896192PMC
November 2019

Feasibility, Tolerability and Efficacy of Carfilzomib in Combination with Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone in Relapsed Refractory Myeloma Patients: A Retrospective Real-Life Survey of the Sicilian Myeloma Network.

J Clin Med 2019 Jun 19;8(6). Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Division of Hematology, Azienda Policlinico-OVE, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy.

The ASPIRE (NCT01080391) phase 3 trial showed the efficacy of carfilzomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRd) triplet for relapse and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). However, little is known about safety and efficacy of KRd outside a clinical trial context. Herein we report real life results of KRd given to 130 RRMM patients from 12 Sicilian Centers. Median age was 62 years; patients had received a median of two previous lines of treatment (range 1-10) and 52% were refractory to previous treatment. Median number of KRd cycles was 12 (2-29), with a mean duration of treatment of 12 months; 21 patients had received at least 18 cycles. Overall response rate was 61%, including 18% complete response. Median PFS was 22.9 months, median OS was not reached. Creatinine clearance >30 mL/min, quality of the best achieved response and standard Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) risk were independent predictors of favorable outcome. Patients who received the full-dosage of carfilzomib in the first two cycles had a better outcome. KRd was effective and well tolerated and in a considerable proportion of patients, therapy continued beyond the 18th cycle. The finding of a better outcome in patients with the higher cumulative dose of carfilzomib in the first two cycle encourages to maintain the maximum tolerated dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8060877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6617295PMC
June 2019

Maintenance in myeloma patients achieving complete response after upfront therapy: a pooled analysis.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Jul 19;144(7):1357-1366. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Myeloma Unit, Division of Hematology, University of Torino, Azienda-Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, via Genova 3, 10126, Torino, Italy.

Purpose: Maintenance demonstrated to improve survival in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients and the achievement of complete response (CR) is a strong predictor of survival. Nevertheless, the role of maintenance according to response after induction/consolidation has not been investigated so far. To evaluate the impact of maintenance according to response, we pooled together and retrospectively analyzed data from 955 NDMM patients enrolled in two trials (GIMEMA-MM-03-05 and RV-MM-PI-209).

Methods: Primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS)1, PFS2 and overall survival (OS) of CR patients randomized to maintenance and no maintenance. Secondary endpoints were PFS1, PFS2 and OS in very good partial response/partial response (VGPR/PR) patients.

Results: Overall, 213 patients obtained CR after induction/consolidation, 118 received maintenance and 95 no maintenance. In patients achieving CR, maintenance significantly improved PFS1 (HR 0.50, P < 0.001), PFS2 (HR 0.58, P 0.02) and OS (HR 0.51, P 0.02) compared with no maintenance; the advantage was maintained across all the analyzed subgroups according to age, International Staging System (ISS) stage, cytogenetic profile and treatment. Similar features were seen in VGPR/PR patients.

Conclusion: Maintenance prolonged survival in CR and in VGPR/PR patients. The benefit in CR patients suggests the importance of continuing treatment in patients with chemo-sensitive disease.

Trial Registration: The two source studies are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: identification numbers NCT01063179 and NCT00551928.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-018-2641-5DOI Listing
July 2018

The genetic and genomic background of multiple myeloma patients achieving complete response after induction therapy with bortezomib, thalidomide and dexamethasone (VTD).

Oncotarget 2016 Mar;7(9):9666-79

"Seràgnoli" Institute of Hematology, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), Bologna University School of Medicine, Bologna, Italy.

