Publications by authors named "Clint A Löest"

5 Publications

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Evaluation of Cattle for Naturally Colonized Shiga Toxin-Producing Requires Combinatorial Strategies.

Int J Microbiol 2021 1;2021:6673202. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Animal and Range Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NW, USA.

Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) serogroups O157, O26, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O45 are designated as food adulterants by the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service. Cattle are the primary reservoir of these human pathogens. In this study, 59 Angus crossbred heifers were tested specifically for these seven STEC serogroups using a combination of standard culture, serological, PCR, and cell cytotoxicity methods to determine if comparable results would be obtained. At the time of fecal sampling, the animals were approximately 2 years old and weighed 1000-1200 lbs. The diet comprised of 37% ground alfalfa hay, 25% ground Sudan hay, and 38% ground corn supplemented with trace minerals and rumensin with ad libitum access to water. Non-O157 STEC were isolated from 25% (15/59) of the animals tested using a combination of EC broth, CHROMagar STEC, and Rainbow Agar O157. Interestingly, the O157 serogroup was not isolated from any of the animals. Non-O157 STEC isolates were confirmed to be one of the six adulterant serogroups by serology and/or colony PCR in 10/15 animals with the predominant viable, serogroup being O103. PCR using DNA extracted from feces verified most of the colony PCR results but also identified additional virulence and O-antigen genes from samples with no correlating culture results. Shiga toxin- (Stx-) related cytopathic effects on Vero cells with fecal extracts from 55/59 animals could only be associated with the Stx gene profiles obtained by fecal DNA PCR and not culture results. The differences between culture versus fecal DNA PCR and cytotoxicity assay results suggest that the latter two assays reflect the presence of nonviable STEC or infection with STEC not belonging to the seven adulterant serogroups. This study further supports the use of combinatorial culture, serology, and PCR methods to isolate viable STEC that pose a greater food safety threat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6673202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8032530PMC
April 2021

Lipopolysaccharide modulation of ovarian hormonal profile.

Transl Anim Sci 2018 Sep 27;2(Suppl 1):S31-S34. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Animal and Range Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tas/txy027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7200988PMC
September 2018

Post-ruminal branched-chain amino acid supplementation and intravenous lipopolysaccharide infusion alter blood metabolites, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen balance of beef steers.

J Anim Sci 2018 Jun;96(7):2886-2906

Department of Extension Animal Sciences and Natural Resources, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM.

Steers exposed to an endotoxin may require additional branched-chain AA (BCAA) to support an increase in synthesis of immune proteins. This study evaluated effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and BCAA supplementation on blood metabolites and N balance of 20 ruminally-cannulated steers (177 ± 4.2 kg BW). The experiment was a randomized block design, with 14-d adaptation to metabolism stalls and diet (DM fed = 1.5% BW) and 6-d collection. Treatments were a 2 × 2 factorial of LPS (0 vs. 1.0 to 1.5 μg/kg BW; -LPS vs. +LPS) and BCAA (0 vs. 35 g/d; -BCAA vs. +BCAA). The LPS in 100 mL sterile saline was infused (1 mL/min via i.v. catheter) on day 15. The BCAA in an essential AA solution were abomasally infused (900 mL/d) three times daily in equal portions beginning on day 7. Blood, rumen fluid, and rectal temperature were collected on day 15 at h 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 after LPS infusion. Feces and urine were collected from day 16 to 20. Rectal temperatures were greater for +LPS vs. -LPS steers at 4 h and lower at 8 h after LPS infusion (LPS × h, P < 0.01). Serum cortisol and plasma urea N were greater for +LPS than -LPS steers at 2 (cortisol only), 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after LPS infusion (LPS × h, P < 0.01). Serum cortisol was greater for +BCAA than -BCAA steers at 12 h after LPS infusion (BCAA × h, P < 0.05). Serum glucose was greater for +LPS than -LPS steers at 2 h after LPS infusion (LPS × h, P < 0.01). Plasma Ile, Leu, and Val were lower, and plasma His was greater in +LPS than -LPS steers (LPS, P < 0.05). Plasma Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp of +LPS steers were lower than -LPS steers at 4 (Thr only), 8 (Lys and Trp only), 12, and 24 h after infusion (LPS × h, P < 0.05). Plasma Ile, Leu, and Val were greater (BCAA, P < 0.01), and Met, His, Phe, Thr, and Trp were lower for +BCAA than -BCAA steers at 0 and 24 h after LPS infusion (BCAA × h, P ≤ 0.05). Steers receiving +LPS had lower rumen pH at 8 h, greater total VFA at 8 h, and lower rumen NH3 at 24 h after LPS infusion compared with -LPS steers (LPS × h, P ≤ 0.04). Total tract passage rates, DM, OM, NDF, ADF, and N intake, fecal N, digested N, and retained N were lower (P < 0.05) for +LPS than -LPS steers. Total N supply (dietary plus infused) and fecal N were greater (P < 0.05) for +BCAA vs. -BCAA steers. The absence of LPS × BCAA interactions (P ≥ 0.20) for N balance indicated that post-ruminal supplementation of BCAA did not alleviate the negative effects of endotoxin on N utilization by growing steers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/sky168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6095451PMC
June 2018

Methionine supply to growing steers affects hepatic activities of methionine synthase and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, but not cystathionine synthase.

J Nutr 2002 Jul;132(7):2004-9

Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506-1600, USA.

The effects of supplemental methionine (Met), supplied abomasally, on the activities of methionine synthase (MS), cystathionine synthase (CS) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) were studied in growing steers. Six Holstein steers (205 kg) were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square experiment. Steers were fed 2.6 kg dry matter daily of a diet containing 83% soybean hulls and 8% wheat straw. Ruminal infusions of 180 g/d acetate, 180 g/d propionate, 45 g/d butyrate, and abomasal infusion of 300 g/d dextrose provided additional energy. An amino acid mixture (299 g/d) limiting in Met was infused into the abomasum to ensure that nonsulfur amino acids did not limit growth. Treatments were infused abomasally and included 0, 5 or 10 g/d L-Met. Retained N (20.5, 26.9 and 31.6 g/d for 0, 5 and 10 g/d L-Met, respectively) increased (P < 0.01) linearly with increased supplemental Met. Hepatic Met, vitamin B-12, S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were not affected by Met supplementation. Hepatic folates tended (P = 0.07) to decrease linearly with Met supplementation. All three enzymes were detected in hepatic tissue of our steers. Hepatic CS activity was not affected by Met supplementation. Hepatic MS decreased (P < 0.01) linearly with increasing Met supply, and hepatic BHMT activity responded quadratically (P = 0.04), with 0 and 10 g/d Met being higher than the intermediate level. Data from this experiment indicate that sulfur amino acid metabolism may be regulated differently in cattle than in other tested species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/132.7.2004DOI Listing
July 2002