Publications by authors named "Cliona P MacSweeney"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Understanding Exposure-Receptor Occupancy Relationships for Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 Negative Allosteric Modulators across a Range of Preclinical and Clinical Studies.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2021 04 4;377(1):157-168. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Sosei Heptares, Cambridge, CB21 6DG, United Kingdom.

The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu) is a recognized central nervous system therapeutic target for which several negative allosteric modulator (NAM) drug candidates have or are continuing to be investigated for various disease indications in clinical development. Direct measurement of target receptor occupancy (RO) is extremely useful to help design and interpret efficacy and safety in nonclinical and clinical studies. In the mGlu field, this has been successfully achieved by monitoring displacement of radiolabeled ligands, specifically binding to the mGlu receptor, in the presence of an mGlu NAM using in vivo and ex vivo binding in rodents and positron emission tomography imaging in cynomolgus monkeys and humans. The aim of this study was to measure the RO of the mGlu NAM HTL0014242 in rodents and cynomolgus monkeys and to compare its plasma and brain exposure-RO relationships with those of clinically tested mGlu NAMs dipraglurant, mavoglurant, and basimglurant. Potential sources of variability that may contribute to these relationships were explored. Distinct plasma exposure-response relationships were found for each mGlu NAM, with >100-fold difference in plasma exposure for a given level of RO. However, a unified exposure-response relationship was observed when both unbound brain concentration and mGlu affinity were considered. This relationship showed <10-fold overall difference, was fitted with a Hill slope that was not significantly different from 1, and appeared consistent with a simple E model. This is the first time this type of comparison has been conducted, demonstrating a unified brain exposure-RO relationship across several species and mGlu NAMs with diverse properties. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Despite the long history of mGlu as a therapeutic target and progression of multiple compounds to the clinic, no formal comparison of exposure-receptor occupancy relationships has been conducted. The data from this study indicate for the first time that a consistent, unified relationship can be observed between exposure and mGlu receptor occupancy when unbound brain concentration and receptor affinity are taken into account across a range of species for a diverse set of mGlu negative allosteric modulators, including a new drug candidate, HTL0014242.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.120.000371DOI Listing
April 2021

Synthesis and SAR studies of novel 2-(4-oxo-2-aryl-quinazolin-3(4H)-yl)acetamide vasopressin V1b receptor antagonists.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2011 Mar 21;21(6):1871-5. Epub 2010 Dec 21.

Department of Chemistry, MSD, Newhouse, Lanarkshire, UK.

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a novel series of vasopressin V(1b) (V(3)) antagonists are described. 2-(4-Oxo-2-aryl-quinazolin-3(4H)-yl)acetamides have been identified with low nanomolar affinity for the V(1b) receptor and good selectivity with respect to related receptors V(1a), V(2) and oxytocin (OT). Optimised compound 12j demonstrates a good pharmacokinetic profile and activity in a mechanistic model of HPA dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.12.081DOI Listing
March 2011

Differential effect of glucocorticoid receptor antagonists on glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation and DNA binding.

J Psychopharmacol 2011 Feb 21;25(2):211-21. Epub 2010 Jan 21.

Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

The effects of RU486 and S-P, a more selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist from Schering-Plough, were investigated on glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation and DNA binding. In the in vitro study, AtT20 cells were treated with vehicle or with RU486, S-P or corticosterone (3-300 nM) or co-treated with vehicle or glucocorticoid receptor antagonists (3-300 nM) and 30 nM corticosterone. Both glucocorticoid receptor antagonists induced glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation but only RU486 induced DNA binding. RU486 potentiated the effect of corticosterone on glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation and DNA binding, S-P inhibited corticosterone-induced glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation, but not glucocorticoid receptor-DNA binding. In the in vivo study, adrenalectomized rats were treated with vehicle, RU486 (20 mg/kg) and S-P (50 mg/kg) alone or in combination with corticosterone (3 mg/kg). RU486 induced glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation in the pituitary, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and glucocorticoid receptor-DNA binding in the hippocampus, whereas no effect of S-P on glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation or DNA binding was observed in any of the areas analysed. These findings reveal differential effects of RU486 and S-P on areas involved in regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in vivo and they are important in light of the potential use of this class of compounds in the treatment of disorders associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881109348175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4984974PMC
February 2011

Effect of vasopressin 1b receptor blockade on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response of chronically stressed rats to a heterotypic stressor.

J Endocrinol 2009 Mar 12;200(3):285-91. Epub 2008 Dec 12.

Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Exposure to chronic restraint (CR) modifies the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to subsequent acute stressors with adaptation of the response to a homotypic and sensitization of the response to a heterotypic stressor. Since vasopressin (AVP) activity has been reported to change during chronic stress, we investigated whether this was an important factor in HPA facilitation. We therefore tested whether vasopressin 1b receptor (AVPR1B) blockade altered the ACTH and corticosterone response to heterotypic stressors following CR stress. Adult male rats were exposed to CR, single restraint, or were left undisturbed in the home cage. Twenty-four hours after the last restraint, rats were injected with either a AVPR1B antagonist (Org, 30 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle (5% mulgofen in saline, 0.2/kg, s.c.) and then exposed to either restraint, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or white noise. CR resulted in the adaptation of the ACTH and corticosterone response to restraint and this effect was not prevented by pretreatment with Org. Although we found no effect of CR on LPS-induced ACTH and corticosterone secretion, both repeated and single episodes of restraint induced the sensitization of the ACTH, but not corticosterone response to acute noise. Pretreatment with Org reduced the exaggerated ACTH response to noise after both single and repeated exposure to restraint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/JOE-08-0425DOI Listing
March 2009

Blockade of the V(1b) receptor reduces ACTH, but not corticosterone secretion induced by stress without affecting basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity.

J Endocrinol 2009 Mar 13;200(3):273-83. Epub 2008 Nov 13.

Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Vasopressin (AVP), produced in parvocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, regulates, together with CRH, pituitary ACTH secretion. The pituitary actions of AVP are mediated through the G protein receptor V(1b) (V(1b)|R). In man, hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has been associated with depression and other stress-related conditions. There are also clinical data suggesting a role for AVP in the dysfunctional HPA axis described in some depressed patients. In this study, we have investigated the effect of a recently synthesised selective antagonist of the V(1b)R both on exogenous AVP-induced ACTH and corticosterone secretion, and on basal and stress-induced pituitary-adrenal activity. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with the V(1b)R antagonist (Org, 30 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle (5% mulgofen in 0.9% saline, 2 ml/kg, s.c.). We found that blockade of the V(1b)R reduced the increase in both ACTH and corticosterone secretion induced by AVP (100 ng, i.v.). The same treatment had no effect either on basal ACTH and corticosterone levels or on the ultradian or diurnal rhythms of corticosterone secretion. Acute administration of the V(1b)R antagonist reduced ACTH secretion following both restraint and lipopolysaccharide, but did not antagonise the ACTH response to noise. The same treatment did not reduce corticosterone secretion in response to any of the three stressors used in this study. Our results confirm that this compound is an antagonist of the V(1b)R in the rat, and that its ability to reduce stress-induced ACTH responses is stressor dependent with differential modulation of pituitary and adrenal responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/JOE-08-0421DOI Listing
March 2009

Characterization of a novel and selective V1B receptor antagonist.

Prog Brain Res 2008 ;170:527-35

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Organon Laboratories (a part of the Schering-Plough Corporation), Newhouse, UK.

It has been argued that hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a major biological abnormality in patients suffering from psychiatric conditions such as major depression. Both arginine vasopressin (AVP) and corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) are responsible for stimulating the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary. CRF is thought to be the predominant secretagogue under normal conditions but AVP may play a more important role in situations of aberrant/chronic stress. Studies in patients suffering from melancholic depression indicate a hyper-responsiveness to agonism at the vasopressin receptor type 1B (V(1B)); patients display a heightened ACTH release after challenge with the mixed V(1B)/V(2) (vasopressin receptor type 2) agonist desmopressin in comparison to control subjects. A V(1B) antagonist has been developed which has significant selectivity for the human V(1B) receptor over the other members of the vasopressin receptor sub-family. The compound acts as an effective antagonist at both the human recombinant receptor (stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells) and the native rat V(1B) receptor (using isolated anterior pituitary cells), blocking the induction of luciferase and the release of ACTH, respectively. In vivo the compound can block the release of ACTH after challenge with a variety of V(1B) agonists. It can also attenuate the ACTH response to acute stressors in rats. Interestingly, this compound does not modulate the activity of the HPA axis under normal basal conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(08)00440-8DOI Listing
February 2009

Effect of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist Org 34850 on fast and delayed feedback of corticosterone release.

J Endocrinol 2008 Feb;196(2):323-30

Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY, UK.

We investigated the effect of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist Org 34850 on fast and delayed inhibition of corticosterone secretion in response to the synthetic glucocorticoid methylprednisolone (MPL). Male rats were implanted with a catheter in the right jugular vein, for blood sampling and MPL administration, and with an s.c. cannula for Org 34850 administration. All experiments were conducted at the diurnal hormonal peak in the late afternoon. Rats were connected to an automated sampling system and blood samples were collected every 5 or 10 min. Org 34850 (10 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle (5% mulgofen in saline) was injected at 1630 h; 30 min later, rats received an injection of MPL (500 microg/rat, i.v.) or saline (0.1 ml/rat). We found that an acute administration of MPL rapidly decreased the basal corticosterone secretion and this effect was not prevented by acute pretreatment with Org 34850. However, blockade of GR with Org 34850 prevented delayed inhibition of MPL on corticosterone secretion measured between 4 and 12 h after MPL administration. Our data suggest an involvement of GR in modulating delayed, but not fast, inhibition induced by MPL on basal corticosterone secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/JOE-07-0503DOI Listing
February 2008
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