The prime focus of the current therapeutic strategy for Multiple Myeloma (MM) is to obtain an early and deep tumour burden reduction, up to the level of complete response (CR). To date, no description of the characteristics of the plasma cells (PC) prone to achieve CR has been reported. This study aimed at the molecular characterization of PC obtained at baseline from MM patients in CR after bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone (VTD) first line therapy.One hundred and eighteen MM primary tumours obtained from homogeneously treated patients were profiled both for gene expression and for single nucleotide polymorphism genotype. Genomic results were used to obtain a predictor of sensitivity to VTD induction therapy, as well as to describe both the transcription and the genomic profile of PC derived from MM with subsequent optimal response to primary induction therapy.By analysing the gene profiles of CR patients, we identified a 5-gene signature predicting CR with an overall median accuracy of 75% (range: 72%-85%). In addition, we highlighted the differential expression of a series of genes, whose deregulation might explain patients' sensitivity to VTD therapy. We also showed that a small copy number loss, covering 606Kb on chromosome 1p22.1 was the most significantly associated with CR patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.5718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4891075PMC
March 2016

Lenograstim reduces the incidence of febrile episodes, when compared with filgrastim, in multiple myeloma patients undergoing stem cell mobilization.

Leuk Res 2011 Jul 4;35(7):899-903. Epub 2010 Dec 4.

Department of Oncology, Transplants and Advanced Technologies, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

The aim of this study was to show a lower incidence of febrile episodes in multiple myeloma patients receiving lenograstim vs. filgrastim after high-dose cyclophosphamide for stem cell mobilization. Patients treated with cyclophosphamide were randomly assigned to receive filgrastim or lenograstim. Primary endpoint was the incidence of febrile episodes. 5.1% patients developed a febrile episode, 9.1% with filgrastim and 1.1% with lenograstim. Lenograstim group presented a significantly higher absolute CD34+ cell number compared with the filgrastim group but no differences were detected for collection efficacy. The study demonstrated a lower incidence of febrile episodes with lenograstim compared to filgrastim.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2010.10.029DOI Listing
July 2011

Efficacy and safety of once-weekly bortezomib in multiple myeloma patients.

Blood 2010 Dec 31;116(23):4745-53. Epub 2010 Aug 31.

Myeloma Unit, Division of Hematology, University of Torino, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria S. Giovanni Battista, Torino, Italy.

In a recent phase 3 trial, bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide followed by maintenance treatment with bortezomib-thalidomide demonstrated superior efficacy compared with bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone. To decrease neurologic toxicities, the protocol was amended and patients in both arms received once-weekly instead of the initial twice-weekly bortezomib infusions: 372 patients received once-weekly and 139 twice-weekly bortezomib. In this post-hoc analysis we assessed the impact of the schedule change on clinical outcomes and safety. Long-term outcomes appeared similar: 3-year progression-free survival rate was 50% in the once-weekly and 47% in the twice-weekly group (P > .999), and 3-year overall survival rate was 88% and 89%, respectively (P = .54). The complete response rate was 30% in the once-weekly and 35% in the twice-weekly group (P = .27). Nonhematologic grade 3/4 adverse events were reported in 35% of once-weekly patients and 51% of twice-weekly patients (P = .003). The incidence of grade 3/4 peripheral neuropathy was 8% in the once-weekly and 28% in the twice-weekly group (P < .001); 5% of patients in the once-weekly and 15% in the twice-weekly group discontinued therapy because of peripheral neuropathy (P < .001). This improvement in safety did not appear to affect efficacy. This study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01063179.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-07-294983DOI Listing
December 2010

Major tumor shrinking and persistent molecular remissions after consolidation with bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone in patients with autografted myeloma.

J Clin Oncol 2010 Apr 22;28(12):2077-84. Epub 2010 Mar 22.

Cattedra di Ematologia, Via Genova 3, 10126 Torino, Italy.

PURPOSE We investigated the effect on minimal residual disease, by qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR), of a consolidation regimen that included bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (VTD) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) responding to autologous stem-cell transplantation (auto-SCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients achieving at least very good partial response who had an available molecular marker based on the immunoglobulin heavy-chain rearrangement received four courses of treatment every month: four infusions per month of bortezomib at 1.6 mg/m(2), thalidomide at 200 mg/d, and dexamethasone at 20 mg/d on days 1 to 4, 8 to 11, and 15 to 18. Patients were studied with tumor-clone-specific primers by qualitative nested PCR and RQ-PCR. Results Of 39 patients enrolled, 31 received the four VTD courses. Immunofixation complete responses increased from 15% after auto-SCT to 49% after VTD. Molecular remissions (MRs) were 3% after auto-SCT and 18% after VTD. Median time to maximum response was 3.5 months. So far, no patient in MR has relapsed (median follow-up, 42 months). VTD consolidation induced an additional depletion of 4.14 natural logarithms of tumor burden by RQ-PCR. Patients with a tumor load less than the median value after VTD had outcomes better than those who had tumor loads above the median value after VTD (at median follow-up: progression-free survival, 100% v 57%; P < .001). CONCLUSION To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to document the occurrence of persistent MRs in a proportion of MM patients treated without allogeneic transplantation. Moreover, the major reduction in tumor load recorded by RQ-PCR after VTD suggests that unprecedented levels of tumor cell reduction can be achieved in MM thanks to the new nonchemotherapeutic drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.23.7172DOI Listing
April 2010

Melphalan 200 mg/m(2) versus melphalan 100 mg/m(2) in newly diagnosed myeloma patients: a prospective, multicenter phase 3 study.

Blood 2010 Mar 1;115(10):1873-9. Epub 2009 Dec 1.

Divisione di Ematologia dell'Università di Torino, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria S Giovanni Battista, Via Genova 3, 10126 Torino, Italy.

High-dose (200 mg/m(2), MEL200) and intermediate-dose melphalan (100 mg/m(2), MEL100) showed significant activity in myeloma. In a phase 3 study, 298 patients were randomly assigned to receive 2 autologous transplantations after conditioning with MEL200 or MEL100. Ninety-six of 149 (64%) completed MEL200 and 103 of 149 (69%) MEL100. Best response to MEL200 was: complete remission 22 of 149 (15%); partial remission 95 of 149 (64%), for an overall response rate of 79%. Best response to MEL100 was: complete remission 12 of 149 (8%); partial remission 95 of 149 (64%), for an overall response rate of 72%. Overall survival did not differ (P = .13); median progression-free survival (31.4 vs 26.2 months, P = .01), median time to progression (34.4 vs 27.0 months, P = .014) were longer in the MEL200. Treatment-related mortality was 3.1% in the MEL200 and 2.9% in the MEL100 group. Severe neutropenia and infections were marginally superior, whereas severe thrombocytopenia, mucositis, gastrointestinal adverse events, and the overall occurrence of at least 1 nonhematologic grade 3 or 4 adverse event were significantly higher in the MEL200 cohort. We conclude that MEL200 leads to longer remission duration and should be considered the standard conditioning regimen for autologous transplantation. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00950768.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009-09-241737DOI Listing
March 2010

Bortezomib, melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide for relapsed multiple myeloma.

Blood 2007 Apr;109(7):2767-72

Divisione di Ematologia dell'Università di Torino, Azienda Ospedaliera (AO) S. Giovanni Battista, Turin, Italy.

In multiple myeloma (MM), the addition of thalidomide or bortezomib to the standard oral melphalan/prednisone combination significantly increased response rate and event-free survival. In this multicenter phase 1/2 trial, dosing, safety, and efficacy of the 4-drug combination, bortezomib, melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide (VMPT) was determined. Bortezomib was administered at 3 dose levels (1.0 mg/m2, 1.3 mg/m2, or 1.6 mg/m2) on days 1, 4, 15, and 22; melphalan was given at a dose of 6 mg/m2 on days 1 through 5 and prednisone at 60 mg/m2 on days 1 through 5. Thalidomide was delivered at 50 mg on days 1 through 35. Each course was repeated every 35 days. The maximum tolerated dose of bortezomib was 1.3 mg/m2. Thirty patients with relapsed or refractory MM were enrolled; 20 patients (67%) achieved a partial response (PR) including 13 patients (43%) who achieved at least a very good PR. Among 14 patients who received VMPT as second-line treatment, the PR rate was 79% and the immunofixation-negative complete response rate 36%. The 1-year progression-free survival was 61%, and the 1-year survival from study entry was 84%. Grade 3 nonhematologic adverse events included infections (5 patients), fatigue (1), vasculitis (1), and peripheral neuropathy (2); no grade 4 toxicities were recorded. Initial results showed that VMPT is an effective salvage therapy with a very high proportion of responses. The incidence of neurotoxicities was unexpectedly low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2006-08-042275DOI Listing
April 2007

Oral melphalan and prednisone chemotherapy plus thalidomide compared with melphalan and prednisone alone in elderly patients with multiple myeloma: randomised controlled trial.

Lancet 2006 Mar;367(9513):825-31

Divisione di Ematologia dell'Università di Torino, Azienda Ospedaliera S Giovanni Battista, 10126 Torino, Italy.

Background: Since 1960, oral melphalan and prednisone (MP) has been regarded as the standard of care in elderly multiple myeloma patients. This multicentre randomised trial compared oral MP plus thalidomide (MPT) with MP alone in patients aged 60-85 years.

Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma were randomly assigned to receive oral MP for six 4-week cycles plus thalidomide (n=129; 100 mg per day continuously until any sign of relapse or progressive disease) or MP alone (n=126). Analysis was intention-to-treat. This study is registered at , number NCT00232934.

Results: Patients treated with thalidomide had higher response rates and longer event-free survival (primary endpoints) than patients who were not. Combined complete or partial response rates were 76.0% for MPT and 47.6% for MP alone (absolute difference 28.3%, 95% CI 16.5-39.1), and the near-complete or complete response rates were 27.9% and 7.2%, respectively. 2-year event-free survival rates were 54% for MPT and 27% for MP (hazard ratio [HR] for MPT 0.51, 95% CI 0.35-0.75, p=0.0006). 3-year survival rates were 80% for MPT and 64% for MP (HR for MPT 0.68, 95% CI 0.38-1.22, p=0.19). Rates of grade 3 or 4 adverse events were 48% in MPT patients and 25% in MP patients (p=0.0002). Introduction of enoxaparin prophylaxis reduced rate of thromboembolism from 20% to 3% (p=0.005).

Conclusion: Oral MPT is an effective first-line treatment for elderly patients with multiple myeloma. Anticoagulant prophylaxis reduces frequency of thrombosis. Longer follow-up is needed to assess effect on overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68338-4DOI Listing
March 2006

Oral melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide for newly diagnosed patients with myeloma.

Cancer 2005 Oct;104(7):1428-33

Divisione di Ematologia dell'Università di Torino, Azienda Ospedaliera S. Giovanni Battista, Turin, Italy.

Background: Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug with strong antimyeloma activity. It is an effective treatment for multiple myeloma at disease recurrence and at diagnosis, both as a single agent and in combination with steroids or chemotherapy. No data are available on the association of thalidomide with oral melphalan and prednisone, still considered the standard treatment for elderly patients.

Methods: The feasibility and efficacy of the combination of melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide (MPT) have been valuated in 49 newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma.

Results: According to European Bone Marrow Transplantation/ International Bone Marrow Transplantation Registry (EBMT/IBMTR) criteria, 18% of patients achieved immunofixation-negative complete disease remission (CR), 6% achieved immunofixation-positive near CR, 4% achieved a very good partial response, and 45% achieved a partial response, with a 50-89% reduction in monoclonal paraprotein. Six percent did not respond and 10% showed progressive disease. The median time to maximum response was 4 months. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of event-free survival and overall survival at 2 years were 64% and 91%, respectively. The major acute adverse events (National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Grade III-IV) included thrombosis (20%), infections (12%), constipation (6%), and hematologic (22%) and neurologic (8%) toxicities. One patient died of pulmonary thromboembolism.

Conclusions: These data suggested that MPT induced rapid and durable tumor responses with CR rates similar to those observed after autologous transplantation. Administration of prophylactic anticoagulant was required to prevent thromboembolism. MPT merits further investigation in randomized clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.21342DOI Listing
October 2005